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योग-सूत्राणि

1. Samādhi - Contemplation 2. Sādhana - Preparation 3. Vibhūti - Accomplishments 4. Kaivalya - Freedom

Format and vṛtti (clarifying commentary) by A.K. Aruna, 2017 ver.3.0: UpasanaYoga. If downloaded, requires installed Devanāgarī Siddhanta1.ttf font, downloadable from UpasanaYoga. If run from UpasanaYoga website, it alternatively can use online Web Font. Any Devanāgarī in parentheses () is an alternate reading of text in Red. Top button "Collapse all panels" contracts the view in which individual items can be re-expanded, or again the top button "Restore all panels" reloads page to original view.

ओं, स॒ ह ना॑व् अवतु। स॒ ह नौ॑ भुनक्तु। स॒ह वी॒र्यं॑ करवावहै। ते॒ज॒स्विना॒व् अधी॑तम् अस्तु॒ मा वि॑द्विषा॒वहै᳚। ओं शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॑॥
Om; tad, ha, asmad, √av. Tad, ha, asmad, √bhuj. Saha, vīrya, √kṛ. Tejasvin, adhīta, √as, mā, vi-√dviṣ. Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.
सः ह नै अवतु। सः ह नौ भुनक्तु। सह वीर्यं करवावहै। तेजस्विनौ [=तेजस्विनोः आवयोः] अधीतं अस्तु (अथवा, नौ अधीतं तेजस्वि अस्तु)। मा विद्विषावहै। ओम् शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥

योगेन चित्तस्य पदेन वाचां मलं शरीरस्य च वैद्यकेन।
योऽपाकरोत् तं प्रवरं मुनीनां पतञ्जलिं प्राञ्जलिर् आनतोऽस्मि॥

yoga, citta, pada, vācā, mala, śarīra, ca, vaidyaka;
yad, apa-ā-√kṛ, tad, pravara, munin, patañjali, prāñjali, ānata, √as.

I bow with hands folded to Patañjali, the best of sages who removes the impurity of the mind by his Yoga-sūtras, of speech by his words his grammar commentary called Mahā-bhāṣya, and of the body by his science of medicine called Caraka-pratisaṃskṛta.
अहं प्राञ्जलिः पुरतस्-अञ्जलिः तं मुनीनां प्रवरं पतञ्जलिं नाम आनतः अस्मि नमस्-करोमि, यः मलं क्लेशं अपाकरोत् अपहरेत् चित्तस्य अन्तःकरणस्य योगेन योग-सूत्र-शासनेन, वाचां पदेन महा-भाष्य-व्याकरणेन, शरीरस्य वैद्यकेन चरक-प्रतिसंस्कृत-चिकित्सया

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atha, yoga-anuśāsana.
Now begins the traditional teaching of yoga (the means, the preparation and application).

योग-सूत्राणां विषयः मूल-प्रमाणं च उक्ते – अथ आरम्भ-अर्थे, मङ्गल-अर्थे च अथ इति, योग-अनुशासनं योगस्य श्रुति-अनुरूप-आगम-प्रमाण-शासनम्॥
yoga, citta-vṛtti-nirodha.
Yoga (the means) is the mastery – discipline – of the thoughts of the mind.

अथ योगस्य उपायः अधिकारी च उक्तौ – योगः नाम चित्त-अ-निरोधिनः चित्त-वृत्ति-निरोधः अन्तःकरण-प्रत्यय-रूपाणाम् अ-विद्या-क्लेश-मूल-नाशकः अस्मिता-आदि-क्लेश-कार्य-लयकः चित्त-प्रसाद-साधनेन प्रतिरोधकः च इत्थं-भूत-निरोधः॥
tadā, draṣṭṛ, sva-rūpa, avasthāna.
From yoga’s success then, the self, the draṣṭṛ (witness) of thoughts and their objects, simply remains in its own nature.

अथ योगस्य प्रयोजनम् उक्तं – तदा योग-समाप्तौ, द्रष्टुः दृक्-साक्षि-रूप-परम-पुरुषस्य स्व-रूपे सत्-चित्-आनन्द-स्व-रूपे अवस्थानं कैवल्य-स्थानम् (YS.4.34)॥
vṛtti-sā-rūpya, itaratra.
On the other hand, until yoga’s success, one erroneously believes he or she has the same form as the thoughts of the mind.

अथ योगस्य प्रतिबन्धक-मूलम् उक्तं – द्रष्टुः वृत्ति-सा-रूप्यं अन्तःकरण-धर्म-सम-रूपता इति पुरुष-स्व-रूप-अ-ज्ञानी कल्पते (YS.2.5) इतरत्र आ तस्मात् स्व-रूपे अवस्थानात्॥
vṛtti, pañcatayī, kliṣṭa-a-kliṣṭā.
These thoughts are of five types, and either hinder or do not hinder one’s progress in yoga.

अथ उपायस्य विस्तारः – वृत्तयः नाम पञ्चतय्यः, क्लिष्ठ-अ-क्लिष्टाः अ-विद्या-आदि-क्लेशानां हेतवः अथवा अ-हेतवः, द्वितीते ‘अ-हेतवः’ क्लेश-प्रतिरोधाः इत्यर्थः॥
pramāṇa-viparyaya-vikalpa-nidrā-smṛti.
These five types of thoughts are knowledge, error, imagination, sleep, and memory.

वृत्तयः प्रमाण-विपर्यय-विकल्प-निद्रा-स्मृतयः
prati-akṣa-anumāna-āgama, pramāṇa.
Knowledge is either direct knowledge – direct sense perception of their objects and perception of one’s mental states; indirect knowledge – various inferences based on direct knowledge, other inferences, or on scripture; or scripture, literally, truth that has come down from beginningless time through tradition – scriptural knowledge of those things that are not within the scope of perception and thus inference. In this way scripture becomes a unique source of knowledge.

प्रत्यक्ष-अनुमान-आगमाः “अयं घटः” इति-आदि-स्थूल-विषयस्य इन्द्रिय-जन्य-प्रत्यक्षं “मनस् सुखि” इति-आदि-चित्त-धर्म-सूक्ष्म-विषयस्य साक्षि-प्रत्यक्षं च प्रथम-प्रमाणं, परस्-अक्ष-लौकिक-विषयानां “अयं धूमवान्” इति-प्रत्यक्ष-जनक-लिङ्गेन “अयं पर्वतः वह्णिमान्” इति-अनुमानं उपमान-अर्थ-आपत्ति-अन्-उपलब्धि-सहितं च द्वितीय-प्रमाणं, ब्रह्म-आत्म-ऐक्य-देव-स्वर्-ग-पुण्य-आदि-प्रत्यक्ष-अनुमान-अ-विषयाणां श्रुति-शब्दः श्रुति-अनुवादः च तृतीय-प्रमाणं प्रमाणानि त्रि-प्रकार-प्रमा-करण-वृत्तयः नाम॥
viparyaya, mithyā-jñāna, a-tad-rūpa-pratiṣṭha.
Error is a false conclusion not based on the actual form of its object.

विपर्ययः नाम मिथ्या-ज्ञानं अन्यथा अवगमनं, स्व-रूप-अ-विवेकतस् शुक्तिकायां रजत-प्रातिभासिक-ज्ञानवत्, मृदि घटत्व-व्यावहारिक-ज्ञानवत् वा अ-तद्-रूप-प्रतिष्ठं यद्-वर्तमान-रूपं, तद्-रूपे न आश्रितं ज्ञानं च॥
śabda-jñāna-anupātin, vastu-śūnya, vikalpa.
Imagination is based on and does not lead beyond verbal knowledge and lacks an actual, separate object.

शब्द-ज्ञान-अनुपाती वचन-ज्ञान-अनुरूपी वचन-ज्ञान-आलम्बनः वा केवलं वस्तु-शून्यः अ-वर्तमान-विषयी विकल्पः नाम॥
a-bhāva-pratyaya-ālambanā, vṛtti, nidrā.
Sleep is a mental state that is based on the cognition of absence of any object of thought, such that, “I knew nothing at that time”.

अ-भाव-प्रत्यय-आलम्बना स्व-काले विशेष-भाव-प्रत्यय-रहिता अ-विद्या-कारण-शरीर-अ-व्यक्त-रूपा वृत्तिः निद्रा नाम॥
anubhūta-viṣaya-a-saṃpramoṣa, smṛti.
Memory is not losing in the mind an object experienced before.

अनुभूत-विषय-अ-संप्रमोषः अन्य-वृत्ति-विषय-अनुरूप-प्रत्यादानं संस्कार-द्वारेण वृत्तिः स्मृतिः नाम॥
abhyāsa-vai-rāgya, tad-nirodha.
The discipline of these thoughts is by repetition and by non-attachment, which together lead to contemplation and a contemplative life.

अभ्यास-वैराग्याभ्यां अभ्यासस्य वैराग्यस्य च द्वारेण तद्-निरोधः चित्त-वृत्ति-निरोधः॥
tatra, sthiti, yatna, abhyāsa.
Repetition is mental and physical effort in remaining in that discipline.

तत्र निरोधे, स्थितौ दृक्-स्व-रूप-अवस्थान-अर्थ-साधने यत्नः मानसः उत्साहः अभ्यासः नाम॥
tad, tu, dīrgha-kāla-nais-antarya-sat-kāra-āsevita, dṛḍha-bhūmi.
But, lest one think otherwise, it, repetition, is to be thoroughly attended to with utmost respect and no interruption for a long enough time until firm success.

सः अभ्यासः तु दीर्घ-काल-नैरन्तर्य-सत्-कार-आसेवितः यावत् पर्याप्तं निस्-अन्तरं योग-साधन-श्रद्-धया आसेवितव्यः, तावत् दृढ-भूमिः अवस्थान-समाप्तिः, प्रज्ञा अ-विप्लवा इत्यर्थः (YS.2.26)॥
dṛṣṭa-ānuśravika-viṣaya-vi-tṛṣṇa, vaśī-kāra-saṃjñā, vai-rāgya.
Non-attachment is known as mastery over the desire for objects seen or repeatedly heard from scriptures, such as the subtle, pleasant realms of nature called heaven.

दृष्ट-अनुश्रविक-विषय-वितृष्णस्य लौकिक-अ-लौकिक-विषय-रागस्य वशी-कार-संज्ञा स्वा-तन्त्र्य-आख्या वैराग्यं नाम॥
tad-para, puruṣa-khyāti, guṇa-vai-tṛṣṇya.
The ultimate of that non-attachment is non-attachment to the guṇas (three constituents of all of nature), by discernment of the true nature of the puruṣa (self).

तद्-परं वैराग्य-प्रकृष्टं पुरुष-ख्यातेः गुण-पुरुष-विवेक-ज्ञानात् गुण-वैतृष्ण्यम्
vitarka-vicāra-ānanda-asmitā-rūpa-anugama, saṃprajñāta.
Samādhi (contemplation) is called deliberative when it is through appropriately following a form of reasoning in keeping with scripture, such as in prati-pakṣa-bhāvana (YS.2.33 & .34), and inquiry through the scripture into fullness, which is the basic nature of the self expressing in the sattva (non-dull and non-agitated mind), and on the sense of “I am”, a recognition of the reality basis in the self, the is-ness or is-notion present in every cognition.

वितर्क-विचार-आनन्द-अस्मिता-रूप-अनुगमात् आनन्द-सत्-स्व-रूप-द्वि-विषयोः अनुश्रुति-वितर्केन श्रुति-विचारेन च द्वि-रूपाभ्यां अनु-प्रत्यय-अभ्यासात् संप्रज्ञातः स-वितर्क-स-विचार-प्रज्ञातः नाम समाधिः॥
virāma-pratyaya-abhyāsa-pūrva, saṃskāra-śeṣa, anya.
The other samādhi is called a-saṃprajñāta (free from deliberation), preceded by repetition of the saṃprajñāta (deliberative) contemplation, results in the quietude of even those cognitions from saṃprajñāta contemplation. Nevertheless, latent tendencies – habitual potentials caused by prior ignorance and its crop, the seeds of affliction (YS.2.3) – remain, until nir-bīja samādhi (YS.1.51) (contemplation free of seed) through puruṣa-khyāti (discernment of the true nature of the self) that is kaivalya (freedom).

विराम-प्रत्यय-अभ्यास-पूर्वः संप्रज्ञात-समाधि-प्रत्यय-अभ्यास-पूर्वः सन् तद्-प्रत्यय-प्रतिरोधे संप्रज्ञात-जन्य-शमे सति अपि च संस्कार-शेषः पश्चात् अ-विद्या-बीज-जन्य-तनु-विच्छिन्न-आदि-व्यक्त-संस्कारवान् (YS.2.4) अन्यः अ-संप्रज्ञातः नाम समाधिः इत्यर्थः, तस्मात् अयं समाधिः अपि क्षणिकः एव॥
bhava-pratyaya, vi-deha-prakṛti-laya.
Temporary a-saṃprajñāta samādhi (contemplation without an assimilated knowledge) follows from the birth – the nature of the particular embodiments – of certain subtle beings in a heaven because of efforts in yoga in their prior birth, and of all beings who are temporarily absorbed in unmanifest nature, until their next manifestation.

भव-प्रत्ययः संसार-चक्रे किम्-चिद्-जन्म-अनुगः अ-संप्रज्ञातः समाधिः वर्तते वि-देह-प्रकृति-लयानाम् किम्-चिद्-स्वर्-गे देह-पतन-पश्चात् संप्रज्ञात-अभ्यासिकानां च प्रकृति-लये अ-वश्यं सर्व-जीवानां च॥
śrad-dhā-vīrya-smṛti-samādhi-prajñā-pūrvaka, itara.
For the rest of us right here and now in this life, success in yoga follows from trust in the scripture as a means of knowledge, the same as one trusts one’s perception and logic; tenacity in this pursuit; memory – continuous retention of the teaching; contemplation on the teaching; and finally assimilated knowledge of the self.

श्रद्-धा-वीर्य-स्मृति-समाधि-प्रज्ञा-पूर्वकः अनुशासने श्रद्-धा संवेगः मेधा च तद्-प्रत्यय-अभ्यास-जन्य-संप्रज्ञात-समाधिः च संप्रज्ञात-जन्य-अ-संप्रज्ञात-समाधिः च प्रज्ञायाः निस्-बीज-समाधिः च तैः योग-सिद्धिः इतरेषां इह एव मनुष्य-देहवताम्॥
tīvra-saṃvega, āsanna.
For those whose tenacity in repetition and non-attachment is acute, samādhi (contemplation) quickly succeeds.

चित्त-वृत्ति-निरोध-अर्थः समाधिः तीव्र-संवेगानाम् आसन्नः प्रतिष्ठितः॥
mṛdu-madhya-adhi-mātratva, tatas, api, viśeṣa.
And thus there is distinction due to weak, middling, or strong measures of tenacity in repetition and non-attachment.

तीव्रस्य मृदु-मध्य-अधि-मात्रत्वात्, ततस् तारतम्यात् अपि विशेषः यत्न-भेदः॥
īśvara-praṇidhāna, vā.
The discipline of thoughts through repetition and non-attachment succeeds also by contemplation on the Lord, since the Lord is the puruṣa (self) in its completely free and fully understood nature.

चित्त-वृत्ति-निरोधः अभ्यास-वैराग्याभ्यां प्रतिष्ठितः ईश्वर-प्रणिधानात् परम-पुरुष-ध्यानात् वा अपि॥
kleśa-karma-vipāka-āśaya, a-parāmṛṣṭa, puruṣa-viśeṣa, īśvara.
The Lord is characterized as the puruṣa (self) untouched by the afflictions of ignorance and its crop – the I-notion, attachment, aversion, and the fear of death (YS.2.3 through .9) – and by action along with its fruition and store-house waiting to fructify (YS.2.12 and 4.7).

क्लेश-कर्म-विपाक-आशयैः पञ्च-क्लेशैः कर्मभिः कर्म-विपाक-फलैः कर्म-फल-बीज-आशयेन च अ-परामृष्टः अ-संस्पृष्टः पुरुष-विशेषः पुरुष-निर्देशः उत्तम-पुरुषः वा, न तु पुरुष-भेदः “न इह नाना अस्ति किम्-चन,” “येन आवृतं नित्यम् इदं हि सर्वं, ज्ञः काल-कालः गुणी सर्व-विद् यः” इति-आदि-बहु-श्रुतेः (BrhU.4.4.19, SvetU.6.2) ईश्वरः कैवल्य-स्व-रूप-पुरुषः॥
tatra, nis-atiśaya, sarva-jña-bīja.
In that Lord the seed – capacity – of knowing all is unsurpassed.

तत्र ईश्वरे निस्-अतिशयं सर्व-ज्ञ-बीजम् सर्व-ज्ञ-शक्तिः (MunU.1.1.9), सर्व-ज्ञातृत्वं (YS.3.49) चिति-शक्तिः (YS.4.34)॥
pūrva, api, guru, kāla-an-avaccheda.
The Lord is also the teacher of everyone before, now, and later, since the Lord, being the cause of all, including time, is not limited by time, and since the Lord is the knower in the seat of the intellect of all beings.

सः ईश्वरः पूर्वेषां गुरूणाम् अपि प्राणिनाम् अपि गुरुः चिति-शक्ति-रूपेण “अन्तर्-यामी” सन् (ManU.6) कालेन अन्-अवच्छेदात् “काल-कालः” इति काल-स्व-रूपतया (SvetU.6.2)॥
tad, vācaka, praṇava.
The expressive name of that Lord is the syllable Om.

तस्य ईश्वरस्य वाचकः प्रणवः ओम्-कारः॥
tad-japa, tad-artha-bhāvana.
One should do oral or mental repetition of that praṇava (Om), and contemplation on its meaning, as unfolded in the Upaniṣad scripture.

तद्-जपः ओम्-कार-जपः तद्-अर्थ-भावनम् ओम्-कार-अर्थ-श्रुति-व्याख्यान-ध्यानं च॥
tatas, pratyak-cetana-adhigama, api, antarāya-a-bhāva, ca.
From that contemplation, one indeed comes to know the conscious being, the consciousness, at the center of one’s being, and one’s obstacles to liberation as the knowledge of that limitless reality disappear by one’s understanding and by grace gained through this ultimate worship of the Lord as one’s self.

ततस् ओम्-कार-ध्यानस्य प्रत्यक्-चेतन-अधिगमः आत्म-स्व-रूप-ज्ञानं अपि अन्तराय-अ-भावः ज्ञान-प्रतिबन्ध-रूप-अन्तराय-नाशः
vyādhi-styāna-saṃśaya-pramāda-ālasya-a-virati-bhrānti-darśana-a-labdha-bhūmikatva-an-avasthitatva, citta-vikṣepa, tad, antarāya.
Those obstacles, which are distractions of the mind, are dis-ease mental and physical; lack of mental acumen; doubt; inattention; laziness of body and mind; intemperance – an inability to abstain from the excessive attraction to objects of desire; erroneous understanding; not attaining success at the stages in one’s progress in yoga; and lack of stability at various stages of progress one has made in yoga.

व्याधि-स्त्यान-संशय-प्रमाद-आलस्य-अ-विरति-भ्रान्ति-दर्शन-अ-लब्ध-भूमिकत्व-अन्-अवस्थितत्वानि व्याधिः स्त्यानं संशयः प्रमादः आलस्यम् अ-विरतिः भ्रान्ति-दर्शनम् अ-लब्ध-योग-भूमिकत्वं तद्-भूमिकत्व-अन्-अवस्थितत्वं च नव चित्त-विक्षेपाः ते अन्तरायाः प्रतिबन्धाः नाम॥
duḥkha-daur-manasya-aṅga, ejayatva-śvāsa-praśvāsa, vikṣepa-saha-bhū.
Arising together with distraction of the mind are sorrow, despair, and unsteady inhalation and exhalation causing agitation to the body, which in turn further agitates the mind.

दुःख-दौर्-मनस्य-अङ्गम्-एजयत्व-श्वास-प्रश्वासाः चित्त-दुःखं च चित्त-दुस्-स्थ-भावं च देह-अङ्ग-वेपथुः च यस्मात् चञ्चल-अपानाः चञ्चल-प्राणाः च ते विक्षेप-सह-भुवः चित्त-विक्षेपैः सह प्रवर्तमानाः॥
tad-pratiṣedha-artha, eka-tattva-abhyāsa.
For removing these distractions of the mind there is repetition of keeping the mind on the one reality – the Lord that is at the center of oneself as the completely free puruṣa, the conscious being that is the truth of oneself, the only draṣṭṛ (witness).

तद्-प्रतिषेध-अर्थम् अन्तराय-क्षय-अर्थम् एक-तत्त्व-अभ्यासः ईश्वर-एक-परम-तत्त्व-अर्थ-साधन-यत्नः॥
maitrī-karuṇā-mudita-upekṣa, sukha-duḥkha-puṇya-a-puṇya-viṣaya, bhāvanātas, citta-prasādana.
This clarity, which is sthiti (steadiness), of mind is also through the value structures of cultivating goodwill (YS.3.23) instead of envy towards the joyful, compassion instead of advantage towards the sorrowful, approval instead of jealousy towards the meritorious, and allowance instead of contempt towards the non-meritorious.

मैत्री-करुणा-मुदित-उपेक्षाणां सुख-दुःख-पुण्य-अ-पुण्य-विषयाणां सुखि-मैत्री दुःखि-करुणा पुण्यवत्-मुदिता अ-पुण्यवत्-उपेक्षा च तेषां भावनातस् ध्यानात्, मैत्री-आदिं भावयेत् इति तस्मात् चित्त-प्रसादनम् अन्तःकरण-शुद्धिः॥
pracchardana-vidhāraṇa, vā, prāṇa.
This steadiness of mind is also through the practice of controlling the exhalation and retention of the breath, which naturally calms the restlessness of the mind.

चित्त-स्थैर्यं प्रच्छर्दन-विधारणाभ्यां बाह्य-अभन्तर-स्तम्भैः वा अपि प्राणस्य (YS.2.50)॥
viṣayavatin, vā, pravṛtti, utpannā, manas, sthiti-nibandhanin.
Also developing a concerted mental pursuit having but one object, recommended by scripture or by one’s teacher, brings about a steadiness of mind.

यतस् श्रुति-आचार्य-उपदेश-विषयवती (YS.1.39 अपेक्ष्य) वा अपि ध्यान-प्रवृत्तिः उत्पन्ना, ततस् मनसः स्थिति-निबन्धनी चित्त-स्थैर्यम्॥
vi-śokā, vā, jyotiṣmatin.
Also developing a concerted mental pursuit having the light, which is one’s conscious being, the light of all lights as its contemplation, which is free of all limitations including sorrow, brings about a steadiness of mind.

यतस् वि-शोका शोक-रहितं चैतन्य-ज्योतिस् (ChanU.8.1.5) अस्याः सा वा अपि ज्योतिष्मती हृद्-पुण्डरीके बुद्धौ चैतन्य-ज्योतिस् (KaivU.5) अस्याः सा तद्-ध्यान-प्रवृत्तिः उत्पन्ना, ततस् चित्त-स्थैर्यम्॥
vīta-rāga-viṣaya, vā, citta.
The mind also attains steadiness when it has no attachment towards objects.

यावत् वीत-राग-विषयं सर्व-विषयेषु रागाः विगताः अस्य वा अपि चित्तं (MunU.3.2.5), तावत् चित्त-स्थैर्यम्॥
svapna-nidrā-jñāna-ālambana, vā.
The mind also attains steadiness when it has as its basis the knowledge of dream and sleep states, as taught in the Upaniṣads as part of the unfoldment of the one conscious being that unites all experiences.

यतस् चित्तं स्वप्न-निद्रा-ज्ञान-आलम्बनं ओम्-कार-ध्याने त्रि-आवस्था-श्रुति-ज्ञान-आश्रयं वा अपि, ततस् चित्त-स्थैर्यम्॥
yathā-abhimata-dhyāna, vā.
The mind also attains steadiness through retaining a single pointed inquiry in contemplation on any object one likes, and thus staying put upon that object for a time.

यथा-अभिमत-ध्यानात् यथा-स्व-इष्टे अ-क्लिष्ट-विषये ध्यानात् वा अपि चित्त-स्थैर्यम्॥
parama-aṇu-parama-mahattva-anta, idam, vaśī-kāra.
Mastery in the form of vairāgya (non-attachment) of this mind extends from the most minute to the most pervasive.

तद्-अभ्यासानां फलम् आह – परम-अणु-परम-महत्त्व-अन्तः अति-सूक्ष्म-विषय-आदिः आ लिङ्गमात्र-नाम-महत्त्व-विषयात् (YS.2.19) अस्य चित्तस्य वशी-कारः सर्व-दृश्येषु वैराग्य-रूपः (YS.1.15)॥
kṣīṇa-vṛtti, abhijāta, iva, maṇi, grahītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhya, tat-stha-tat-añjanatā, samāpatti.
The contemplation of one whose distracting thoughts have waned is what makes clearly evident that which it rests upon: whether that be the knower – the notion of I as a knower, the knowing – the senses and the mind, or the known – the object, like a quality crystal ball clearly takes on the exact color of whatever it rests on.

क्षीण-वृत्तेः रजस्-तमस्-जनित-क्लेश-वृत्ति-क्षयः अस्य योगिनः, अभिजातस्य नित्य-निस्-दोष-स्व-रूपस्य इव मणेः स्फटिकस्य, ग्रहीतृ-ग्रहण-ग्राह्येषु विषयेषु तद्-स्थ-तद्-अञ्जनता ग्रहीतृ-आदि-स्थ-यद्-यद्-रूपस्य स्व-रूप-अ-परित्यागेन अपि तद्-रूपस्य दर्शनता समापत्तिः संप्रज्ञात-समाधिः इत्यर्थः॥
tatra, śabda-artha-jñāna-vikalpa, saṅkīrṇā, sa-vitarkā, samāpatti.
There in contemplation, the contemplation that is mixed up with imagination based on word, the perceptual or logical object, and its related idea is called sa-vitarka (with reasoning), a part of saṃprajñāta samādhi.

तत्र चतुर्-विध-समापत्तौ प्रत्यक्ष-अनुमान-प्रमाण-विषयेषु शब्द-अर्थ-ज्ञान-विकल्पैः (YS.3.17) सङ्कीर्णा नाम च वस्तु (अस्तिता अस्मिता इत्यर्थः YS.3.14, 4.14) च तद्-रूप-वृत्तिः च, यथा “इदं घटः अस्ति” इति तत्र ‘घटः’ इति नाम च ‘अस्ति’ इति वस्तु एव अर्थः च ‘इदम्’ इति तद्-रूप-वृत्तिः च, तेषां विकल्पित-भेद-स्मृतेः स-सन्निधिः इत्यर्थः स-वितर्का नाम प्रथमा समापत्तिः
smṛti-pariśuddhi, sva-rūpa-śūnyā, iva, artha-mātra-nirbhāsā, nis-vitarkā.
When purified of memory of word and idea, the samāpatti (contemplation) that is the illumination of only the perceptual or logical object in assimilated knowledge of the nature of the object free from erroneous mental projections, as if the mind had no form of its own, is called nir-vitarka (free of reasoning), also a part of saṃprajñāta samādhi because it is as if, so the mind is still subtly there.

प्रत्यक्ष-अनुमान-प्रमाण-विषयेषु स्मृति-परिशुद्धौ विकल्पित-भेद-स्मृति-परिशुद्धौ सतां स्व-रूप-शून्या इव यदि अपि भेद-वासना-बुद्धिः तिष्ठति, भेद-कल्पना-स्मृतिः सु-अल्प-कालं गलिता अस्याः सा इत्यर्थः अर्थमात्र-निर्भासा अस्मितामात्र-दर्शनता निस्-वितर्का नाम द्वितीया समापत्तिः॥
etad, eva, sa-vicārā, nis-vicārā, ca, sūkṣma-viṣayā, vyākhyātā.
In that same way alone, mixed and not mixed with word and idea – with name and form – samāpatti (contemplation) in regard also to scriptural subtle objects is explained as being sa-vicāra (with inquiry) and nir-vicāra (free of inquiry). Both are a part of saṃprajñāta samādhi.

एतया एव यथा प्रत्यक्ष-अनुमान-प्रमाण-विषया समापत्तिः स-वितर्का निस्-वितर्का च, तथा स-विचारा निस्-विचारा च नाम सूक्ष्म-विषया विचार्य-श्रुति-प्रमाण-विषया व्याख्याता तृतीया चतुर्था च समापत्तिः॥
sūkṣma-viṣayatva, ca, a-liṅga-paryavasāna.
And the nature of being a subtle object reaches (YS.2.19) up to, but does not include, the unmanifest total, also called prakṛti, pradhāna, or a-vyakta (unmanifest nature).

सूक्ष्म-विषयत्वं अति-इन्द्रिय-श्रुति-प्रमाण-विषयत्वं च अ-लिङ्ग-पर्यवसानं अति-सूक्ष्म-विषय-आदि आ लिङ्गमात्र-विषयात्, न तु आ अ-लिङ्गात् अ-लिङ्ग-प्रकृतेः विषय-अ-योग्यत्वात् (YS.2.19)॥
tad, eva, sa-bīja, samādhi.
These four samāpattis are indeed each a contemplation that retains the seed of ignorance and its afflictions, as long as that assimilated knowledge is not complete by including everything and oneself.

ताः चतुर्-विध-समापत्तयः एव स-बीजः स-अ-विद्या-कल्पित-भिन्न-विषय-आलम्बनः समाधिः
nis-vicāra-vaiśāradya, adhi-ātma-prasāda.
When there is mastery in the free of inquiry samāpatti, there is clarity of mind.

निस्-विचार-वैशारद्ये निस्-विचार-नाम-चतुर्थ-समाधि-परिपाकत्वे सति अधि-आत्म-प्रसादः अन्तःकरण-शुद्धिः, चित्ते यद्-किम्-चिद्-अल्प-मलस्य त्यागः अन्-आत्मतया इत्यर्थः (YS.4.25)॥
ṛtam-bharā, tatra, prajñā.
When that takes place – when there is sufficient clarity of mind – one’s knowledge bears the truth.

या ऋतं-भरा सत्यं बिभर्त्ति, आत्म-सत्यं विवारयते इत्यर्थः तत्र चित्त-प्रसादे सति, सा प्रज्ञा श्रुति-प्रमाण-जनित-स्व-पुरुष-परिपक्व-ज्ञानं नाम॥
śruta-anumāna-prajñā, anya-viṣayā, viśeṣa-arthatva.
Since the object of this prajñā (assimilated knowledge), being the very nature of everything and oneself, is unique – is not an object or goal that can be defined or inferred by words, or objectified with the senses – its object is other than the direct knowledge of the words of the scripture heard or the inferences made.

इयं प्रज्ञा श्रुत-अनुमान-प्रज्ञाभ्यां श्रुति-शब्दस्य अनुमानस्य वा प्रज्ञाभ्याम् अन्य-विषया, विशेष-अर्थत्वात् यस्मात् अस्याः पुरुष-प्रज्ञायाः विषयः केवलः, दृक् एव सन् न तु दृश्यं, सः दृक् स्व-प्रकाशकः इत्यर्थः (YS.4.18–22)॥
tad-ja, saṃskāra, anya-saṃskāra-pratibandhin.
The new latent tendency, the subtle seed of thought born of that prajñā (clear knowledge), with the help of sa-bīja samādhi (contemplation that retains this new seed in the form of the teaching) which nourished and matured that new seed, counter-acts the other latent tendencies one has gained in this and in prior life-times, that have kept one as though a separate individuality to be reborn again and again.

तद्-जः प्रज्ञा-जः श्रुति-प्रमाण-रूप-संस्कारः अन्य-संस्कार-प्रतिबन्धी अ-विद्या-जनित-संस्कार-प्रतिरोधकः॥
tad, api, nirodha, sarva-nirodha, nis-bīja, samādhi.
When there is the dropping of even that latent tendency in the form of the teaching due to the dropping of everything as not other than oneself (YS.3.53 and .55), through discernment of the limitless nature of the puruṣa, arrived at through continuous repetition of sa-bīja samādhi (contemplation that has the new seed which is the teaching of the self), this complete clarity in the knowledge that frees, that is not just another state of mind, is called contemplation free of seed.

तस्य श्रुति-शब्द-रूप-संस्कारस्य अपि निरोधे त्यागे अन्-आत्मतया सर्व-निरोधात् सर्व-दृश्य-त्यागात् अन्-आत्मतया सति, निस्-बीजः अ-विद्या-बीज-रहितः नाम समाधिः समाधीयते यस्मिन् इति समाधिः, सः स्व-रूप-अवस्थानं न तु ध्यान-चित्त-क्रिया, नित्य-समाधिः परम-आत्म-स्व-रूप-ज्ञानतया इत्यर्थः॥

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tapas-sva-adhyāya-īśvara-praṇidhāna, kriyā-yoga.
The kriyā-yoga (means in regard to activity) is prayerful discipline, one’s study of the family’s Veda scripture as it has been taught by one’s teacher, and intelligently surrendering to the Lord, to the whole interconnected order of this universe.

अथ योग-प्रतिबन्ध-क्षय-उपायस्य भूयस् विस्तारः – तपस्-स्व-अध्याय-ईश्वर-प्रणिधानानि (YS.2.43–45) देह-वाक्-मनसः शम-दम-उपरम-तितिक्षाः तपस्-साधनानि, विवेक-आत्मकः श्रवण-मनन-स्व-अध्यायः, अभ्यास-वैराग्य-आत्मकं परम-पुरुष-चिन्तनं च तानि क्रिया-योगः प्रज्ञा-अर्थ-क्रिया-रूप-साधनं योगः इति क्रिया-योगः नाम॥
samādhi-bhāvana-artha, kleśa-tanū-karaṇa-artha, ca.
Kriyā-yoga (activity when used as a means) is meant for bringing about contemplation of the proper means of knowledge resulting in assimilation of this reality that is the Lord and for minimizing the afflictions.

क्रिया-योगः समाधि-भावन-अर्थः समाधि-उपचय-अर्थः क्लेश-तनू-करण-अर्थः क्लेश-अपचय-अर्थः
a-vidyā-asmitā-rāga-dveṣa-abhiniveśa, pañca-kleśa.
The five afflictions are ignorance and its crop or germinations, namely, the I-notion, attachment, aversion, and the fear of death.

अ-विद्या-अस्मिता-राग-द्वेष-अभिनिवेशाः वक्ष्यमाणाः पञ्च-क्लेशाः नाम॥
a-vidyā, kṣetra, uttara, prasupta-tanu-vicchinna-udāra.
Ignorance is the soil (field of activity, arena) for the others, the other afflictionswhether they are dormant; sprouting, literally, gained a form; variously breaking out at different times and situations; or fully grown.

अ-विद्या क्षेत्रं प्रसव-भूमिः, क्षेत्रम् इव क्षेत्रम् उत्तरेषां चतुर्-क्लेशानां प्रसुप्त-तनु-विच्छिन्न-उदाराणां ओषधिवत् बीज-उद्भव-स्फुटित-वृद्ध-रूपाणाम्॥
a-nitya-a-śuci-duḥkha-an-ātman, nitya-śuci-sukha-ātma-khyāti, a-vidyā.
Ignorance is determining the timeless, pure (attributeless), satisfied (full and complete) self to be in what is not the self, within time, impure (having attributes), and unsatisfied (empty and incomplete). And visa-versa.

अ-नित्य-अ-शुचि-दुःख-अन्-आत्मसु नित्य-शुचि-सुख-आत्म-ख्यातिः अ-नित्य-आत्मकेषु नित्य-आत्म-बुद्धिः अ-शुचि-आत्मकेषु शुचि-आत्म-बुद्धिः दुःख-आत्मकेषु आनन्द-आत्म-बुद्धिः, अ-तस्मिन् तद्-बुद्धिः परस्-पर-विरुद्ध-धर्म-अध्यासः इत्यर्थः आत्म-अन्-आत्म-अ-विवेक-रूपा अ-विद्या नाम॥
dṛś-darśana-śakti, eka-ātmatā, iva, asmitā.
The I-notion – the problematic “possessive I,” not the unproblematic “is-ness I” of Yoga Sūtra 1.17 is the resulting apparent identity of the natures of the seer – the witness self, and the instrument for seeing – the mind.

अ-विद्या-गोचरे दृक्-दर्शन-शक्त्योः दृक्-आत्म-रूपस्य दृश्य-चित्त-रूपस्य च एक-आत्मता एक-रूपता ताद्-आत्म्यं इव अस्मिता नाम अहम्-कारः अभिमानः इत्यर्थः, न तु समाधि-विषय-अस्मिता सत्यता (YS.1.17)॥
sukha-anuśayin, rāga.
Attachment is being in-keeping, literally, to lie down, with pleasurable objects.

अ-विद्या-अस्मिता-वशात् सुख-अनुशयी सुख-दृश्यैः अनुरूपवान् रागः नाम॥
duḥkha-anuśayin, dveṣa.
Aversion is being in-keeping with painful objects.

दुःख-अनुशयी दुःख-दृश्यैः अनुरूपवान् द्वेषः नाम च॥
sva-rasa-vāhin, vidvas, api, tathā, rūḍha (tathā, ārūḍha), abhiniveśa.
Fear of death is passed on in one’s subtle essence. In that way it is well rooted even for a scriptural scholar.

स्व-रस-वाही स्व-रसतस् प्रवाल-शीलः सन् विदुषः पर-लोक-आस्तिका-पण्डितस्य इत्यर्थः अपि तथा रूढः (आरूढः) मूलितः, दुस्-उन्मूलितः इत्यर्थः अभिनिवेशः नाशे अ-नित्यत्वे संसारे निमज्जन-रूप-भयं नाम पञ्चमः क्लेशः॥
tad, pratiprasava-heya, sūkṣma.
Those kleśas (afflictions) which are already or made subtle – dormant or sprouting, are to be given up by resolving them, seeing that they are sourced in ignorance and thus unreal.

ते अ-विद्या-कार्य-चतुर्-क्लेशाः प्रतिप्रसव-हेयाः शमेन हेयाः, अ-विद्या-आश्रय-प्रदर्शनेन त्यज्याः इत्यर्थः एवं-भूत-हेयाः काः रूपाः? – सूक्ष्माः प्रसुप्त-तनु-रूपाः क्लेषाः, विच्छिन्न-उदार-रूपाः तु शम-दम-हेयाः क्रिया-योगेन हेयाः इत्यर्थः, अथवा सूक्ष्माः प्रसुप्ताः एव, अ-क्लिष्ट-रूपाः सन्तः तेषां हानं गुण-प्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं (YS.4.34)॥
dhyāna-heyā, tad-vṛtti.
Their, the already subtle or made subtle afflictions’, expressions are also to be given up by retaining a single pointed inquiry in contemplation.

ध्यान-हेयाः ध्यानेन हेयाः (e.g., YS.2.33–34) अपि तद्-वृत्तयः ते सूक्ष्म-क्लेश-आकाराः तनूनां वर्तमान-आकाराः पूर्व-प्रसुप्तानां भविष्य-आकाराः च, अथवा तद्-वृत्तयाः प्रसुप्त-अन्य-वृत्तयाः तनु-विच्छिन्न-उदार-आकाराः, क्लिष्ट-रूपाः सन्तः क्रिया-योग-ध्यान-अन्तेन साधनेन हेयाः॥
kleśa-mūla, karma-āśaya, dṛṣṭa-a-dṛṣṭa-janma-vedanīya.
Having the afflictions as its source, the karma-storage, accumulated in a beginningless succession of human births, yet to fructify, and belonging to one jīva (individual), is to be experienced as births seen – the current birth, and unseen – births past and future.

क्लेश-मूलः क्लेश-मूलवान् कर्म-आशयः एक-जीवस्य कर्म-निधानं सूक्ष्म-कारण-शरीर-गतं नाम दृष्ट-अ-दृष्ट-जन्म-वेदनीयः इह-जन्मनि अमुत्र-जन्मनि च अनुभाव्यः॥
sat, mūla, tad-vipāka, jāti-āyus-bhoga.
As long as that source of the karma-storage is there – as long as there is the fundamental ignorance manifesting as the afflictions – the fruition of those karmas becomes the births, life-spans, and life-experiences.

सति क्लेश-कर्म-रूपे मूले, तद्-विपाकः तद्-कर्मणः फलं जाति-आयुस्-भोगाः प्रति-जन्म च आयुर् च अनुभवः च॥
tad, hlāda-paritāpa-phala, puṇya-a-puṇya-hetutva.
These three – births, life-spans, and experiences – have results that are pleasures and pains, since they are caused by karma merit (puṇya) and demerit (pāpa).

ते जाति-आयुस्-भोगाः ह्लाद-परिताप-फलाः सुख-दुःख-फलवन्तः पुण्य-अ-पुण्य-हेतुत्वात्
pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkha, guṇa-vṛtti-virodha, ca, duḥkha, eva, sarva, vivekin.
The discerning view all separate entities as painful alone due to the pains of change, worry, and new latent tendencies, and because of the opposition of the play of the three guṇas (components of nature).

परिणाम-ताप-संस्कार-दुःखैः विकार-दुःखैः क्लेश-दुःखैः दुःख-बीज-संस्कारैः च गुण-वृत्ति-विरोधात् च, दुःखं अ-दुःख-रहितं एव सर्वं जगत् सुख-दुःख-मिश्रं सत् विवेकिनः तेषां सर्व-संसारः अन्-इष्टः जगत्-स्व-रूप-परम-आत्मा एव इष्टः च इत्यर्थः॥
heya, duḥkha, an-āgata.
Sorrow not yet come is to be objectively given up.

हेयं दुःखम् अन्-आगतं भविष्यं भूत-दुःखं भूत-स्मृतितया स्वी-कर्तव्यं भवत्-दुःखं च तितेक्षितव्यं (BhG.2.14)॥
draṣṭṛ-dṛśya, saṃyoga, heya-hetu.
Ignorance in the form of the mutual identification of the seer and the seen, literally, the seeable, is the cause of these afflictions to be given up.

द्रष्टृ-दृश्ययोः दृक्-पुरुष-दृश्य-विषययोः संयोगः अ-विवेक-ख्याति (YS.2.5), क्षेत्र-क्षेत्र-ज्ञ-संयोगः (BhG.13.26), संयोगः इव संयोगः मिथ्या न तु सत्यं हेय-हेतुः हेय-दुःख-हेतुः, तस्मात् विवेक-ख्यातिः दुःख-हान-हेतुः, “दुःख-संयोग-वियोगं योग-संज्ञितम्” इति (BhG.6.23)॥
prakāśa-kriyā-sthiti-sīla, bhūta-indriya-ātmaka, bhoga-apavarga-artha, dṛśya.
The seen has the nature of the three guṇas, light-action-inertia; has the nature of the five material and subtle elements including the subtle organs of sensing and acting; and is for enjoyment in the form of what can bind and freedom in the form of the teaching that frees one from bondage.

प्रकाश-क्रिया-स्थिति-शीलं सत्त्व-रजस्-तमस्-गुण-रूपं भूत-इन्द्रिय-आत्मकं पञ्च-भूत-पञ्च-इन्द्रिय-रूपं, दृश्य-दर्शन-रूपं भोग-अपवर्ग-अर्थं भोगस्य कैवल्यस्य च निमित्तं दृश्यम्
viśeṣa-a-viśeṣa-liṅga-mātra-a-liṅga, guṇa-parvan.
The levels in reverse order of the manifestation of the guṇas (components of nature) are particularized – the five mixed material and subtle elements; non-particularized – the five unmixed subtle elements; the merely indicated – the universal order or intellect assumed to exist because of its effects, otherwise called mahat (the great), and elsewhere called Hiraṇya-garbha (the Golden Womb); and the non-indicated – the unmanifest prakṛti (nature).

विशेष-अ-विशेष-लिङ्ग-मात्र-अ-लिङ्गानि स्थूल-मिश्र-भूतानि सूक्ष्म-तन्मात्र-भूतानि ईश्वर-नियतृ-महत्-बुद्धिः अ-व्यक्त-प्रकृतिः च तानि गुण-पर्वाणि गुण-क्रम-अवस्थाः॥
draṣṭṛ, dṛśi-mātra, śuddha, api, pratyaya-anupaśya.
The seer is pure perception – the jñapti-svarūpa (nature of the source of knowing) free of the three-fold knower-knowing-known aspects of the act of knowing, and though pure, indivisible and without a second thing, it sees, as it were, the thoughts.

द्रष्टा दृक्-साक्षि-पुरुषः दृशि-मात्रः ज्ञप्ति-स्व-रूपः शुद्धः केवलः दृश्य-अ-संयुक्तः अपि प्रत्यय-अनुपश्यः चित्त-वृत्ति-अनुभव-शक्यः इव, अथवा चित्त-वृत्ति-अनुरूप-कल्पितः॥
tad-artha, eva, dṛśya, ātman.
The nature of the seen is simply as its, draṣṭṛ’s (the pure-witnesses’) object.

तद्-अर्थः द्रष्टृ-अर्थः यथा, दृक्-पुरुष-विषयतया जीवस्य धर्म-अर्थ-काम-मोक्ष-पुरुष-अर्थः इत्यर्थः एव दृश्यस्य आत्मा स्व-रूपः सत्ता व्यावहारिकं स-अपेक्षा-सत्ता-वत् एव दृश्यं, न तु पारम-अर्थिकं इत्यर्थः॥
kṛta-artha, prati, naṣṭa, api, a-naṣṭa, tad, anya-sa-ādhāraṇatva.
Though lost, as being absolutely real, in regard to one who has achieved the goal kaivalya (freedom) – it, the dṛśya (seen), is not lost, since it has commonality with others who remain in ignorance of the seen’s (un)reality.

कृत-अर्थं प्रति परम-अर्थ-कैवल्य-सम्पन्न-योगिनं नष्टं दृश्यं पारम-अर्थिक-सत्तया नष्टं अपि, अ-नष्टं वर्तमानं तद् दृश्यं जगत् अन्य-साधारणत्वात् यस्मात् अन्य-अ-कृत-अर्थ-जीवानां दृश्य-पारम-अर्थिक-सत्ता-कल्पना-दृष्टिनां “परिछिन्न-दृशिवत् दृश्यानि नाना-विध-सत्यानि” इति-अ-विद्या (YS.2.24)॥
sva-svāmi-śakti, sva-rūpa-upalabdhi-hetu, saṃyoga.
The seeming conjunction of the natures of itself – the dṛśya (object) – and its master – the draṣṭṛ (witness) – is the cause of the ascertainment of each of their separate natures, namely, that one is the seer and the other is the seen, that this duality is somehow real.

स्व-स्वामि-शक्त्योः स्व-दृश्य-शीलस्य स्वामि-द्रष्टृ-शीलस्य च स्व-रूप-उपलब्धि-हेतुः भिन्न-स्व-रूप-अनुभाव-हेतुः सह-ज-दृक्-दृश्य-संयोगः
tad, hetu, a-vidyā.
The cause of that conjunction is ignorance – the mutual misidentification of the seer and the seen as being separate and limiting.

तस्य संयोगस्य हेतुः अ-विद्या
tad-a-bhāva, saṃyoga-a-bhāva, hāna, tad, dṛśi, kaivalya.
The giving up of heya (what is to be given up) is the disappearance of this conjunction by the disappearance of that a-vidyā (ignorance), its cause, in the wake of puruṣa-khyāti (self knowledge), and that is the freedom of the seer.

तद्-अभावात् अ-विद्या-अ-भावात् विवेक-ख्यात्या (YS.2.26) संयोग-अ-भावः अ-विद्या-रूप-संयोग-अ-भावः हानं इति एवं दृश्यं नष्टम् इत्यर्थः, तद् द्रष्टृ-स्व-रूपे अवस्थानं च दृशेः कैवल्यं जीवत्-मुक्तिः इत्यर्थः॥
viveka-khyāti, a-viplavā, hāna-upāya.
The means for the giving up of this saṃyoga (conjunction) is a discerning knowledge which does not go astray.

विवेक-ख्यातिः दृक्-दृश्य-विवेक-बुद्धिः अ-विप्लवा अ-बाधिता संसार-रूप-संयोग-हान-उपायः
tad, saptadhā, prānta-bhūmi, prajñā.
Its final stage is a seven-fold assimilated knowledge.

तस्य हान-उपायस्य कृत-अर्थ-जीवत्-मुक्तस्य वा सप्तधा प्रान्त-भूमिः सप्त-अवस्थावती प्रज्ञा – यतस् सूत्रेषु प्रज्ञा-अवस्थाः न प्रथक् व्याख्याताः, इदं ज्ञानं च ‘अ-क्रमम्’ इति वक्ष्यमाणं (YS.3.54), ततस् इह इयं प्रज्ञा प्रज्ञा-उपाये योग्यतायां वा यथा-उक्तम् अभ्यास-वैराग्य-श्रद्-धा-वीर्य-आदि-तारतम्यम् अपेक्ष्या॥
yoga-aṅga-anuṣṭhāna, a-śuddhi-kṣaya, jñāna-dīpti, ā, viveka-khyāti.
By following the eight limbs of yoga, as the impurities diminish, the light of knowledge reaches to the discerning knowledge that frees.

वक्ष्यमाण-योग-अङ्ग-अनुष्ठानात् अ-शुद्धि-क्षये परम-तत्त्व-नाना-विध-संशय-रूप-अन्तःकरण-अ-शुद्धि-क्षये शनैः शनैः सति ज्ञान-दीप्तिः आ अ-बाधित-विवेक-ख्यातेः
yama-niyama-āsana-prāṇa-āyāma-pratyāhāra-dhāraṇā-dhyāna-samādhi, aṣṭa, aṅga.
The eight limbs of yoga are yama (avoidance) of the kliṣṭa (what hinders), niyama (observance) of the a-kliṣṭa (what helps), āsana (sitting posture) – controlling the body for meditation, prāṇa-āyāma (controlling the breath), pratyāhāra (withdrawing) the senses, dhāraṇā (restraining the pursuit of unwanted or hindering thoughts in contemplation), dhyāna (retaining the flow of wanted or helpful thoughts in contemplation), and samādhi (contemplation resulting in assimilation).

यम-नियम-आसन-प्राण-आयाम-प्रत्याहार-धारणा-ध्यान-समाधयः नाम अष्टौ योगस्य अङ्गानि
a-hiṃsā-satya-a-steya-brahma-carya-a-parigraha, yama.
The first limb of yoga: the avoidances of the kliṣṭa (what hinders) are non-violence to one’s own body and mind, to other people and creatures, to cultures, and to the environment; truthfulness, actually, as a yama (avoidance), it is not harboring and speaking untruth; non-usurping what is not given; pursuing the scripture, as a yama (avoidance) it is not chasing after pursuits other than the āgama (scripture), which is the knowledge of truths that are outside one’s own two means of knowledge (YS.1.7); and renunciation of what is given – renunciation of the notion of ownership.

अहिंसा-सत्य-अ-स्तेय-ब्रह्म-चर्य-अ-परिग्रहाः वक्ष्यमाणाः (YS.2.35–39) यमाः नाम॥
jāti-deśa-kāla-samaya-an-avacchinna, sārva-bhauma, mahā-vrata.
These yamas (avoidances), applied to the entire universe and not limited toward origination [species, class, and so on], place, time, or circumstance is the great vow, namely, sannyāsa (renunciation) in terms of knowledge within the lifestyle of the jñāna-yogin, or within the lifestyle of a mature karma-yogin.

जाति-देश-काल-समय-अन्-अवच्छिन्नाः ब्राह्मण-आदि-जाति-अ-परिच्छिन्नाः देश-काल-अ-परिच्छिन्नाः, जीवन-दशा-अ-परिच्छिन्नाः यमाः सार्व-भौमाः सर्वथा-सर्व-विषये (YS.3.54) इत्यर्थः महा-व्रतं सर्व-सन्न्यास-अर्थ-व्रतम्, अथवा तथा अहिंसा-आदि-यम-व्रतम् अन्तिमं भवेत्॥
śauca-santoṣa-tapas-sva-adhyāya-īśvara-praṇidhāna, niyama.
The second limb of yoga: the observances of the a-kliṣṭa (what helps) are cleanliness mental and physical; contentment, where satisfaction is found in one’s self instead of in circumstances; and kriyā-yoga (YS.2.1 and .2), namely, prayerful discipline, one’s study of the family’s Veda scripture as it has been taught by one’s teacher, and intelligently surrendering what is the Lord’s – this body-mind and its actions – to the Lord as the whole.

शौच-सन्तोष-तपस्-स्व-अध्याय-ईश्वर-प्रणिधानानि वक्ष्यमानानि (YS.2.40–45) नियमाः नाम॥
vi-tarka-bādhana, prati-pakṣa-bhāvana.
When these yamas (avoidances) and niyamas (observances) are hindered by wrong thinking, one should contemplate the contradiction – apply correct reasoning, as a result of correct vicāra (inquiry).

वि-तर्क-बाधने विपर्यय-तर्केन योग-प्रतिबन्धने सति प्रति-पक्ष-भावनं तद्-वि-तर्कात् विपरीत-भावनं भवेत्॥
vi-tarka, hiṃsā-ādi, kṛta-kārita-anumodita, lobha-krodha-moha-pūrvaka, mṛdu-madhya-adhi-mātra, duḥkha-a-jñāna-an-anta-phala, iti, prati-pakṣa-bhāvana.
Contemplating the contradiction would be, for example, “violence and the other avoidances in the yamas done, ordered, or permitted, out of greed, anger, or delusion, whether in small, middling, or great measure, have unfailing results of pain and remaining in ignorance, which turns the pain into sorrow, so they are illogical.”

यथा “ये वि-तर्काः हिंसा-आदयः कृत-कारित-अनुमोदिताः लोभ-क्रोध-मोह-पूर्वकाः मृदु-मध्य-अधि-मात्राः ते दुःख-अ-ज्ञान-अन्-अन्त-फलाःइति प्रति-पक्ष-भावनम्
a-hiṃsā-pratiṣṭhā, tad-sannidhi, vaira-tyāga.
When there is establishment in non-violence as a yama (avoidance), there is a dropping of hostility in and towards those around that person.

अहिंसा-प्रतिष्ठायां सत्यां तद्-सन्निधौ तस्य योगिनः सन्निधौ वैर-त्यागः
satya-pratiṣṭhā, kriyā-phala-āśrayatva.
When there is establishment in truthfulness as a yama (avoidance), that truthfulness has the power of sustaining – lends the pure, uninhibited power of its conviction in fructifying the results of one’s action.

सत्य-प्रतिष्ठायां सत्यां क्रिया-फल-आश्रयत्वं तस्य योगिनः क्रिया-इष्ट-फलानाम् उत्पत्ति-स्थानम्॥
a-steya-pratiṣṭhā, sarva-ratna-upasthāna.
When there is establishment in non-usurping as a yama (avoidance), everything around becomes one’s jewels, glories of the limitless reality, the Lord, not needing to be individually possessed.

अ-स्तेय-प्रतिष्ठायां अ-लोभ-प्रतिष्ठायां सत्यां सर्व-रत्न-उपस्थानं तस्य योगिनः ईश्वरमत्त्वेन एव सर्व-विभूति-आधारः, न ममत्वम् इत्यर्थः॥
brahma-carya-pratiṣṭhā, vīrya-lābha.
When there is establishment in pursuing the scripture, without distracting pursuits, as a yama (avoidance), then, like with satya (truth) (YS.2.36) in strengthening the results of action, there is the gain of strength, or rather tīvra-saṃvega (tenacity) in this pursuit.

ब्रह्म-चर्य-प्रतिष्ठायां सत्यां वीर्य-लाभः योगे तीव्र-संवेग-लाभः (YS.1.21)॥
a-parigraha-sthairya, janma-kathaṃtā-sambodha.
When there is establishment in renunciation as a yama (avoidance), there is an understanding of beginningless, unwarranted desires (YS.4.10) as being the reason, literally, the how-ness, for birth.

अ-परिग्रह-स्थैर्ये परित्याग-स्थैर्ये सति जन्म-कथंता-सम्बोधः त्यक्तव्य-कर्म-आशयतया अन्-आदि-जन्म-याथा-अर्थ्यं सम्बुध्यते (YS.2.12, 4.10)॥
śauca, sva-aṅga-jugupsā, para, a-saṃsarga.
From the niyama (observance) of physical cleanliness, where the naturally accumulating bodily filth is recognized for what it is and then expunged, there is prati-pakṣa-bhāvana (contemplating the contradiction) of repulse from aspects of one’s own body, which counter-acts excessive admiration of one’s body, and there is non-attachment with others – the alluring beauty in others is objectively balanced with the non-alluring that will also be present.

बाह्य-शौचात् नियमात् स्व-अङ्ग-जुगुप्सा स्व-देह-अ-पुण्य-भाग-त्याग-दृष्टिः परैः बाह्य-मनस्-हारैः अपि पुण्य-अ-पुण्य-मिश्र-देहैः अ-संसर्गः भाग-त्याग-दृष्टिः तथा अपि इत्यर्थः॥
sattva-śuddhi-sau-manasya-aika-agrya-indriya-jaya-ātma-darśana-yogyatva, ca.
From the niyama (observance) of mental cleanliness – the second aspect of śauca (cleanliness), where the mental waste and excesses, including excessive rajas (agitation) and tamas (dullness), and the errors in thinking that increase these two, is recognized for what it is and then reduced or neutralized – there arises contentment – the alert, clear, and bright mind attains an abiding peace; from that arises the ability to stay on one topic of contemplation; from that arises the mastery over the senses – mastering the mind first, which should be and now is the master of the senses; and from that arises the capacity of knowing the self – the clarity of mind to stay in contemplation leading to assimilated knowledge of the self.

सत्त्त्व-शुद्धि-सौ-मनस्य-ऐक-अग्र्य-इन्द्रिय-जय-आत्म-दर्शन-योग्यत्वानि अन्तःकरण-शौचात् सु-मनस्-भावे ऐक-अग्र्ये इन्द्रिय-विनिग्रहे आत्म-ज्ञाने च योग्यत्वानि
santoṣa, an-uttama, sukha-lābha.
From the niyama (observance) of contentment, where satisfaction is found in one’s self instead of in circumstances, one attains the unsurpassed fullness, which is the nature of the self.

यतस् आत्म-दर्शन-योग्यत्वं ततस् सन्तोषात् नियमात् अन्-उत्तमः सुख-लाभः आत्म-स्व-रूप-तृप्तिः इत्यर्थः॥
kāya-indriya-siddhi, a-śuddhi-kṣaya, tapas.
From the niyama (observance) of prayerful discipline (YS.2.1), due to the wane of impurities, then the body and senses attain their success.

काय-इन्द्रिय-सिद्धिः देह-इन्द्रिय-योग्यत्व-सिद्धिः इह जन्मनि च परम-पुरुष-अर्थ-सिद्धिः अ-शुद्धि-क्षयात् क्लेश-क्षयात् तपसः (YS.2.1) नियमात्॥
sva-adhyāya, iṣṭa-devatā-saṃprayoga.
From the niyama (observance) of one’s study of the family’s Veda scripture as it has been taught by one’s teacher, there is identity with the nature of the Lord of one’s family or personal worship.

स्व-अध्यायात् (YS.2.1) नियमात् इष्ट-देवता-संप्रयोगः सर्व-विभूति-रूपेण सर्व-नियन्तृ-रूपेण जन्म-स्थिति-लय-रूपेण च ईश्वरस्य इष्ट-देवता-रूपेण अ-भिन्नत्वं॥
samādhi-siddhi, īśvara-praṇidhāna.
From the niyama (observance) of contemplation on and intelligently surrendering what is the Lord’s – this body-mind and its actions – to the Lord as the whole, there is attainment of contemplation resulting in assimilation.

समाधि-सिद्धिः परम-पुरुषे सर्वं समाधीयते यस्मिन् इति समाधिः तस्मिन् समाधौ सिद्धिः (YS.1.51) ईश्वर-प्रणिधानात् (YS.2.1) नियमात्॥
sthira-sukha, āsana.
The third limb of yoga: the sitting practice – controlling the body for meditation – is stable and comfortable.

स्थिर-सुखं स्थिरं सुखं च भवेत् आसनं ध्यान-अर्थम् एव पद्म-स्वस्तिक-आदि-देह-स्थापनं नाम तृतीय-योग-अङ्गं॥
prayatna-śaithilya-an-anta-samāpatti.
Sthairya (stability) is gained by relaxation of straining, and sukha (comfort) is gained by contemplating on the limitless, for example, on limitless space, or on the limitless Lord, reality, or consciousness, which are all three the same.

प्रयत्न-शैथिल्य-अन्-अन्त-समापत्तिभ्यां स्थिर-आसने प्रयत्न-शैथिल्येन सुख-आसने च आकाश-प्राण-आदि-अन्-अन्त-विषय-समापत्त्या॥
tatas, dvam-dva-an-abhighāta.
From that stable and comfortable sitting posture one is not assailed by the pairs of opposites, for example, environmental hot-cold, bodily pain-pleasure, and other pairs of sensations.

ततस् स्थिर-सुख-आसनात् योगी शीत-उष्ण-सुख-दुःख-आदि-द्वम्-द्व-अन्-अभिघातः
tad, sat, śvāsa-pra-śvāsa, gati-viccheda, prāṇa-āyāma.
Established in this āsana, the fourth limb of yoga: controlling the breath is separating with a pause the flow of inhalation and exhalation.

तस्मिन् द्वम्-द्व-अन्-अभिघात-आसने सति, श्वास-प्रश्वासयोः अन्तर्-श्वास-बहिस्-श्वासयोः गति-विच्छेदः प्राणायामः नाम चतुर्थ-योग-अङ्गम्॥
bāhya-abhyantara-stambha-vṛtti, deśa-kāla-saṃkhyā, paridṛṣṭa, dīrgha-sūkṣma.
In prāṇāyāma (controlling the breath), the operation of pausing the breath first happens outward – after the out-breath when the lungs are empty. Next, the pausing is inward – after the in-breath when the lungs are full. And also there is stoppage – during out-breathing or in-breathing there is stoppage, where at least some air is retained in the lungs and held there. These three prāṇāyāmas are observed according to location, length, and count of the breaths, and their pausing and stoppage. With practice, they become long – the lengths of the out-breath and the pausing and stoppage become long, and subtle – the observance moves from the gross movement of the breath to the subtle presence of this life-force called prāṇa.

बाह्य-अभ्यन्तर-स्तम्भ-वृत्तिः श्वास-प्रश्वासयोः बाह्य-वृत्तिः अभन्तर-वृत्तिः स्तम्भ-वृत्तिः च त्रि-विध-प्राण-आयामः, देश-काल-संख्याभिः देशतः कालतः संख्यातः च परिदृष्टः परीक्षितः, दीर्घ-सूक्ष्मः काल-संख्यातः दीर्घः अन्-अन्त-बाह्य-अभ्यन्तर-प्राण-देशतः (YS.2.51) सूक्ष्मः च प्राण-आयामः॥
bāhya-abhyantara-viṣaya-ākṣepin, caturtha.
The fourth prāṇāyāma is diminishing attention, literally, objectification, towards the outward and the inward movements and holding of the breath, so that they become imperceptibly lost in the attention upon the quiet stillness of the presence of the life breath itself.

बाह्य-अभ्यन्तर-विषय-आक्षेपी बाह्य-अभ्यन्तर-श्वास-गमन-विषयात् दृष्टि-प्रत्याहारः चतुर्थः प्राण-आयामः प्राण-सन्निधि-वीक्षणं, अ-बाह्य-अन्-अभ्यन्तर-सर्व-व्याप्त-प्राण-वीक्षणम् इत्यर्थः॥
tatas, √kṣi, prakāśa-āvaraṇa.
From that prāṇāyāma, the blocking of clarity of mind is lessened.

ततस् प्राण-आयामात् क्षीयते प्रकाश-आवरणं रजस्-तमोभ्यां चित्त-सत्त्व-गुण-आच्छादनम्॥
dhāraṇā, ca, yogyatā, manas.
And the mind gains fitness – discipline – for restraining the pursuit of unwanted or hindering thoughts in contemplation.

अ-बाह्य-अन्-अभ्यन्तर-प्राण-वीक्षणात् धारणासु (YS.3.1) च योग्यता मनसः
sva-viṣaya-a-saṃprayoga, citta, sva-rūpa-anukāra, iva, indriya, pratyāhāra.
The fifth limb of yoga: withdrawing of the senses is their seeming to take on the very nature of the mind, when, because the mind’s attention has been withdrawn by āsana and prāṇāyāma, they also withdraw from their own objects.

स्व-विषय-अ-संप्रयोगे इन्द्रियाणां सति, चित्तस्य स्व-रूप-अनुकारः इव आसने प्राण-आयामे च चित्तस्य यथा अन्-अन्त-विषय-अनुरूपः बाह्य-अभ्यन्तर-विषय-आक्षेपि-अनुरूपः अपि इन्दियाणां प्रत्याहारः नाम पञ्चम-योग-अङ्गम्॥
tatas, paramā, vaśyatā, indriya.
The best mastery of the senses is by that taking the lead by a mind, which is first itself quiet.

ततस् चित्त-पूर्वका वश्यता, परमा वश्यता इन्द्रियाणां अपि मानसः इन्द्रिय-शमः भवेत् इत्यर्थः, न तु इन्द्रिय-दमः॥

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deśa-bandha, citta, dhāraṇā.
The sixth limb of yoga: restraining the pursuit of unwanted or hindering thoughts in contemplation is keeping the mind in one place.

भूयस् – देश-बन्धं क्लिष्ट-विषयात् अ-क्लिष्ट-एक-विषये स्थापनं पुनर् पुनर् चित्तस्य धारणा नाम षष्ठ-योग-अङ्गम्॥
tatra, pratyaya-eka-tānatā, dhyāna.
When that is complete, the seventh limb of yoga: retaining the flow of wanted or helpful thoughts in contemplation is this mind’s nature of having a oneness of thoughts.

तत्र धारणायां पर्याप्तौ सत्यां प्रत्यय-एक-तानता अ-क्लिष्ट-एक-विषये स्थितिः ध्यानं नाम सप्तम-योग-अङ्गम्॥
tad, eva, artha-mātra-nirbhāsa, sva-rūpa-śūnya, iva, samādhi.
The eighth and final limb of yoga: contemplation that culminates in assimilation is the same dhyāna (retaining in contemplation), where there is the appearance of only the object of the contemplation as if the mind lacks its own separate form.

तद् ध्यानं एव अर्थ-मात्र-निर्भासं अस्मितामात्र-दर्शनता (YS.1.43) अस्य तद् चित्त-स्व-रूप-शून्यं यदि अपि भेद-वासना-बुद्धिः तिष्ठति, भेद-कल्पना-स्मृतिः सु-अल्प-कालं गलिता अस्य तद् इत्यर्थः (YS.1.43) इव समाधिः नाम अष्टम-योग-अङ्गम्॥
traya, ekatra, saṃyama.
The three dhāraṇā, dhyāna, and samādhi together is called saṃyama (uniting).

त्रयं धारना-ध्यान-समाधि-साधनम् एकत्र संयमः नाम॥
tad-jaya, prajñā-āloka.
By mastering that saṃyama (three-fold uniting) there manifests a knowledge that is assimilated – the jñāna (scriptural knowledge) brought into the contemplation becomes pra-jñā (assimilated knowledge).

तद्-जयात् संयम-जयात् प्रज्ञा-आलोकः संयम-विषये प्रज्ञा-विस्तारः, ऋतं-भरा प्रज्ञा इत्यर्थः (YS.1.48)॥
tad, bhūmi, viniyoga.
The application of that saṃyama (three-fold uniting) should occur in the various stages in one’s progress in yoga.

तस्य संयमस्य भूमिषु योग-उपाय-प्रति-अवस्थानेषु (YS.2.27) विनियोगः प्रवृत्तिः, योगी ध्यान-शीलः भवेत् इत्यर्थः॥
traya, antar-aṅga, pūrva.
These three, namely, dhāraṇā, dhyāna, and sa-bīja samādhi, are more internal limbs than the preceding five limbs of yoga, namely, yama, niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma, and pratyāhāra.

त्रयं संयम-नाम अन्तर्-अङ्गं सूक्ष्मतर-अङ्गं पूर्वेभ्यः पञ्च-योग-अङ्गेभ्यः॥
tad, api, bahis-aṅga, nis-bīja.
But even they are external limbs to the nir-bīja (free of seed) samādhi.

तद् त्रयम् अपि बहिस्-अङ्गं अ-सु-सूक्ष्म-अङ्गं स-अविद्या-बीजतया निस्-बीजस्य ऋतं-भर-समाधेः कैवल्यस्य॥
vyutthāna-nirodha-saṃskāra, abhibhava-prādur-bhāva, nirodha-kṣaṇa-citta-anvaya, nirodha-pariṇāma.
There is a change by way of dharmas (distinguishing characteristics) during assimilation of the teaching in samādhi regarding the mind at the first moment of assimilation. The change is the arising of the latent tendencies introduced by the teaching that negate the kleśas (afflictions) in assimilation and the quelling of the other saṃskāras from the active mind that nourished the kleśas.

अथ संयमे की-दृशः चित्त-परिणामः, सर्व-दृष्टेषु परिणामः च – व्युत्थान-निरोध-संस्कारयोः अभिभव-प्रादुर्-भावौ अ-निरोध-चित्ते क्लिष्ट-संस्कारस्य शमः निरोध-चित्ते शासन-अ-क्लिष्ट-संस्कारस्य उद्भवः च निरोध-क्षण-चित्त-अन्वयः निरोध-समय-चित्ते सन्तत-अनुगतः निरोध-परिणामः समाधि-निरोधे धर्म-विकारः भवति॥
tad, praśānta-vāhitā, saṃskāra.
Its, the mind’s, flow of clarity is due to the final latent tendency, which is knowledge of reality in the form of the teaching becoming fully assimilated.

तस्य चित्तस्य प्रशान्त-वाहिता सत्त्वता-शम-सन्तत-प्रवाहः अ-क्लिष्ट-संस्कारात् चित्ते अ-क्लिष्ट-संस्कार-प्राधान्य-अनुगतः समाधि-धर्म-सन्तत-परिणामः इत्यर्थः॥
sarva-arthatā-eka-agratā, kṣaya-udaya, citta, samādhi-pariṇāma.
The change by way of lakṣaṇas (extrinsic symptoms) prior but leading to samādhi (contemplation) is the mind’s losing its all directedness and gaining its one directedness starting in dhyāna.

सर्व-अर्थता-एक-अग्रतयोः क्षय-उदयौ विविध-विषयत्व-चित्तस्य क्षयः एक-अग्रता-चितस्य उदयः च उभौ चित्तस्य समाधि-परिणामः समाधि-प्रथम-क्षण-पूर्वकः विकारः भवति, समाधि-पुरस्-सरण-लक्षणं धारणा-ध्यान-धर्म-परिणामः इत्यर्थः॥
tatas, punar, śānta-udita, tulya-pratyaya, citta, eka-agratā-pariṇāma.
And apart from those two changes, the change by way of avasthās (periods) during one directedness starting in dhyāna is the mind’s same thought in the past, literally, the ended, and the present, literally, the arisen.

ततस् तद्-द्वि-परिणामयोः पृथक् पुनर्शान्त-उदितौ तुल्य-प्रत्ययौ पूर्व-उत्तरौ तुल्य-द्वि-प्रत्ययौ चित्तस्य एक-अग्रता-परिणामः एक-अग्रतायाम् अवस्था-विकारः भवति, ध्यान-अवस्था ध्यान-कालः एक-अग्रता-सम-धर्म-परिणामः इत्यर्थः॥
etad, bhūta-indriya, dharma-lakṣaṇa-avasthā-pariṇāma, vyākhyāta.
By this three-fold change of the mind within saṃyama are explained the changes in distinguishing characteristics, extrinsic symptoms as to place, and periods in time, respectively, namely, the three factors of everything – in terms of content, place, and time – in regard to all objects – the elements and everything made from them, both subtle and material, including the subtle senses for experiencing the material objects.

एतेन चित्त-परिणाम-त्रयेण दृष्ट-अन्तेन भूत-इन्द्रियेषु सर्वेषु दृष्टेषु दर्शनेषु च अपि धर्म-लक्षण-अवस्था-परिणामाः नाम वस्तुतस् देशतस् कालतस् च विकाराः इत्यर्थः व्याख्याताः
śānta-udita-a-vyapadeśya-dharma-anupātin, dharmin.
With regard to objects and their characteristics, the domain of the characteristics, literally, that which has dharmas (distinguishing characteristics), is the object. It is the conditioned reality basis within which the characteristics appear as recognizable phenomena. This domain of the characteristics is an indirect consequence of its distinguishing characteristics in the past, the present, and the future, literally, the not yet manifest.

शान्त-उदित-अ-व्यपदेश्य-धर्म-अनुपाती भूत-भवत्-भविष्यत्-कालतस् धर्मभिः उपाधीयते धर्मी देशतस् वस्तु, यस्मिन् धर्माः स्व-काले व्यक्ताः अ-व्यक्ताः च सः धर्मी, तद् सत्-वस्तु अधिष्ठानं न परिणमते न व्यभिचरति, यथा घटे व्यक्ते अ-व्यक्ते च सति तद्-आकाशः न व्यभिचरति, ततस् इदं धर्म-परिणाम-भेदत्वं धर्मि-भेदत्वेन कल्पते अ-विवेकतस्॥
krama-anyatva, pariṇāma-anyatva, hetu.
Difference during sequence of past, present, and future is a cause for difference in change.

क्रम-अन्यत्वं धर्माणां क्रम-भेदत्वं, यथा पूर्वं शीतम् अपरम् उष्णं, अथवा पूर्वम् उष्णम् अपरं शीतं परिणाम-अन्यत्वे तापन-शीतल-आदि-परिणाम-रूप-भेदत्वे हेतुः परिणामः धर्म-क्रम-अपेक्षः इत्यर्थः॥
pariṇāma-traya-saṃyama, atīta-an-āgata-jñāna.
From the three-fold saṃyama (contemplation) on change there is knowledge of past and future, as being essentially a mental construct in the mind (YS.4.12–13 and .33).

अथ विविधाः परिणाम-आदि-संयमाः – परिणाम-त्रय-संयमात् अतीत-अन्-आगत-ज्ञानं भूत-भविष्यत्-रूप-काल-ज्ञानं चित्त-कल्पनात्वेन – प्रत्यक्ष-प्रमाण-अ-विषयतया चित्त-कल्पना-धर्मवन्तौ, प्रत्यक्ष-धर्म-भवत्-लक्षणात् अन्यौ यदि अपि भवत्-अवस्थायाम् एव प्रतीतौ॥
śabda-artha-pratyaya, itara-itara-adhyāsa, saṅkara, tad-pravibhāga-saṃyama, sarva-bhūta-ruta-jñāna.
The confusion of word-object-idea (YS.1.42–43) is due to their being imposed on each other. From saṃyama (contemplation) on its, the confusion’s, separate parts there is knowledge about sounds – communication – of all beings.

शब्द-अर्थ-प्रत्ययानाम् इतर-इतर-अध्यासात् यस्मात् नाम-वस्तु-रूपाणां परस्-पर-अध्यासः (YS.1.42–43) सङ्करः मिश्रं, तद्-प्रविभाग-संयमात् सङ्कर-विवेक-संयमात् सर्व-भूत-रुत-ज्ञानं सर्व-भूतानां वाक्-प्रयोजन-ज्ञानं संसार-सङ्कर-निमित्तत्वेन भवेत्, “समाने वृषे पुरुषः निमग्नः अन्-ईशया शोचति मुह्यमानः” इति (MunU.3.1.2) “प्राणि-सुख-दुःख-उद्भूत-हर्ष-शोक-जात-नृत्य-गीत-वादित्र-क्ष्वेलित-आस्फोटित-हसित-आकृष्ट-रुदित-हा-हा-मुञ्च-मुञ्च-इति-आदि-अन्-एक-शब्द-कृत-तुमुली-भूत-महा-रवः” इति (“ऊर्ध्व-मूलः अवाक्-शाखः…” इति KathU.2.3.1 Śaṅkara-bhāṣya)॥
saṃskāra-sākṣāt-karaṇa, pūrva-jāti-jñāna.
From saṃyama on latent tendencies one is born with, as being the immediate instrumental cause of one’s birth, there is knowledge of prior births – their role in effecting and affecting one’s own tendencies and the tendencies in others.

संस्कार-साक्षात्-करणात् अस्मिन् जन्मनि संस्कार-साक्षात्-करण-संयमात् पूर्व-जाति-ज्ञानं स्वे परेषु च पूर्व-जन्मनां निज-संस्कार-अपेक्षा-ज्ञानम् (YS.1.33)॥
pratyaya, para-citta-jñāna.
From saṃyama about one’s own thought there is knowledge of the thoughts in other minds.

स्व-प्रत्ययस्य संयमात् पर-चित्त-ज्ञानं पर-चित्त-प्रकार-ज्ञानम्॥
na, ca, tat-sa-ālambana, tad, a-viṣayī-bhūtatva.
But the other mind’s thought is not accompanied with its basis – its object – since that latter is not within the scope of that yogin’s mind. Hence, the particular reasons others think the way they do cannot be fully known.

तद्-ज्ञानं न च तु तद्-स-आलम्बनं पर-चित्तस्य आदिम-संस्कारेण सहितं, तस्य स्व-चित्तस्य अ-विषयी-भूतत्वात् तस्मात् पर-चित्तस्य ज्ञानं न संपूर्णं भवेत्॥
kāya-rūpa-saṃyama, tad-grāhya-śakti-stambha, cakṣus-prakāśa-a-saṃprayoga, antar-dhāna.
From saṃyama on the form of a body when its capability of being grasped is stopped and there is non-contact of the light of sight, then there is concealment of the body, when need of avoiding others is helpful.

काय-रूप-संयमात् तद्-ग्राह्य-शक्ति-स्तम्भे स्वयं तिरस्-भूते तूष्णी-भूते च इत्यर्थः चक्षुस्-प्रकाश-अ-संप्रयोगे चित्तस्य पर-देह-आदि-विषय-आक्षेपेण (YS.2.51–54) च सति स्व-देहस्य पर-देहस्य च अन्तर्-धानं बुद्धि-कृतम् अन्-अवधानं, स्थूल-विषयेषु न चित्त-विक्षेपाः इत्यर्थः (YS.1.30–31)॥
sa-upakrama, nis-upakrama, ca, karman, tad-saṃyama, apara-anta-jñāna, a-riṣṭa, vā.
The karma (subtle result of willful action) has a sequence that is quick and has a sequence that is slow. From saṃyama on that, or from noticing ill-omens, there is knowledge of certain death and perhaps when it will come.

स-उपक्रमं निस्-उपक्रमं च स-फलं शीघ्रम् अ-शीघ्रं च कर्म, तद्-संयमात् अपर-अन्त-ज्ञानं मरण-काल-ज्ञानम्, अ-रिष्टेभ्यः दुस्-निमित्तेभ्यः वा
maitrī-ādi, bala.
From saṃyama on goodwill (YS.1.33), […karuṇā (compassion), mudita (approval), and upekṣa (allowance)], there are strengths of being in accord with all, in these ways.

मैत्री-आदिषु संयमात् बलानि मैत्री-करुणा-मुदित-उपेक्ष-बलानि (YS.1.33)॥
bala, hasti-bala-ādi.
From saṃyama on strengths there is the strength, […grace, balance, and so on] of an elephant, and of other creatures. How the creatures exhibit their powers can be helpful in your own life.

पर-भूत-बलेषु संयमात् हस्ति-बल-आदीनि हस्ति-आदि-अपेक्षा-नैपुण्यानि॥
pravṛtti-āloka-nyāsa, sūkṣma-vyavahita-viprakṛṣṭa-jñāna.
By directing the light of the intellect outward, there is the knowledge of the subtle, the concealed, and the remote in this universe before us.

प्रवृत्ति-आलोक-न्यासात् बहिस्-बुद्धि-प्रकाश-लक्ष्यी-करणात् सूक्ष्म-व्यवहित-विप्रकृष्ट-ज्ञानं सूक्ष्म-गूढ-दूराणां ज्ञानं यथा सूर्यं प्रति॥
bhuvana-jñāna, sūrya, saṃyama.
From saṃyama on the sun there is knowledge of the worlds – the other solar systems and the realms beyond the physical.

भुवन-ज्ञानं तमस्-रजस्-सत्त्वस्य भूर्-भुवस्-स्वरः ज्ञानं सूर्ये भास्करे पूषनि ब्रह्म-लोक-द्वारे (BrhU.6.2.15) संयमात्
candra, tārā-vyūha-jñāna.
From saṃyama on the moon there is knowledge of the relative arrangement of the stars – the zodiac, and the path for rebirth.

चन्द्रे नक्षत्र-नाथे दक्षिण-आयने (BrhU.6.2.16) संयमात् तारा-व्यूह-ज्ञानं नक्षत्र-रचना-ज्ञानम्॥
dhruva, tad-gati-jñāna.
From saṃyama on the pole star there is knowledge of their movement – the movement of the constellations and the annual and epochal rhythms of the universe from the human perspective.

ध्रुवे संयमात् तद्-गति-ज्ञानं नक्षत्र-चक्र-गति-ज्ञानम्॥
nābhi-cakra, kāya-vyūha-jñāna.
From saṃyama on the navel plexus, as a point of reference physically and energetically, there is knowledge of the arrangement of the body.

नाभि-चक्रे संयमात् काय-व्यूह-ज्ञानम्
kaṇṭha-kūpa, kṣudh-pipāsā-nivṛtti.
From saṃyama on the cavity of the throat there is suppression of hunger and thirst – when needed.

कण्ठ-कूपे संयमात् क्षुत्-पिपासा-निवृत्तिः
kūrma-nāḍī, sthairya.
From saṃyama on the bronchial passage[s], literally, the turtle tube, there is calmness.

कूर्म-नाड्यां कूर्मः इव कूर्मः नाम उरस्-स्थ-नाडी तस्यां, तद्-सन्निधि-प्राणे संयमात् स्थैर्यं चित्त-स्थैर्यं, यथा प्राण-विक्षणे (YS.2.51)॥
mūrdha-jyotis, siddha-darśana.
From saṃyama on the light in the head there is the vision of ethereal accomplished beings that may help guide one’s way in the afterlife, or inspire one in this.

मूर्ध-ज्योतिषि मूर्धनि शिरसि ज्योतिस् चित्त-चैतन्यं तस्मिन् दृशि, मूर्ध-नाडि-प्राणस्य वा प्रगत्यां संयमात् सिद्ध-दर्शनं तेषां सिद्धं ज्ञानं भवेत्, अथवा वि-देह-आदि-सिद्ध-पुरुष-स्वर्ग-स्थस्य दर्शनं भवेत् (YS.3.25, 1.19)॥
prātibha, vā, sarva.
And from saṃyama on the light of intelligence (YS.3.25) there is knowledge of everything that needs to be known.

प्रातिभात् बुद्धि-चैतन्ये संयमात् (BrhU.2.1.2) वा सर्वं परम-पुरुष-अर्थ-कृतम् इत्यर्थः॥
hṛdaya, citta-saṃvid.
From saṃyama on the center, literally, the heart, and in particular the limitless expanse within the heart, there is knowledge of the mind – and the limitless expanse within, lit by the light of awareness, like the sun and stars light the universe outside.

हृदये बुद्धौ हृद्-आकाशे संयमात् (ChanU.8.1.3) चित्त-संवित् चित्त-स्व-रूप-ज्ञानं॥
sattva-puruṣa, ati-anta-a-saṅkīrṇa, pratyaya-a-viśeṣa, bhoga, para-arthatva, sva-artha-saṃyama, puruṣa-jñāna.
Seeking experience for the sake of the other – all other objects – is a non-distinguishing – a mixed up – notion between the mind, literally, pure-energy, and the puruṣa (self), which are completely separate. From saṃyama for the sake of the self there is knowledge of the puruṣa (self).

सत्त्व-पुरुषयोः चित्त-पुरुषोः अति-अन्त-अ-सङ्कीर्णयोः अ-शेष-भेदयोः धर्मतस् (YS.2.5) प्रत्यय-अ-विशेषः अ-विवेक-प्रत्ययः भोगः पर-अर्थत्वात् यस्मात् अन्-आत्म-अर्थः, स्व-अर्थ-संयमात् आत्म-अवस्थान-अर्थे संयमात् तु पुरुष-ज्ञानं स्व-परम-पुरुष-ज्ञानम्॥
tatas, prātibha-śrāvaṇa-vedanā-ādarśa-āsvāda-vārttā, √jan.
From that saṃyama for the sake of the self may arise various degrees of powers of the light of intelligence, and the activities of hearing, sensation – touch, sight, and taste.

ततस् स्व-अर्थ-संयमात् प्रातिभ-श्रावण-वेदन-आदर्श-आस्वाद-वार्त्ताः बुद्धि-शक्तिः श्रवणस्य स्पर्शनस्य दर्शनस्य रसनस्य घ्राणस्य इन्द्रिय-शक्तयः च, अथवा वार्त्तः वृत्ति-इत्यर्थे ततस् चतुर्-इन्द्रिय-वृत्ति-शक्तयः इत्यर्थः जायन्ते
tad, samādhi, upasarga, vyutthāna, siddhi.
Though being siddhis (superpowers) in the active mind outside of contemplation, these are, or may be, impediments [or secondary] in final progress in samādhi.

ते प्रातिभ-आदि-शक्ति-रूपाः पुरुष-ज्ञान-अर्थ-समाधौ उपसर्गाः प्रतिबन्धकाः यदि भोगार्थाः एव, अथवा अधिकाः एव प्रतिबन्ध-रहिताः, भोग-अर्थे व्युत्थाने अ-निरोध-चित्ते तु प्रयोजनवत्यः सिद्धयः
bandha-kāraṇa-śaithilya, pracāra-saṃvedana, ca, citta, para-śarīra-āveśa.
From the loosening of the cause of bondage to this body and from fully understanding the travel of the mind to new embodiments, there may be the entering of the mind into another body of the next life, perhaps even in this life, if one goes by the stories.

बन्ध-कारण-शैथिल्यात् इदम्-शरीर-बन्ध-कारण-मोचनात् अभिनिवेश-क्लेश-मोचनात् च प्राचुर्येण प्रचार-संवेदनात् उदान-आदि-जीव-यात्रा-ज्ञानात् च चित्तस्य पुनर्-जन्मनि “योगिनाम् एव कुले” (BhG.6.42) पर-शरीर-आवेशः
udāna-jaya, jala-paṅka-kaṇṭaka-ādi, a-saṅga, utkrānti, ca.
From mastering the upward energy in the body there is the power of not getting stuck in water or mud, or by thorns and so on, and the power of ascending out of the body at will.

उदान-जयात् शरीर-त्याग-आदि-उदान-नाम-प्राण-ऊर्ध्व-शक्ति-वशी-करणात् जल-पङ्क-कण्टक-आदिषु अ-सङ्गः अ-निमग्नः मरण-काले उत्क्रान्तिः च
samāna-jaya, jvalana.
From mastering the uniting energy – center directed energy, including digestion in the body – there is glowing of good health in body, senses, and mind.

समान-जयात् उदर-परिपाक-आदि-समान-नाम-प्राणस्य समी-करण-शक्तेः वशी-करणात् ज्वलनं बल-आदि-तेजस्॥
śrotra-ākāśa, saṃbandha-saṃyama, divya, śrotra.
From saṃyama on the connection between the sense of hearing and the element space there is divine hearing – the listening to and the understanding of the cosmic worldview from the scripture, and the pervasive connection between the individual and the universe, including the divine realms therein.

श्रोत्र-आकाशयोः श्रवण-आकाशयोः संबन्ध-संयमात् कार्य-कारण-व्यष्टि-समष्टि-संबन्धे संयमात् दिव्यं श्रोत्रं श्रुति-व्यष्टि-समष्टि-शासन-श्रवणम्॥
kāya-ākāśa, saṃbandha-saṃyama, laghu-tūla-samāpatti, ca, ākāśa, gamana.
From saṃyama on the connection between the body and space, and from contemplation on light cotton, there is movement through space – the free movement, as it were, of the body-space within space, and the free movement of the mind within the space of the heart.

काय-आकाशयोः देह-आकाशयोः संबन्ध-संयमात् कारणमय-कार्यस्य कारणस्य च व्यष्टेः समष्टेः च संबन्धे संयमात् लघु-तूल-समापत्तेः तूल-पिण्ड-आदि-लघु-पद-अर्थ-समापत्तिः तया अपि आकाश-गमनम् आकाशे हि आकाशतया च सर्व-गमनम्, अ-प्रतिबद्ध-चित्तस्य हृद्-आकाशे च॥
bahis, a-kalpitā, vṛtti, mahā-vi-dehā, tatas, prakāśa-āvaraṇa-kṣaya.
Thought directed externally to the nature of the universe that is without error, correctly seeing the limitations as only belonging to the phenomenon, not to oneself, is called the great disembodiment – oneself disembodied of all limitations. From that, the covering of the light of knowledge is removed.

बहिस् पराक्-इन्द्रिय-द्वारेण अ-कल्पिता आत्म-परिच्छेद-विकल्पना-रहिता बुद्धि-वृत्तिः महा-वि-देहा अत्यन्त-देह-विमुक्ता, ततस् प्रकाश-आवरण-क्षयः विद्या-प्रतिबन्द-क्षयः॥
sthūla-sva-rūpa-sūkṣma-anvaya-arthavattva-saṃyama, bhūta-jaya.
From saṃyama on the significance of the connection between the gross, the subtle, and its own real nature – the latter sub-rating the prior, there is mastery over the created universe, through this mature, objective understanding of realities, wherein one appreciates one’s reality as the reality that swallows, subsumes, all.

स्थूल-स्व-रूप-सूक्ष्म-अन्वय-अर्थवत्त्व-संयमात् स्थूल-रूपं स्व-रूपं सूक्ष्म-रूपं च तेषां समन्वयस्य तत्त्वे संयमात् – स्थूल-रूपं सूक्ष्मेण स्व-काल-बाधितं सूक्ष्म-रूपं च स्व-रूपेण स्व-काल-बोधितम् इत्यर्थः (YS.1.42–44) भूत-जयः सर्व-स्थूल-सूक्ष्म-भूत-वशी-करणम्॥
tatas, aṇima-ādi-prādur-bhāva, kāya-saṃpad, tad-dharma-an-abhighāta, ca.
From that mastery, in terms of knowledge, becomes evident what is from the smallest to the largest – namely, the self – as well as the attainment of the body of the universe itself, and that body’s nature cannot be assailed by anything.

ततस् स्थूल-सूक्ष्म-भूत-जयात्, भूत-व्यापनात् भूत-अत्ययनात् च अणिम-आदि-प्रादुर्-भावः अति-सूक्ष्मता-अति-महत्ता-आदि-आख्या-स्व-रूप-आत्म-दर्शनं, काय-संपद् जगत्-काय-लाभः जगत्-स्व-रूपतया तद्-धर्म-अन्-अभिघातः सर्व-जगत्-स्व-रूप-लाभात् न अन्येन अभिघातः बादितः भवेत्, यस्मात् सर्व-आत्मनः अन्यद् न किम्-चन स्थूल-जगत्-जयः इत्यर्थः॥
rūpa-lāvaṇya-bala-vajra-saṃhananatva, kāya-saṃpad.
And there is the attainment in terms of knowledge of all bodies that are shapely, beautiful, strong, and hard as diamond [cf. YS.2.37].

रूप-लावण्य-बल-वज्र-संहननत्वानि सु-रूप-प्रिय-बल-वज्र-इव-दृढत्वानि जगत्-सर्व-काय-रूपाणि ईश्वर-विभूतित्वानि काय-संपद् सर्व-जगत्-काय-लाभः, क्षेत्र-लाभः क्षेत्र-ज्ञतया (BhG.13.1–6)॥
grahaṇa-sva-rūpa-asmitā-anvaya-arthavattva-saṃyama, indriya-jaya.
From saṃyama on the significance of the connection between the I-notion – the is-ness presence notionally appearing in the landscape of the mind – and its own real nature – the limitless is-ness that is the presence everywhere – in regard to perceiving, there is mastery over the sense organs.

ग्रहण-स्व-रूप-अस्मिता-अन्वय-अर्थवत्त्व-संयमात् इन्द्रिय-ग्रहणे सत्-चित्-स्व-रूपस्य “अहम् अस्मि” इति-बुद्धेः च समन्वयस्य तत्त्वे संयमात्, व्यष्टि-ग्रहण-क्रियायां समष्टि-स्व-रूपस्य प्रतिबन्धि-अ-संभवतायां संयमात् इत्यर्थः इन्द्रिय-जयः इन्द्रिय-वशी-करणं, इन्द्रियाणि अ-प्रतिबन्धकानि, सूक्ष्म-जगत्-जयः इत्यर्थः॥
tatas, manas-javitva, vi-karaṇa-bhāva, pradhāna-jaya, ca.
From that mastery over the sense organs, there is the swiftness of the mind. One exists completely free from the senses, and there is mastery of mother nature, instead of mother nature mastering the senses and mind.

ततस् इन्द्रिय-जयात् मनस्-जवित्वं मनसः तीव्र-संवेगः (YS.1.21), वि-करण-भावः इन्द्रिय-करणेभ्यः विमुक्तिः, प्रधान-जयः अ-व्यक्त-समष्टि-वशी-करणं स्व-रूपतया कारण-जगत्-जयः इत्यर्थः॥
sattva-puruṣa-anyatā-khyāti-mātra, sarva-bhāva-adhiṣṭhātṛtva, sarva-jñātṛtva, ca.
For one who has reached discernment of the distinction between the mind – any object including the mind – and the puruṣa (self), then like/as the Lord, one presides as the reality in all beings, and is the very nature of the knower of all.

सत्त्व-पुरुष-अन्यता-ख्याति-मात्रस्य मनस्-पुरुष-विवेक-ख्यातिः एव यस्य तस्य योगिनः सर्व-भाव-अधिष्ठातृत्वं सर्व-भाव-अस्तित्वं सत्-स्व-रूपत्वं सर्व-ज्ञातृत्वं सर्व-ज्ञप्तित्वं (YS.1.25), चित्-स्व-रूपत्वं परम-पुरुष-स्व-रूपत्वम् इत्यर्थः॥
tad-vai-rāgya, api, doṣa-bīja-kṣaya, kaivalya.
And from non-attachment to that – from no longer identifying with that mind and all other objects, including superpowers and even the teaching as a last crutch, in other words, from ultimate non-attachment (YS.1.15-16 and 1.49-51) – when the defect-seeds – the afflictions in their seed form onwards (YS.2.2 and .4) – are finally withered by this complete knowledge that destroys the ignorance that is the fertile field for these seeds, there is kaivalya (freedom).

तद्-वैराग्यात् सत्त्व-पुरुष-अन्यता-ख्याति-मात्रस्य वैराग्यात्, सर्व-आत्म-भावात् न तु सत्त्व-पुरुष-विवेक-वृत्ति-ज्ञान-मात्रात् इत्यर्थः अपि दोष-बीज-क्षये अ-विद्या-दोष-बीज-क्षये सति कैवल्यं नाम भवति॥
sthāni-upanimantraṇa, saṅga-smaya-a-karaṇa, punar-an-iṣṭa-prasaṅga.
When there is invitation to join from those in high position, no matter what one’s karma brings, there is no reason for attachment or conceit, because attachment and conceit necessitate a return of what would not be chosen.

स्थानि-उपनिमन्त्रणे सु-स्थानिनाम् आवाहने सति सङ्ग-स्मय-अ-करणं बन्धस्य दर्पस्य वा निमित्त-रहितं पुनर्-अन्-इष्ट-प्रसङ्गात् यस्मात् आत्म-अनात्म-विवेकिना बन्ध-दर्प-आदि-दोषाः न एव पुनर् वरितव्याः भवेयुः॥
kṣaṇa-tad-krama, saṃyama, viveka-ja, jñāna.
From saṃyama on the notional reality basis of the moments of time and their sequence, there is knowledge born of discernment between the timeless self and the transactional universe.

क्षण-तद्-क्रमयोः काल-क्षण-स्व-रूपे क्षणानां क्रमे च (YS.4.33) संयमात् काल-बद्ध-जगतः जगत्-स्वरूप-काल-अ-बद्ध-परम-आत्मनः च विवेक-जं ज्ञानं भवति॥
jāti-lakṣaṇa-deśa, anyatā-an-avaccheda, tulya, tatas, pratipatti.
From that knowledge born of discernment of the self in this transactional universe, since there is no real separation of distinction in terms of character, symptom, and place in time – the very ways we carve out dualities are themselves exposed as fleeting notions and their separations and limitations are known to be only apparent – then there is ascertainment of both the mind or universe within time and the self as being the same – the one reality within which the apparent are active.

व्याप्त-दृश्यस्य सर्व-व्यापि-अ-काल-आत्मनः च – जाति-लक्षण-देशैः धर्म-लक्षण-अवस्थाभिः वस्तुतस् देशतस् कालतस् च विकारैः अन्यता-अन्-अवच्छेदात् अन्यतया अ-भेदात्, तुल्ययोः मनस्-पुरुष-अ-द्वितीयस्य, यथा नामधेय-मृद्-घटस्य मृदः च ततस् जगद्-आत्म-विवेकात् प्रतिपत्तिः ज्ञानं सिद्धिः॥
tāraka, sarva-viṣaya, sarvathā-viṣaya, a-krama, ca, iti, viveka-ja, jñāna.
This knowledge, born of discernment of the self from this transactional universe, is said to liberate one from saṃsāra, which is mistaken identification of oneself with the limitations of this transactional universe, includes everything in the universe in everyway, and lacks a progression – since liberation is not a simple gradual feeling of freedom on a relative, sliding scale of reaching in condition, place, and time, but is an absolute and timeless knowledge of what already is, as complete freedom.

तारकं “तरति शोकम् आत्म-विद्” इति (ChanU.7.1.3) येन तद् तारकं ज्ञानं सर्व-विषयं सर्वथा-विषयं सर्व-सर्वथा-जगत्-आत्म-विषयं ज्ञानं अ-क्रमं न तारतम्य-वृत्ति-ज्ञामं स्व-रूप-ज्ञानत्वेन, अपि च काल-अतीत-आत्मनः ज्ञानं च इति विवेक-जं ज्ञानम्
sattva-puruṣa, śuddhi-sāmya, kaivalya, iti.
When there is understanding and assimilation of the pure equality of the mind, including any and all objects, and the puruṣa (self), this is called kaivalya (freedom).

अथ योग-प्रयोजन-स्व-रूपः पुनर्-उक्तः – सत्त्व-पुरुषयोः मनस्-पुरुषयोः दृश्य-दृशोः शुद्धि-साम्ये निर्-उपाधि-स्व-रूप-ऐक्ये अ-द्वितीये सति कैवल्यं केवलस्य एकस्य भावः, अ-द्वैतं सर्व-आत्म-भावेन न तु जगतः एकाकित्वेन नाम इति

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janma-oṣadhi-mantra-tapas-samādhi-jā, siddhi.
The siddhis (superpowers or accomplishments) mentioned in the preceding section can be effected by one’s birth with a fast-track to maturity due to one’s prior efforts, or in this life by healthy herbs, repetition of mantras, austerities, and/or samādhi.

अथ क्लिष्ट-अ-क्लिष्ट-कर्म-आशयं वक्ष्यामः – जन्म-ओषधि-मन्त्र-तपस्-समाधि-जाः पूर्व-जन्म-संस्कारैः चिकित्सा-ओषधिभिः श्रुति-मन्त्र-जप-स्व-अध्ययनाभ्यां तपोभिः विविध-समाधिभिः च संवृद्धाः सिद्धयः “परिणाम-त्रय-संयमात्” इति-आदि-सिद्धयः (YS.3.16–48)॥
jāti-antara-pariṇāma, prakṛti-āpūra.
The change into and within another birth, which may bring these powers, as well as any and all abilities one is capable of in keeping with that embodiment, is due to the filling in of one’s pre-existing nature. In the context of change into a new birth, this filling in is the possibility within one’s entire storehouse of karma; in the context within this birth, this is the subset of latent tendencies one is born with.

जाति-अन्तर-परिणामः तद्-सिद्धि-अर्थ-जन्म-अन्तर-परिणामः प्रकृति-आपूरात् पूर्व-संस्कार-प्रवाहात्॥
nimitta, a-prayojaka, prakṛti, varaṇa-bheda, tu, tatas, kṣetrika-vat.
An efficient cause – one’s current action – is not the instigator of the pre-existing causes – the already existing store of karma rather, like a farmer opening a gate in an irrigation system and removing weeds, there is only the removal of obstacles to them, to the preferred karma pathways possible in this life.

निमित्तं इह अस्मिन् जन्मनि कायिक-वाचिक-मानस-स्व-क्रिया-रूपः नूतन-कर्म-फल-हेतुः अ-प्रयोजकं न प्रवर्तकं प्रकृतीनां इदं-जन्म-अर्थे प्रकृतीनां पूर्व-कर्म-फल-संस्काराणाम्, इह जन्मनि अल्प-आगामि-कर्म न प्रयोजकम् अ-परिमित-सञ्चित-कर्मनः इत्यर्थः, तद्-नूतन-क्रियया प्रायेण वरण-भेदः प्रतिबन्धिक-उच्छेदः एव तु ततस् सु-संस्कारेभ्यः, क्षेत्रिकवत् यथा क्षेत्र-पतिः क्षेत्र-आसेक-पथि प्रसर-स्तम्भनानि उच्छिनत्ति॥
nirmāṇa-citta, asmitā-mātra.
Minds are fashioned purely by a notional-I, identified with actions as the doer and enjoyer, creating new and different karma – adding to and reinforcing the latent tendencies in these minds.

निर्माण-चित्तानि जन्म-क्रमेण कर्म-फल-अनुरूप-देह-चित्त-सङ्घाताः जायन्ते, इदं चित्तं प्रायेण प्रारब्ध-संस्कार-कार्यं न तु संस्कार-कारिकम् इत्यर्थः। प्रयोजका का? – अस्मिता-मात्रात् परिमित-जीवत्व-अभिमानात् एव पूर्व-अ-विद्यायाम्॥
pravṛtti-bheda, prayojaka, citta, eka, an-eka.
When there is distinction of one’s self from activity, hence no doership and no limited I-notion, there is only the one Mind [or self] – the Lord or the limitless consciousness – that instigates all other ones, all other individuals.

प्रवृत्ति-भेदे चित्त-प्रवृत्तेः स्व-परम-आत्मनः विवेके सति, न तु चित्त-प्रवृत्तौ अभिमाने प्रयोजकं प्रेरितारं (SvetU.1.6) चित्तम् एकम् ईश्वर-शक्तिः लिङ्ग-मात्रम् एव (BhG.18.61, YS.2.19), अथवा एकम् एव चैतन्यं प्रति-चित्ततया वर्तमानम् अन्-एकेषां सर्व-अ-विवेकिनाम्॥
tatra, dhyāna-ja, an-āśaya.
In that clear vision of oneness, born of contemplation that brings the clarity and allows assimilation of this teaching, there is no storehouse of karma.

तत्र ऐक्ये ध्यान-जं ध्याने शासनेन विकल्प-परिशुद्धं चित्तम् अन्-आशयं तद्-चित्ते कर्म-आशयवत्त्वं जीवित्वम् अ-विद्या-हेतुत्वात् न विद्यते॥
karma-a-śukla-a-kṛṣṇa, yogin, tri-vidha, itara.
For that yogin (the one who has attained success in yoga) there is neither pure nor impure karmas; for everyone else there is the three fold sattva-rajas-tamas karmas – with their full range from pure to impure.

कर्म-अ-शुक्ल-अ-कृष्णं न एव पुण्यं पापं वा कर्म योगिनः, त्रि-विधं सत्त्व-रजस्-तमांसि कर्माणि इतरेषां अ-विकेकिनां, “अहं कर्ता मम कर्म, अहं भोक्ता मम कर्म-फलम्” इति-बुद्धिमताम्॥
tatas, tad-vipāka-anuguṇa, eva, abhivyakti, vāsanā.
For everyone else, from that store of karmas, there is the manifestation of latent tendencies that are in keeping with the fruition of those karmas alone which are not obstructed.

इतरेषाम् अ-विकेकिनां ततस् कर्म-आशयात् तद्-विपाक-अनुगुणानां कर्म-विपाक-अनुरूपाणाम् एव अ-प्रतिबन्धितानाम् च एव इत्यर्थः (YS.4.3) अभिव्यक्तिः अस्मिन् जन्मनि व्यक्तिः वासनानां संस्कारानाम्॥
jāti-deśa-kāla-vyavahita, api, ān-antarya, smṛti-saṃskāra, eka-rūpatva.
Due to having the same form, there is linkage between memories and their latent impressions that cause them, though the formation of those latent impressions by past karmas are separated from their manifest memories by many, different intervening births, locations, and times.

जाति-देश-काल-व्यवहितानां जन्म-देश-कलभिः वियुक्ताणाम् अपि आन्-अन्तर्यं अन्वयः स्मृति-संस्कारयोः एक-रूपत्वात् यस्मात् दूर-पूर्व-काल-ज-संस्कारस्य तद्-संस्कार-परिपाक-वर्तमान-स्मृतेः च एक-रूपत्वम्॥
tad, an-āditva, ca, āśis, nityatva.
And there is no beginning for these saṃskāras (latent tendencies) because desire that induces will-based action which in turn creates karma is eternal – beginningless.

तासां वासनानां संस्कारानां अन्-आदित्वं न आदिमत्वं , आशिषः नित्यत्वात् यस्मात् संसार-चक्रे हीनता-भावना-रूपस्य संस्कार-हेतु-कामस्य न आदिमत्वम्॥
hetu-phala-āśraya-ālambana, saṃgṛhītatva, etad, a-bhāva, tad-a-bhāva.
Since those saṃskāras (the latent impressions) are held together by their causes starting from ignorance of oneself, initiating a chain of causes, their results which instigate a new round of saṃskāras, their abode – the uninformed mind, and their bases – the physical or subtle objects that form the basis or motive for the saṃskāras, when these four factors have no overvalued existence, then those saṃskāras have no overvalued existence.

संस्काराणां हेतु-फल-आश्रय-आलम्बनैः संगृहीतत्वात् यस्मात् स्वस्य हेतु-रूप-अ-विद्या-काम-कर्मभिः फल-रूप-कार्यः आश्रय-रूप-चित्त-कार्यः आलम्बन-रूप-विषय-कार्यः च निमित्तत्वं, एषां हेतु-आदि-व्यक्त-निमित्तानाम् अधीनत्वानाम् अ-नित्यत्वानाम् अ-भावे अ-परम-सत्तायां परम-सत्ता-अपेक्षामात्रे सति, तद्-अ-भावः अ-व्यक्त-संस्काराणाम् अपि न परम-सत्ता॥
atīta-an-āgata, sva-rūpatas, as, adhva-bheda, dharma.
The past and the future exist in their own form as different notions in the mind, because of the difference in the path of their characteristics.

अथ भूत-भवत्-भविष्यत्-स्व-रूप-विषयः (YS.3.16, 3.52) परिसमाप्तः – अतीत-अन्-आगतं भूत-भविष्यत्-कालः (“अन्यत्र भूतात् च भव्यात् च” इति KathU.1.2.14) स्व-रूपतस् पूर्व-भवत्-कालस्य भवत्-स्मृति-रूपतया भविष्यत्-नाम-कालस्य भवत्-कल्पना-रूपतया च अस्ति वर्तते, अध्व-भेदात् धर्माणां यस्मात् स्व-व्यक्ति-कर्म-पथ्योः धर्म-भेदाः॥
tad, vyakta-sūkṣma, guṇa-ātman.
These times exist as the manifest – as the manifest present – and subtle – as the subtle thought of a past and future – natures of their characteristics.

ते भूत-भवत्-भविष्यत्-कालाः व्यक्त-सूक्ष्माः, तौ भूत-भविष्यत्-कालौ भवत्-काले एव सन्तौ भूत-स्मृतितया भविष्यत्-कल्पनातया च सूक्ष्म-वृत्ती, भवत्-कालः तु एव व्यक्तः, ते कालाः गुणात्मानः स्व-गुण-अनुरूपाः॥
pariṇāma-ekatva, vastu-tattva.
The reality of an entity is due to the oneness of its various modifications.

अथ वस्तु-स्व-रूपं चित्त-स्व-रूपं च वक्ष्यामः – परिणाम-एकत्वात् स्व-कार्य-परिणाम-कल्पनानाम् एक-स्व-रूपत्वात्, यथा स्वर्ण-मृद्-आदि स्व-कार्याणि च वस्तु-तत्त्वं किम्-चित्-वस्तुनः एक-सत्ता, अतस् सर्व-कार्य-एकत्वं परम-ईश्वर-एक-कारणम् एव परम-आत्मा परम-सत्ता॥
vastu-sāmya, citta-bheda, tad, vibhakta, panthan.
Though there is a oneness of an entity, because of different thoughts about that one entity, there is a separate karma path for the two – the object and the thought of the object.

वस्तु-साम्ये वस्तुनः एकत्वे यदि अपि सति, चित्त-भेदात् एक-वस्तौ अन्-एक-चित्त-वृत्तीनां भेदात् तयोः वस्तुनः चित्त-वृत्तेः च विभक्तः भिन्नः पन्थाः व्यक्ति-कर्म-मार्गः वस्तु-निमित्त-मार्गः चित्त-वृत्ति-मार्गः च भिन्नौ, तस्मात् वस्तुनः चित्त-वृत्तीनां पृथक्-रूपत्वम् इत्यर्थः॥
na, ca, eka-citta-tantra, vastu, tad, a-pramāṇaka, tadā, kim, √as.
Nor is an object totally dependent on – only equal to – a single thought of it. Were that ever to be the case, that object, being unique and momentary, would never have a means of knowing it as true or false – as being verifiable.

न च एक-चित्त-तन्त्रं एक-वस्तु न च वस्तु स्वस्य एक-चित्त्त-वृत्तिः एव इत्यर्थः, तद् एवं-भूतं वस्तु अ-प्रमाणकं स्व-तन्त्र-प्रमा-करण-रहितं तदा किं स्यात् यदि तद् एकत्वं वस्तुनः तद्-चित्त-वृत्तेः च स्यात्॥
tad-uparāga-apekṣitva, citta, vastu, jñāta-a-jñāta.
From the requirement of its influence on the mind [or thought] – its mutation of the mind – an object becomes known or remains unknown. Therefore, the mind has to distinctly mutate over time for its object to be known.

तद्-उपराग-अपेक्षित्वात् चित्तस्य यस्मात् चित्त-वृत्तेः वस्तु-अनुरूप-परिणामेन अपेक्षित्वं, वस्तु तद्-परिणत-चित्तस्य वृत्त्या ज्ञात-अ-ज्ञातं ज्ञातं भवति अथवा अ-ज्ञातं यदि अ-परिणतं चित्तं स्यात्॥
sadā, jñātā, citta-vṛtti, tad-prabhu, puruṣa-a-pariṇāmitva.
Though the mutation of the mind is the form of the knowledge, it is not the knowledge itself, since the thoughts themselves need to be known. Due to the immutability of the puruṣa (self) who is its, the mind’s, master, the thoughts in the mind are always known.

सदा तु एव ज्ञाताः चित्त-वृत्तयः, तद्-प्रभोः चित्त-प्रभोः पुरुषस्य अ-परिणामित्वात् वृत्ति-ज्ञाने पुरुष-चैतन्यं निस्-आयासेन वृत्ति-प्रकाशकं न एव परिणमते, यथा राज-शक्ति-सन्निधौ एव राज-सेवकाः कुर्वन्ति॥
na, tad, sva-ābhāsa, dṛśyatva.
Nor is it, the mind – each thought in the flow called the mind – self-revealing, because it has the nature of being seen.

न तद् चित्तं स्व-आभासं सर्व-स्व-वृत्ति-रूप-आभासं, दृश्यत्वात् यस्मात् ज्ञातम् अ-ज्ञातम् अपि च व्यक्तं अ-व्यक्तम् अपि च दृश्यं, यथा सर्व-वस्तूनि॥
eka-samaya, ca, ubhaya-an-avadhāraṇa.
And at the same moment, there is no ascertainment of both the object and the thought, for example, “this is a pot” and “this is a thought about a pot” – one or the other disappears in attention. Therefore, thought cannot always be self-revealing itself.

एक-समये सम-काले च उभय-अन्-अवधारणं स्व-वृत्ति-रूपस्य स्व-वस्तु-रूपस्य च उभयोः न अवधारणं, यथा “इयं घट-वृत्तिः” इति “इदं घटः” इति च वृत्ती॥
citta-antara-dṛśya, buddhi-buddhi, ati-prasaṅga, smṛti-saṅkara, ca.
In the case of a thought becoming an object of another following thought in order to be known, there is an over necessity – a logically vicious infinite series, infinite progression – of cognitions of cognitions, and there would be confusion with memories, which would be required, but could not even exist, for this endless series to continue.

चित्त-अन्तर-दृश्ये अपर-चित्त-वृत्त्या पूर्व-चित्त-वृत्तेः दृश्ये यदि अपि सति, बुद्धि-बुद्धेः अपर-बुद्धि-वृत्त्या पूर्व-बुद्धि-वृत्तेः अति-प्रसङ्गः अन्-अन्त-वश्यकता, न कदा-चिद् का-चिद् वृत्तिः ज्ञाता इत्यर्थः, स्मृति-सङ्करः प्रमाण-वृत्तित्वेन स्मृति-वृत्ति-सङ्करः (YS.1.7, 1.11), न च अपि का-चिद् स्मृतिः ज्ञाता इति अति-प्रसङ्गात्
citi, a-pratisaṃkrama, tad-ākāra-āpatti, sva-buddhi-saṃvedana.
The unchanging consciousness has the knowledge of its cognition when it seems to take the form of that cognition.

चितेः अ-प्रतिसंक्रमायाः अ-परिणाम-चैतन्यस्य सर्व-व्यापक-सत्-चितः च अपि तद्-आकार-आपत्तौ चित्त-वृत्ति-रूप-व्याप्तौ सत्यां स्व-बुद्धि-संवेदनं स्व-वृत्ति-ज्ञानम्॥
draṣṭṛ-dṛśya-uparakta, citta, sarva-artha.
The mind, affected by the limited seen and the presence of the limitless witness – limitless existence-consciousness – has everything, the entire known and unknown universe, as its object.

द्रष्टृ-दृश्य-उपरक्तं अ-लुप्त-दृक्-सन्निधौ प्रकाशितं दृश्य-वस्तु-अनुरूप-परिणतं च चित्तं सर्व-अर्थं किम्-चिद् वस्तु जानीयात् इत्यर्थः॥
tad, a-saṃkhyeya-vāsanā, citra, api, para-artha, saṃhatya-kāritva.
That mind, though diverse – consisting of parts, through the countless old and new latent tendencies, seemingly adjusting itself – is for another, not for itself, since it acts like it is being put together – is a construction with a foundation and new additions, like a house made for its occupant.

तद् चित्तम् अ-संख्येय-वासनाभिः अ-गण्य-संस्कारैः चित्रं विविधम् अपिपर-अर्थम् अन्य-अर्थं न स्व-अर्थं स्थूल-सूक्ष्म-शरीर-स्थ-जीव-अर्थम् एव इत्यर्थः संहत्य-कारित्वात् यथा निर्मित्त-गृहं गृह-स्थ-अर्थं सर्वं स्थूल-सूक्ष्म-जगत् चित्त-सहितं पर-तन्त्रं न तु परम-अर्थ-सत्यम् इत्यर्थः॥
viśeṣa-darśin, ātma-bhāva-bhāvanā-vinivṛtti.
For the one who knows as clear as seeing the distinction of the witness self from the mind there is cessation of imagining the mind being ātman (oneself).

अथ ज्ञानम् एव कैवल्यं वक्ष्यामः – विशेष-दर्शिनः आत्म-अन्-आत्म-विवेकिनः आत्म-भाव-भावना-विनिवृत्तिः आत्मतया स-परिणाम-दृश्य-चित्त-कल्पनायाः निवृत्तिः, आत्मनः अ-परिणामित्वात् (YS.4.18)॥
tadā, viveka-nimna, kaivalya-prāk-bhāra, citta.
Then the mind surrenders to this discernment and has freedom before it.

तदा अन्-आत्मनः आत्म-भाव-भावना-विनिवृत्तौ विवेक-निम्नं विकेक-ज्ञान-परिणतं सत् कैवल्य-प्राक्-भारं चित्तं कैवल्य-अभि-मुखं चित्तं, यद् सर्व-विषयं सर्वथा-विषयं विवेक-जं ज्ञानं (YS.3.54) तद् कैवल्य-ज्ञानम् इत्यर्थः॥
tad-chidra, pratyaya-antara, saṃskāra.
When there are cracks in that discerning knowledge, those different thoughts are to be known as born of the latent tendencies in the mind, laid down by prior ignorance.

तद्-छिद्रेषु विवेक-भङ्गेषु सत्सु प्रत्यय-अन्तराणि अ-विकेकाः क्लेश-व्यक्त-प्रत्ययाः भवेयुः संस्कारेभ्यः यस्मात् ते प्रत्ययाः क्लेश-अ-व्यक्त-संस्कार-जाः॥
hāna, etad, kleśa-vat, ukta.
Their, the ignorant saṃskāras’, giving up is like that said (YS.2.10–11) for the afflictions.

हानं त्यागः एषाम् अ-विवेक-संस्काराणां व्यक्त-क्लेशवद् उक्तम् (YS.2.10–11, 4.11)॥
prasaṃkhyāna, api, a-kusīda, sarvathā, viveka-khyāti, dharma-megha, samādhi.
For one who even has no interest in any way in the pleasurable meditation process, including secondary benefits, and who has discerning knowledge, samādhi (contemplation) is a mass of support.

प्रसंख्याने ध्याने सुख-स्थाने अपि अ-कुसीदस्य अ-प्रयोगिनः (YS.3.36–37) मोक्ष-अर्थित्वात् सर्वथा विवेक-ख्यातेः विवेक-ज्ञानेन धर्म-मेघः धारयति इति धर्म तस्य धर्मस्य योनिः समाधिः समाधीयते यस्मिन् इति समाधिः, निस्-बीज-समाधिः निवृत्त-अ-ज्ञान-बीज-समाधिः द्रष्टृ-स्व-रूप-परम-आत्म-अवस्थानम्॥
tatas, kleśa-karma-nivṛtti.
From that discerning knowledge there is cessation of afflictions and results of action that seem to bind the individual.

ततस् समाधेः क्लेश-कर्म-निवृत्तिः इह एव अ-विद्या-आदि-क्लेशानां च देह-पतने पुनर्-जन्म-हेतु-कर्म-आशयस्य च निवृत्तिः॥
tadā, sarva-āvaraṇa-mala-apeta, jñāna, ān-antya, jñeya, alpa.
Then, for the one whose impurities that cover everything have all gone away – have become transparently unreal – what is to be known is insignificant because one’s knowledge is limitless.

तदा क्लेश-कर्म-निवृत्तौ सर्व-आवरण-मल-अपेतस्य आत्म-तत्त्व-आवरण-अ-विद्या-मल-विगतस्य ज्ञानिनः – परम-आत्म-ज्ञानस्य आन्-अन्त्यात् परिपूर्णात् – सर्व-विषय-ज्ञानं ज्ञेयम् अल्पं अ-पुरुष-अर्थकं, विलासि एव न तु अवश्यकं, सर्व-विषय-ज्ञानस्य परम-पुरुष-अर्थ-मोक्ष-परिसमाप्तिमत्त्वात्॥
tatas, kṛta-artha, pariṇāma-krama-samāpti, guṇa.
From that, when the guṇas (constituents of nature) in the form of this embodiment and its karma, have completed their purpose – the wisdom is gained, nothing more needs to be known, and the karma that brought the physical embodiment has played out – then the sequence of their changes comes to an end.

ततस् आन्-अन्त्य-ज्ञानात् कृत-अर्थानां इदानीं जन्मनि परम-पुरुष-अर्थ-कृतानां परिणाम-क्रम-समाप्तिः प्रान्त-परिणाम-क्रमस्य समाप्तिः गुणानाम्
kṣaṇa-prati-yogin, pariṇāma-apara-anta-nirgrāhya, krama.
Sequence is associated with moments of time, which only exist for the guṇas not the puruṣa, and can only be assumed to exist at the other end of a change, of which the puruṣa has none (YS.4.18).

क्षण-प्रति-योगी प्रति-काल-क्षणैः सम्बन्धी परिणाम-अपर-अन्त-निर्ग्राह्यः परिणामस्य प्रान्ते कल्प्यः क्रमः गुण-परिणाम-अन्वयः यस्मात् भूत-भविष्यत्-क्षणाः कल्पनाः (YS.4.12) तस्मात् क्रमः अपि कल्पना (YS.3.52), तथा परिणाम-क्रमः जन्म-मरण-क्रमः अपि कल्पना इत्यर्थः (YS.1.9)॥
puruṣa-artha-śūnya, guṇa, pratiprasava, kaivalya, sva-rūpa-pratiṣṭhā, vā, citi-śakti, iti.
When they serve no more purpose for the puruṣa (person), the guṇas (constituents of nature) – the elements that make up this embodiment and this universe – return to their origin without identifying with and thus limiting the person. This is kaivalya (freedom). Otherwise, positively it is known as the pure power of consciousness remaining in its own nature, always beyond time, beyond change (YS.1.03)

पुरुष-अर्थ-शून्यानां गुणानां कर्म-आशय-रूप-गुणाः पुरुषस्य अ-प्रयोजकाः तेषां गुणानां प्रतिप्रसवः अ-व्यक्ते प्रलयं देह-पतनात् ऊर्ध्वम् (YS.4.32), अथवा इह एव प्रतिप्रसवः व्यावहारिक-शरीर-रूपत्वेन अवस्थानम् एव तद्-पारम-अर्थिक-सत्ता-आरोपेण विना (YS.1.4, 2.5) कैवल्यं अभिधीयते, स्व-रूप-प्रतिष्ठा इह एव द्रष्टृ-स्व-रूप-अवस्थानं (YS.1.3) वा चिति-शक्तिः चैतन्य-स्व-रूपः एव इति कैवल्यम् अभिधीयते, इति योग-सूत्राणि समाप्तानि च॥

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ओं, पूर्ण॒म् अदः॒ पूर्ण॒म् इदं॒ पूर्णा॒त् पूर्ण॒म् उद॒च्यते।
पूर्ण॒स्य पूर्ण॒म् आदा॒य पूर्ण॒म् एवावशि॒ष्यते।
ओं शा॒न्तिः शा॒न्तिः शा॒न्तिः॥

Om; pūrṇa, adas, pūrṇa, idam, pūrna, pūrṇa, ud-√añc.
pūrṇa, pūrṇa, ādāya, pūrṇa, eva, ava-√śiṣ.
Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.

॥इति योग-सूत्राणि समाप्तानि॥