Bhagavad Gītā Dictionary

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Abbreviations <End Key>

The following entries serve as a dictionary of all the words in the 700 + 1 verses of the Śrīmad Bhagavad Gītā, including the short statements after each of the chapters. Each entry is listed alphabetically according to the Deva-nāgarī alphabet (अ-ह) here. These entries are condensed – similar to most dictionaries. See the explanation of some sample entries here. The best font to show this text is Siddhanta1.ttf font, downloadable from UpasanaYoga.

*** अ — A ***

 अच  अत  अद  अन  अना  अनु  अने  अप 

 अभ  अभ्य  अय  अल  अव्य  अस  अह  आ→ 

a prn. stem for इदम् this (4.8:), also used in forming some particles, e.g., अत्र a-tra in this.

a neg. pcl. in cmpd. ॰- 6.33: before cons. (अन् before vowels) अ-भावे not, absence of, lacking, ॰रहित without, -less, free from-; मुक्ते free from- (i.e., even though not withoutstill not affected by, indifferent to; also unconnected with as in one who awakens is unconnected with what happened in dream, whose subjective happenings belong to another order of reality than the objective waking world); विरोधे opposed to, opposite of; अन्यार्थे other than, un-; अल्पार्थे inadequately; दुःखेन difficult; अधिक्षेपे in the sense of derision, meaning bad, wrong.

अंश aṃśa (a̍ṃśa) m. (2.104:) एक-देश apart, a fraction, (in regard to a partless whole, an अंश would be) an aspect (i.e., one of the ways in which a whole may be viewed or contemplated, भ॰गी॰१५.७).

अंशु aṃśu (aṃśu̍) m. (2.104:) किरण ray of light. ॰मत् -mat a. अंशवः रश्मयः अस्य अस्ति having rays; m. सूर्य the sun.

अकर्तृ a-kartṛ (a-kar-tṛ) m. (fr. √कृ करणे do) न कारकः not a doer, not an agent of action, not a maker, not an author, कर्तृत्वम् अ-भावः absence of doership.

अकर्मन् a-karman (a-kar-man) n. (fr. √कृ करणे do) अ-करण not doing, inaction; कर्माभाव actionlessness. अकर्म a-karma in cmpd. ॰-, (6.29:). ॰कृत् -kṛt a. (6.24:) न कर्म करोति not doing action.

अकल्मष a-kalmaṣa (a-kalmaṣa) a. धर्माधर्मादि-वर्जित free from impurities (such as karmic merit or demerit, etc.).

अकार a-kāra (a-kār-a) m. (fr. √कृ करणे do) अ-इति वर्णः the sound or letter a ().

अकार्य a-kārya (a-kār-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √कृ करणे do 6.8:) अ-कर्तव्य not to be done. अकार्य a-kārya n. अ-कर्तव्य-कर्मन् misdeed.

अकीर्ति a-kīrti (a-kīrt-i) f. (fr. √कीर्त् संशब्दने proclaim) अ-यशस् ill-fame, dishonor. ॰कर -kara a. अ-कीर्तिं करोति producing ill-fame; न कीर्तिं करोति not producing honor.

अकुशल a-kuśala (a-kuś-a-la) a. (कुश a grass used for sacred rituals fr. √कुश् संश्लेषे encircle) अ-युक्त improper, अ-शोभन inauspicious.

अकृत a-kṛta (a-kṛ-ta) pp. (of √कृ करणे do) not done, unaccomplished, unprepared; not doing. ॰आत्मन् -ātman a. अ-कृतः अ-संस्कृतः आत्मा अन्तःकरणं येन with an unprepared mind. ॰बुद्धित्व -buddhitva n. न कृता बुद्धिः येन तस्य भाव being one with an unprepared mind.

अकृत्स्न a-kṛtsna (a̍-kṛt-sna) a. (fr. √कृत् वेष्टने surround) न स-कलः incomplete. ॰विद् -vid a. (6.24:) अ-कृत्स्ना प्रज्ञा यस्य whose knowledge is incomplete (without self-knowledge [आत्म-ज्ञान]).

अक्रिय a-kriya (a-kri-ya) a. (fr. √कृ करणे do 2.70:) अनग्नि-साधनाः अपि अ-विद्यमानाः क्रियाः तपो-दानादिकाः यस्य who has stopped doing (other) practices or duties (not involving a ritual fire, such as prayful disciplines and charity, भ॰गी॰६.१).

अक्रोध a-krodha (a̍-krodh-a) m. (fr. √क्रुध् कोपे be angry) क्रोधस्य उपशमनम् resolution of anger (accomplished by inquiring into and management of one’s mechanical thinking based on one’s history of built-up notions of limitations, which get triggered by almost any current event, भ॰गी॰१६.२).

अक्लेद्य a-kledya (a-kled-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of cs. √क्लिद् आर्द्री-भावे become wet 6.8:) cannot be made wet.

अक्ष akṣa (akṣ-a) m. (fr. √अक्ष् व्याप्तौ reach) द्यूत-साधन a die used in gambling, पाशकादि playing dice or other forms of gambling; रथावयवः चक्रः च an axis or chariot axle, also a wheel; m. n. इन्द्रिय sense organ, in cmpd. -॰ चक्षुस् (अक्षि) eye.

अक्षय a-kṣaya (a-kṣay-a) a. (fr. √क्षि क्षये decline) अपचय-रहित does not decrease, does not (wax or) wane, unending.

अक्षर a-kṣara (a-kṣa̍r-a) a. (fr. √क्षर् सञ्चलने flow) न क्षरति इति अ-क्षरः अ-विनाशी imperishable. अक्षर a-kṣara m. ईश्वर the Lord. अक्षर a-kṣara n. अ-कारादि-वर्ण letter of alphabet, syllable; ब्रह्मन् (the imperishable) reality (called brahman). ॰ब्रह्मयोग -brahma-yoga a. अ-क्षर-ब्रह्म इति योगः प्रकरणं यस्य whose topic is the imperishable reality. ॰समुद्भव -samudbhava a. ईश्वरात् समुद्भवः उत्पत्तिः यस्य born of the Lord.

अक्षि akṣi (a̍kṣ-i) n. (fr. √अक्ष् व्याप्तौ reach) (f. ) नेत्र eye.

अखिल a-khila (a-khila) a. अ-छिद्र without a gap, समग्र entire, all, complete, in entirety.

अगत a-gata (a-ga[m]-ta) pp. (of √गम् चरणे go 6.6:) not gone. ॰असु -asu (a-gata-asu̍) a. न गताः असवः प्राणाः यस्मात् from whom the life’s breath(s) is not (yet) gone, अ-गत-प्राण not (yet) dead.

अग्नि agni (a[ṅ]g-ni̍) m. (fr. √अङ्ग् गतौ move [upward]) ज्वलन fire; अग्नि-देवता the deity that is fire; अग्नि-भूत one of the five basic elements called fire (tāpa-prakāśa [heat and light], i.e., energy).

अग्र agra (a̍[ṅ]g-ra) n. (fr. √अङ्ग् गतौ move [upward]) उपरि-भाग top part, tip, point; पूर्व-भाग front part, beginning; प्रधान main thing.

अघ् agh √10.U. पाप-करणे go wrong.

अघ agha (agh-a̍) n. (fr. √अघ् पाप-करणे go wrong) पाप karmic demerit; अपराध transgression. ॰आयुस् -āyus a. पापं जीवनं यस्य whose life is (mostly the result of and productive of) karmic demerit.

अङ्क् aṅk √1.Ā. लक्षणे mark.

अङ्क aṅka (aṅk-a̍) m. (fr. √अङ्क् लक्षणे mark) चिह्न mark, sign; समीप proximity, side, lap; नाटक-परिच्छेद an act in a play.

अङ्ग् aṅg √1.P. गतौ move.

अङ्ग aṅga (a̍ṅg-a) n. (fr. √अङ्ग् गतौ move) देह body; अवयव limb, member; अ-प्रधान secondary part; उपाय means, resource.


अचर a-cara (a-car-a) a. (fr. √चर् गतौ move) न चरति इति not moving, what does not move.

अचल a-cala (a-cal-a) a. (fr. √चल् कम्पने shake) न चलति इति does not move, immovable, still, steady, firm. ॰प्रतिष्ठ -pratiṣṭha a. अ-चला प्रतिष्ठा अवस्थिति यस्य whose base is unmoving.

अचापल a-cāpala (a-cāp-al[a]-a) n. (fr. √चप् परिकल्पने tremble) अ-सति प्रयोजने वाक्पाणि-पादादीनाम् अ-व्यापारयितृत्वम् absence of physical agitation (meaningless activity of speech, hands, feet, etc.).

अचिन्त्य a-cintya (a-cint-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √चिन्त् स्मृत्याम् mentally reflect upon) मनो-विषयत्वम् अ-योग्यः cannot be an object of the mind, not an object of thought. ॰रूप -rūpa a. अस्य रूपं न चिन्तयितुं शक्य्ते whose form cannot be comprehended.

अचिर a-cira (a-ci-ra) a. (fr. √चि सङ्ग्रहणे gather) अल्प-काल-स्थायिन् existing for a short period of time, momentary; नचिरः no delay, immediate. ॰एण -eṇa (inst. ॰रेण) in. क्षिप्रम् shortly; अनन्तरम् immediately.

अचेतस् a-cetas (a-cet-a̍s) a. (fr. √चित् सञ्ज्ञाने understand) अ-विवेकिन् non-discerning.

अच्छेद्य a-cchedya (a-cched-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √छिद् द्वैधी-करणे sever 6.8: & 2.60:) cannot be cut.

अच्युत a-cyuta (a-cyu-ta) m. (fr. pp. of √च्यु गतौ waver) च्युतिः व्यभिचारः न अस्ति यस्य (Lord Kṛṣṇa) one who is free from change.

अज् aj √1.P. गतौ move; क्षेपणे throw, drive.

अज a-ja (a-ja̍) a. (fr. √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born 6.24.3:) न जायते इति not born, unborn, not an effect. अज a-ja (aj-a̍) m. (fr. √अज् क्षेपणे drive) छाग goat.

अजय a-jaya (a̍-jay-a) m. (fr. √जि लाभे be victorious) न विजयः non-victory, loss.

अजस्र a-jasra (a̍-jas-ra) a. (fr. √जस् ग्लाने be exhausted Vedic) सन्तत continuous, विच्छेद-रहित uninterrupted. ॰म् -m (acc.) in. सततम् continually.

अजानत् a-jānat (a-jā-n-at) pr. pt. (of √ज्ञा अवबोधने know 5.23.2:) न जानन् not knowing.

अजिन ajina (aj-[a]-i̍na) n. चर्मन् hide, skin (of an animal).

अज्ञ a-jña (a-jña) a. (fr. √ज्ञा अवबोधने know 6.24.1:) अ-ज्ञानिन् ignorant; अ-विवेकिन् non-discerning.

अज्ञान a-jñāna (a-jñā-ana) n. (fr. √ज्ञा अवबोधने know) न ज्ञानम् not knowledge, ignorance, अ-विवेक lack of discernment, तत्त्वाज्ञान not discerning reality; ज्ञान-विरोध what is opposed to knowledge, ज्ञान-साधन-विरोध an obstacle to the means for gaining knowledge. ॰ज -ja a. (6.24.3:) अ-विवेकात् जातः born of a lack of discernment. ॰विमोहित -vimohita a. अ-ज्ञानेन विविधम् अ-विवेक-भावम् आपन्नः become variously lacking in discernment due to ignorance. ॰सम्भूत -sambhūta a. अ-ज्ञानात् अ-विवेकात् जातः born of a lack of discernment. ॰सम्मोह -sammoha m. अ-ज्ञान-निमित्तः सम्मोहः अ-विवेकः delusion caused by ignorance.

अञ्च् añc √1.P. गतौ go; पूजने worship.

अञ्ज् añj √7.P. (pp. अक्त 6.6: & 2.81:) व्यक्तौ (प्रत्यक्षे) be manifest; विलेपने anoint; अलं-कारे adorn. वि॰ vi- (व्य॰) be manifest, etc.

अञ्जलि añjali (añj-ali̍) m. (fr. √अञ्ज् व्यक्तौ be manifest) संयुत-कर-पुट cupping the two hands together (in supplication – acknowledging the divinity manifest as the other).

अण् aṇ √1.P. शब्दार्थे sound.

अण् aṇ √4.Ā. प्राणने breathe.

अणीयस् aṇīyas (aṇ-ī-yas) cpv. a. (fr. √अण् sound or breathe, or fr. अणु small 6.25:) सूक्ष्मतर smaller, subtler.

अणु aṇu (a̍ṇ-u) a. (fr. √अण् शब्दार्थे sound or प्राणने breathe) सूक्ष्म small, subtle (in two aspects: antaḥ-stha [small and hence in-most, central, elemental, basic, or substrative]; and dur-vijñeya [difficult to grasp or understand]). अणु aṇu n. सूक्ष्म-परिमाण the smallest perceptible quantity.


अत् at √1.P. सातत्य-गमने go continuously, wander.

अतत्त्व a-tattva (a-tat-tva) n. न तथ्य not as it is, न सत्यम् non-reality. ॰अर्थवत् -arthavat a. यथा-भूतः अर्थः तत्त्वार्थः सः अस्य ज्ञेय-भूतः अस्ति इति तत्त्वार्थवान् न तत्त्वार्थवान् without truth (i.e., without knowing a thing as it is).

अतन्द्रित a-tandrita (a-tandr-i-ta) pp. (of den. √तन्द्रय 6.6: fr. तन्द्रा आलस्य 5.43:) not wearied, not lazy.

अतपस्क a-tapaska (a-tap-as-ka̍) (6.39: बहु-व्रीहि from नञ्-तत्पुरुषः with suffix redundantly added to unusual final अस्) a. (fr. √तप् सन्तापे be hot) अ-विद्यमानं तपः यस्य who has no prayerful discipline.

अतस् atas (a̍-tas) in. (6.19:) अस्मात् from this, because of this, ततः therefore. अतः ऊर्ध्वम् ataḥ ūrdhvam in. thereupon. अतः परम् ataḥ param in. hereafter.

अति ati in. prefix and in cmpd. ॰- अतिशये very, exceedingly, too; उपरि over, beyond.

अतिनीच atinīca (ati-nīc-a) a. (नीच् is weak base of न्यच् downward 3.25:) अतीव अधः-स्थः too low.

अतिमान atimāna (ati-mān-a̍) m. (fr. √मन् चिन्तायाम् think) अत्यर्थंमानः exaggerated self-opinion.

अतिमानिता atimānitā (ati-mān-i[n]-t[a]-ā) f. (fr. √मन् चिन्तायाम् think) अत्यर्थं मानः अतिमानः सः यस्य विद्यते सः अतिमानी तद्भावः अतिमानिता an exaggerated self-opinion, demanding respect from others (see nātimānitā).

अतिरिच्यते atiricyate (ati-ric-ya-te) ps. pr. 3rd sg. (of √रिच् निःसारणे leave) (he/she/it/who) is worse than (w/acc., abl.).

अतिस्वप्न atisvapna (ati-sva̍p-na) a. (fr. √स्वप् शये lie down) अतीवस्वप्नः यस्य who sleeps too much. ॰शील -śīla a. अति स्वप्तुं शीलं यस्य who has a habit of sleeping too much.

अतीत atīta (ati-i-ta) pp. (of √इ गतौ go/reach), अतिक्रम्य गतः gone beyond, out of reach, exceed(ed), transcended; मृत passed away, died.

अतीत्य atītya (ati-i-tya) in. pt. (of √इ गतौ go/reach 6.9:) अतिक्रम्य going beyond, crossing over, exceeding, transcending.

अतीन्द्रिय atīndriya (ati-ind-r[a]-iya) a. (fr. √इन्द् परमैश्वर्ये have great power) इन्द्रिय-गोचरातीत beyond (not within) the scope of the senses.

अतीव atīva (ati-iva) in. अत्यन्तम् exceedingly.

अत्यद्भुत atyadbhuta (aty-ad[i]-bhu-ta) a. (irreg. form fr. अति + अति + √भू सत्तायाम् be 2.43:) अतीव न भूतः very unprecedented, very extraordinary.

अत्यन्त atyanta (aty-ant-a) a. (fr. √अन्त् बन्धने bind, limit) आन्त to the end, complete. ॰म् -m in. (7.8.8:) आन्तम् to the end, completely; निरतिशयम् surpassing, absolute.

अत्यय atyaya (aty-ay-a) m. (fr. √इ गतौ go/reach) अतिक्रमः crossing, stepping over.

अत्यर्थ atyartha (aty-ar-tha) in cmpd. ॰- in. (fr. √ऋ प्रापणे acquire) अतिशयेन very, absolutely. ॰म् -m in. (7.8.8:) अतिशयेन very, absolutely.

अत्यश्नत् atyaśnat (ati-aś-n-at) pr. pt. (of √अश् भोजने eat) अतीत्य अश्नन् overeating.

अत्यागिन् a-tyāgin (a-tyāg-in) a. (fr. √त्यज् अतादात्म्ये disown, renounce 2.82:) अ-त्यजन not renouncing; अ-त्यजन-शील one who does not (cannot) renounce, a non-renunciate.

अत्युच्छ्रित atyucchrita (aty-uc-chri-ta) pp. (of अत्युद् + √श्रि अतीव उत्कर्षे be too lofty 2.24: & 2.45: & 2.56:) अतीव उच्छ्रितः too elevated.

अत्युष्ण atyuṣṇa (aty-uṣ-ṇa) a. (fr. √उष् दाहे burn) अतीव उष्णः too spicy hot.

अत्र atra (a̍-tra) in. (6.19:) अस्मिन् in this, here, with reference to this.

अथ atha (a̍-tha) in. (6.19:) आनन्तर्ये (“immediate succession”) thereafter, then; अधिकारे (“what is begun”) now; पक्षान्तरे but, if, अभ्युपगमार्थे now if (initiating a supposition); समुच्चये and; मङ्गले invoking auspiciousness. अथ उ atha u (अथो) अपि and also, and even, अथ then, etc. अथ चेत् atha cet यदि now if, but if. अथ वा atha vā (also written अथवा) पक्षान्तरे otherwise, on the other hand, else, or.


अदक्षिण a-dakṣiṇa (a-dakṣ-iṇa̍) a. (fr. √दक्ष् कुशले be suitable, be skillful 2.92:) यज्ञ-शेषं कर्मणः साङ्गतार्थं देयं द्रव्यं दक्षिणा तया रहितः without (proper) dakṣiṇā (wealth) (i.e., property, cattle, money, etc.) given out appropriate to the function (of each of the officiating priests and other brāhmaṇas) to complete a ritual.

अदम्भित्व a-dambhitva (a-dambh-i-tva) n. (fr. √दम्भ् कपटे deceive) स्व-धर्म-प्रकटी-करणं दम्भित्वं तदभावः absence of hypocrisy (falsely declaring my virtues, demanding that others know my virtues that I don’t have), the absence of the imposition (adhyāsa) of hypocrisy upon myself.

अदस् adas (a-d-a̍s) prn. n. (m. f. असौ, m.pl. अमी 4.9:) यत् विप्रकृष्टम् that, he, she, it – generally referring to what is remote.

अदाह्य a-dāhya (a-dāh-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √दह् भस्मी-करणे burn 6.8:) cannot be burnt.

अदृष्ट a-dṛṣṭa (a-dṛṣ-ṭa) pp. (of √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 2.85:) unseen. ॰पूर्व -pūrva a. पूर्वं न दृष्टः not seen before.

अदेशकाल a-deśa-kāla (a-deś-a-kāl-a) m. (देश fr. √दिश् दाने grant, अवकाशं दीयते what is granted space/accomodation, काल fr. √कल् सङ्ख्याने count) अ-देशः अ-पुण्य-देशः अ-कालः पुण्य-हेतुत्वेन अ-प्रख्यातः च the wrong (inauspicious) place and the wrong (inauspicious) time.

अद्भुत adbhuta (a̍d[i]-bhu-ta) a. (irreg. form fr. अति + √भू be 2.43:) न भूतः unprecedented, extraordinary, आश्चर्य wonderous.

अद्य adya (a-dya̍) in. today; इदानीम् now.

अद्रोह a-droha (a-droh-a) m. (fr. √द्रुह् जिघांसायाम् bear malice or hatred) पर-जिघांसाभाव absence of malice.

अद्वेष्टृ a-dveṣṭṛ (a-dveṣ-ṭṛ) a. (fr. √द्विष् अ-प्रीतौ not be pleased) न द्वेष्टा who does not become displeased.

अधम adhama (adha-ma) spv. a. निकृष्ठ low, lowest.

अधर्म a-dharma (a̍-dhar-ma) m. (fr. √धृ धारणे sustain) अ-कर्तव्य what is not to be done, corruption (not in keeping with the natural order of the universe), mal-adaptive action (not in keeping with the circumstances); पाप-कर्म action that yields pāpa (unfavorable results); पाप the unfavorable result itself. ॰अभिभव -abhibhava ­m. अ-धर्मस्य अभिभवः पराजयः overwhelming of corruption, being overwhelmed by corruption.

अधस् adhas (adha̍s) in. (6.16:) नीचे low, down; निकृष्ट lower, inferior. ॰शाख -śākha (॰धः॰) ­a. अधः निकृष्टं शाखाः यस्य whose branches are inferior (i.e., jagat [the varied universe, the seen effects within time and space] – effects are always viewed as inferior to their material cause [māyā], भ॰गी॰१५.१).

अधि adhi in. prefix intensifying the meaning of the root to which it is prefixed; उपरि above, over (positionally); आतिशये fully, completely; आधिक्ये besides, in addition; over, above (in the sense of अधिकारे authority or connection, ऐश्वर्ये power, or स्वत्वे ownership); in प्रादि-समास-s (declinable cmpds. 6.36:) ॰- it may also have the special sense of मुख्य primary, as well as the sense of the locative case (existing) in, on, concerning, centering on; in अ-व्ययी-भाव-समास-s (n. sg. indeclinable cmpds. 6.41:) ॰- it often has the special sense of अधिकृत्य with reference to-, concerning-, being centered on-.

अधिक adhika (adhi-ka) a. अतिरिक्त better, superior, surpassing, greater. ॰तर -tara cpv. a. (6.25:) अधिक better, etc.

अधिकार adhikāra (adhi-kār-a) m. (fr. √कृ करणे do) अधीक्षण (प्रभुत्व) authority, वश control, the ability to choose and make the choice fructify; योग्यता eligibility, entitlement, right; आरम्भ heading; प्रकरण chapter, topic.

अधिदैव adhidaiva (adhi-daiv-[a]-a) a. (fr. √दिव् द्युतौ shine) दैवानि अधिकृतः centered on (existing in) deities (i.e., the basis of the deities). अधिदैव adhidaiva n. अधिदैवत the chief deity.

अधिदैवत adhidaivata (adhi-daiv-a-t[ā]-a) a. (fr. √दिव् द्युतौ shine) दैवतानि अधिकृतः centered on (existing in) deities (i.e., the basis of the deities). अधिदैवत adhidaivata n. मुख्य-देवता the chief deity (भ॰गी॰८.४).

अधिप adhipa (adhi-p[ā]-a) m. (fr. √पा रक्षणे protect 6.24.1:) पाल protector, ruler.

अधिभूत adhibhūta (adhi-bhū-ta) a. (fr. √भू सत्तायाम् be) भूतानि अधिकृतः centered on (existing in) beings (i.e., the basis of beings). अधिभूत adhibhūta n. जगत् the world, any existent thing (भ॰गी॰८.४).

अधियज्ञ adhiyajña (adhi-yaj-ña) a. (fr. √यज् देव-पूजायाम् worship 2.87:) यज्ञान् अधिकृतः centered on (existing in) rituals (i.e., the basis of ritual). अधियज्ञ adhiyajña m. परमेश्वर the Lord (भ॰गी॰८.४).

अधिष्ठान adhiṣṭhāna (adhi-ṣṭhā̍-ana) n. (fr. √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain 2.101:) स्थिति place, locus, आश्रय abode; अधिकरण substratum, substance.

अधिष्ठाय adhiṣṭhāya (adhi-ṣṭhā-ya) in. pt. (of √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain 2.101:) वशी-कृत्य wielding, in command of, presiding over (w/acc.).

अध्यक्ष adhyakṣa (adhy-akṣ-a) m. (fr. √अक्ष् व्याप्तौ reach) साक्षिन् eye-witness, the witnessing conscious being; अवेक्षक overseer, presiding presence.

अध्ययन adhyayana (adhy-ay-ana) n. (fr. अधि + √इ study) पठन study (esp. of Veda).

अध्यात्म adhyātma (adhy-āt-ma[n]) a. (fr. √अत् सातत्य-गमने go continuously, wander, within Upaniṣad tradition where precise meaning overrides phonetics it is said to be fr. √आप् व्यापने pervade) आत्मानं देहम अधिकृतः centered on (existing in) the body/oneself (i.e., the basis of oneself). अध्यात्म adhyātma n. प्रत्यगात्मन् the (innermost) self (myself, I), ब्रह्मन् reality (centered on/existing in this body, i.e., the pratyag-ātman/jīva, भ॰गी॰८.३). ॰चेतस् -cetas n. अध्यात्मनि अन्तःकरणम् a mind centered on I (pratyag-ātman), a mind centered on oneself (as brahman, भ॰गी॰८.३). ॰ज्ञाननित्यत्व -jñāna-nityatva n. आत्मादि-विषयं ज्ञानं अद्यात्म-ज्ञानं तस्मिन् नित्य-भावः नित्यत्वम् being always centered on knowledge of the I (ātman, भ॰गी॰१३.११). ॰नित्य -nitya a. परमात्म-स्व-रूपालोचने नित्यः तत्परः always focused on the (limitless) self, always focused on reality. ॰विद्या -vidyā f. आत्मनि अधिकृता विद्या knowledge centered on I (ātman). ॰सञ्ज्ञित -sañjñita a. अध्यात्मः इति आत्मनि अधिकृतः आत्मानात्म-विवेक-विषयः आख्यातः known as (adhyātma-vidyā [knowledge]) centered on the self (the distinction between myself and the what is not myself).

अध्याय adhyāya (adhy-āy-a) m. (fr. अधि + √इ study) पठन study (esp. of Veda); स्कन्ध chapter, section of a treatise.

अध्रुव a-dhruva (a-dhruv-a) a. (fr. √ध्रु स्थैर्ये be firm 2.67:) अ-चिर not long-lasting; न अ-वश्यः uncertain.


अन् an √2.P. प्राणने breathe, live.

अन् an neg. pcl. in cmpd. ॰- 6.33: before vowels ( before cons.) अ-भावे not, absence of, lacking, ॰रहित without, -less, free from-; मुक्ते free from- (i.e., even though not without, still not affected by, indifferent to; also unconnected with as in one who awakens is unconnected with what happened in dream, whose subjective happenings belong to another order of reality than the objective waking world); विरोधे opposed to, opposite of; अन्यार्थे other than, un-; अल्पार्थे inadequately; दुःखेन difficult; अधिक्षेपे in the sense of derision, meaning bad.

अनघ an-agha (an-agh-a) a. (fr. √अघ् पाप-करणे go wrong) पाप-रहित (relatively) sinless (i.e., virtuous), अ-व्यसन without vice; पाप-विमुक्त free from vice. अनघ an-agha m. (Arjuna) one without (i.e., very little) vice, sinless one.

अनन्त an-anta (an-ant-a̍) a. (fr. √अन्त् बन्धने bind, limit) न अस्ति अन्तः परिच्छेदः देशतः कालतः वस्तुतः वा यस्य without limitation (from dimension, from time, or from other objects), अ-पार endless, limitless, boundless, सङ्ख्यातीत countless, innumerable. अनन्त an-anta m. (Lord Kṛṣṇa) used as an epithet of the Lord; शेष the name of the thousand-headed serpent upon whose coils Lord Viṣṇu reclines. ॰बाहु -bāhu a. अनन्ताः बाहवः यस्य whose arms are countless. ॰रूप -rūpa a. अनन्तानि रूपाणि अस्य whose forms are endless. ॰विजय -vijaya m. (अनन्ताः विजयाः यस्य “of countless victories,” or अनन्तः विजयः यस्य “whose victory is endless”) the name of Yudhi-ṣṭhira’s conch. ॰वीर्य -vīrya a. अनन्तं वीर्यं यस्य whose power is limitless. ॰वीर्यामित-विक्रम -vīryāmita-vikrama a. अनन्तं वीर्यं सामर्थ्यं यस्य च अ-मितः विक्रमः पराक्रमः यस्य च who has infinite power and infinite prowess.

अनन्तर an-antara (an-ant-a-ra̍) a. (fr. √अन्त् बन्धने bind, limit) न मध्य without interval, immediate, next. ॰म् -m in. (6.16:) सद्यः immediately.

अनन्य an-anya (a̍n-anya) prn. a. न अन्य no other, undivided, complete; अ-पृथग्भूत not separate (from Me, the Lord, भ॰गी॰९.२२), no other (outside of Me, the Lord, भ॰गी॰११.५४). ॰चेतस् -cetas a. न अन्य-विषये चितः यस्य whose mind (sees) no other. ॰भाज् -bāj a. (6.24:) अनन्य-भक्तिः सन् being one whose seeks (Me, the Lord, भ॰गी॰९.३०) as not separate. ॰मनस् -manas a. न अन्य-विषये चितः यस्य whose mind (sees) no other. ॰योग -yoga m. अ-पृथक्स्माधि vision of identity in which there is no other (i.e., no other entity – which is tattva-jñāna [knowledge of reality]; or, no other goal – which is a mature understanding of the human condition called viveka-vairāgya [discernment and objectivity]).

अनपेक्ष an-apekṣa (an-apa-īkṣ-a) a. (fr. √ईक्ष् दर्शने see 2.8:) देहेन्द्रिय-विषय-सम्बन्धादिषु अपेक्षानिः स्पृहः यस्य who has no dependence (i.e., no requirement/anticipation towards the relationship between the body, senses, and objects for gaining happiness, भ॰गी॰१२.१६).

अनपेक्ष्य an-apekṣya (an-apa-īkṣ-ya) in. pt. (of √ईक्ष् दर्शने see 2.8:) न अपेक्षा कृत्वा not regarding, disregarding.

अनभिष्वङ्ग an-abhiṣvaṅga (an-abhi-ṣvaṅg-a) m. (fr. √स्वञ्ज् परिष्वङ्गे embrace 2.92: & 2.82:) अभिष्वङ्गः सक्ति-विशेषः एव अनन्यात्म-भावना-लक्षणः, यथा अन्यस्मिन् सुखिनि दुःखिनि वा अहम् एव सुखी अहम् एव दुःखी च, जीवति मृते वा अहम् एव जीवामि मरिष्यामि च इति तदभावः lack of identification (a type of attachment characterized by identifying with another, such as when another is happy or sad then I am happy or sad, or while another survives or dies I survive or will die).

अनभिसन्धाय an-abhisandhāya (an-abhi-san-dhā-ya) in. pt. (of √धा धारणे hold 2.55:) न उद्देश्य not anticipating, not requiring, not expecting.

अनभिस्नेह an-abhisneha (an-abhi-sneh-a) a. (fr. √स्निह् स्नेहे cling like oil, प्रीतौ be affectionate) राग-वर्जित without binding attraction.

अनल an-ala (an-ala) m. न अस्य अलं पर्याप्तिः विद्यते इति (अग्निः) fire, that for which there is never enough (fuel).

अनवलोकयत् an-avalokayat (an-ava-lok-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (of cs. √लोक् अवलोकने experience) अवलोकनम्अ-कुर्वन् not looking.

अनवाप्त an-avāpta (an-ava-āp-ta) pp. (of √आप् लम्भने obtain) अ-प्राप्त not accomplished.

अनश्नत् an-aśnat (an-aś-n-at) pr. pt. (of √अश् भोजने eat) न अश्नन् not eating. एकान्तम् अनश्नत् ekāntam an-aśnat न अत्यन्तम् अश्नन् not eating fully, under eating.

अनसूय an-asūya (an-asūy[ā]-a) a. (6.39:) असूया-वर्जित not being cynical (finding fault in virtues).

अनसूयत् an-asūyat (an-asūy[ā]-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of den. fr. असूया 5.43:) असूयां गुणेषु दोषारोपणम् अ-कुर्वन् not being cynical (finding fault in virtues), अ-निन्दत् not blaming (e.g., teacher, fellow students, yourself).

अनसूयु an-asūyu (an-asūy[ā]-u) a. न अस्य असूयां गुणेषु दोषारोपणम् who is not cynical (finding fault in virtues), who does not blame (e.g., teacher, fellow students, him/herself).

अनहंवादिन् an-ahaṃ-vādin (an-ahaṃ-vād-[a]-in) a. न अहं वदति इति (lit. who does not claim “I […did this, or this is mine!]”) without egoism.

अनहङ्कार an-ahaṅkāra (an-ahaṅ-kār-a) m. अहङ्कराभाव (as a value) absence of arrogance (presenting oneself in the reflection of some glory in your possession); (as a result of knowledge) absence of the judgments “I am only this much” and “this is mine.”


अनात्मन् an-ātman (an-āt-ma̍n) a. (fr. √अत् सातत्य-गमने go continuously, wander) अ-विद्यमानः जितात्मा जित-कार्य-करण-सङ्घातः यस्य who has not (mastered) oneself (this body-mind complex). अनात्मन् an-ātman m. न आत्मा what is not I.

अनादि an-ādi (an-ā-d[ā]-i) a. (fr. आ + √दा स्वी-करणे take in hand, commence) आदि-रहित beginningless, uncaused, not a cause. ॰त्व -tva n. (॰त्वात् abl. 7.11.1:) (because) it is beginningless (भ॰गी॰१३.३१). ॰मत् -mat a. आदिः अस्य न अस्ति having no beginning. ॰मध्यान्त -madhyānta a. आदिः च मध्यं च अन्तः च न विद्यते यस्य having no beginning, middle, or end.

अनामय an-āmaya (an-ām-aya̍) a. (fr. √अम् रोगे be ill, or an-ā-may-a̍ आ + √मी हिंसायाम् destroy) पीडा-रहित without affliction; पीडा-विमुक्त free from affliction.

अनारम्भ an-ārambha (an-ā-rambh-a) m. (fr. √रभ् कार्योपक्रमे undertake) न कार्योपक्रमः not undertaking (an activity); न अनुष्ठानम् not performing.

अनार्य an-ārya (an-ār-ya) a. (likely pot. ps. pt. of √ऋ प्रापणे attain, or an-ār-y[a]-a fr. अर्य meaning श्रेष्ठ best) न आर्यः वैदिकः not of or for a person of the Vedic culture; अ-संस्कृत uncultured. ॰जुष्ट -juṣṭa a. वैदिकस्य न जुष्टः not acceptable of or for a person of the Vedic culture, not found in a person of the Vedic culture.

अनावृत्ति an-āvṛtti (an-ā-vṛt-ti) f. (fr. आ + √वृत् गतौ return) न प्रत्यागमनम् no return, no re-birth.

अनाशिन् a-nāśin (a-nāś-[a]-in) a. (fr. √नश् अ-दर्शने be lost) अ-क्षयिन् unperishing, indestructible, imperishable.

अनाश्रित an-āśrita (an-ā-śri-ta) pp. (of √श्रि आलम्बने depend on) न आश्रय-प्राप्तः without depending on (w/acc.).

अनिकेत a-niketa (a-ni-ket-a) a. (fr. √कित् ज्ञाने know) निकेतः आश्रयः निवासः नियतः न विद्यते यस्य who has no permanent dwelling place, i.e., does not own a house (or does not have ownership towards a house he/she owns).

अनिच्छत् an-icchat (an-icch-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √इष अन्वेषणे seek 5.17.3:) अभिलाषम् अ-कुर्वन् not wishing, not choosing.

अनित्य a-nitya (a-ni-tya) a. (6.27:) अचिर temporary; स-कालिक time-bound.

अनिर्देश्य a-nirdeśya (a-nir-deś-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √दिश् आज्ञापने point out 6.8:) न निर्देष्टुं शक्य्ते cannot be described (i.e., delimited by words).

अनिर्विण्ण a-nirviṇṇa (a-nir-viṇ-ṇa) pp. (of √विद् लाभे attain 6.6: & 2.92:) find, निर्वेद-रहित (निरादार-वर्जित) without indifference. ॰चेतस् -cetas n. न निर्विण्णं चेतः a mind that is not indifferent (i.e., that is committed).

अनिष्ट an-iṣṭa (an-iṣ-ṭa) pp. (of √इष् अन्वेषणे seek 2.88:) what is not desired, undesirable.

अनीक anīka (a̍n-īka) n. (fr. √अन् प्राणने breathe) मुख face, अग्र-भाग front; सेना army.

अनीश्वर an-īśvara (a̍n-īś-vara) a. (fr. √ईश् शासने rule) न धर्माधर्म-स-व्यपेक्षकः अस्य शासिता ईश्वरः विद्यते इति for whom there is no Lord (no law, no necessitator connected with dharma and a-dharma), god-less.


अनु anu in. used as prefix, in cmpd. ॰- and as separable adv. in the following senses: पश्चात् after, behind; सहार्थे with, along with; हीने subordinate, inferior; भागे having a part or share; पुनरावृत्तौ repetition (mostly in cmpd.); अभिमुखम् towards, before, at; क्रमे in orderly succession; सादृश्ये like; अनुरूपे in conformity with, following.

अनुकम्पा anukampā (anu-kamp-[a]-ā) f. (fr. √कम्प् चलने tremble, अनु + कम्प् tremble along with another) दया compassion. ॰अर्थम् -artham in. (6.32:) दयायाः अर्थम् out of compassion.

अनुग्रह anugraha (anu-grah-a) m. (fr. √ग्रह् उपादाने grasp) प्रसाद gracious gift (to, but usually from, the Lord), blessing, आनुकूल्य a favor.

अनुचिन्तयत् anucintayat (anu-cint-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √चिन्त् स्मृत्याम् mentally reflect on) शास्त्राचार्योपदेशम् अनुध्यायन् reflecting on the teaching (of the scripture and the teacher).

अनुत्तम an-uttama (an-ut-tama) spv. a. (“un-topped,” “no beyond”) अत्यन्त-श्रेष्ठ very best, beyond which there is nothing greater.

अनुदर्शन anudarśana (anu-darś-ana) n. (fr. √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see) आलोचन seeing.

अनुद्विग्न an-udvigna (an-ud-vig-na̍) pp. (of √विज् चलने be agitated 6.6: irreg., i.e., 2.82:) न प्रक्षुभितः not shaken, not affected. ॰मनस् -manas a. अ-प्रक्षुभितं चित्तं यस्य whose mind is not affected.

अनुद्वेगकर an-udvegakara (an-ud-veg-a-kar-a) a. (fr. √विज् भये be afraid, चलने be agitated 2.82:) प्राणिनाम् अ-दुःख-करः not agitating (to other living beings).

अनुपकारिन् an-upakārin (an-upa-kār-in) a. (fr. √कृ करणे do) प्रत्युपकारासमर्थ (someone) not capable of a (return) favor; प्रत्युपकार-समर्थं निरपेक्षः without regard to (someone’s) ability to (return) favor.

अनुप्रपन्न anuprapanna (anu-pra-pan-na̍) pp. (of √पद् गतौ go 6.6:) अनुष्ठित follow (pp. with active meaning).

अनुबन्ध anubandha (anu-bandh-a) m. (fr. √बन्ध् संयमने bind) सम्बन्ध connection; परम्परा flow, continuity; प्रकृतस्य अनुवर्तनम् consequence (of what happened before), अवसानोत्तर end. ॰इन् -in (॰न्धिन्) a. usually at the end of a cmpd. -॰ सम्बद्ध connected (with), connecting (to).

अनुभाव anubhāva (anu-bhāv-a) m. (fr. √भू सत्तायाम् be) उपभोग consumption; ओजस् power, महिमन् dignity, यशस् honor.

अनुमन्तृ anumantṛ (anu-man-tṛ) a. or m. (fr. √मन् चिन्तायाम् think) अनुमतिः कुर्वत्सु तत्क्रियासु परितोषः तत्कर्ता the one who gives permission (who is completely satisfied in the acts of those who are performing action), the permitter.

अनुरूप anurūpa (a̍nu-rūp-a) a. स-दृश in the same form; योग्य fit for, suitable to (w/gen.), अनुकूल in keeping with

अनुलेपन anulepana (anu-lep-ana) n. (fr. √लिप् उपदेहे anoint) अभिषेचन anointing; विलेप ointment.

अनुविधीयते anuvidhīyate (anu-vi-dhī-ya-te) ps. pr. 3rd sg. (of √धा धारणे hold 5.37.1:) (he/she/it/who) follows (in the wake of) (w/acc., gen.).

अनुशासितृ anuśāsitṛ (anu-śās-i-tṛ) a. (fr. √शास् rule) प्रशासितृ ruler.

अनुशोचितुम् anuśocitum (anu-śoc-i-tum) inf. (of √शुच् दुःखे sorrow) to grieve.

अनुषज्जते anuṣajjate (anu-ṣajj-a-te) pr. 3rd sg. (of √सञ्ज् संसर्गे attach2.101:) (he/she/it/who) is attached.

अनुसन्तत anusantata (anu-san-ta[n]-ta̍) pp. (of √तन् विस्तारे stretch 6.6: & 2.55:) अनुप्रविष्ट spread about (in the imagery of the tree of the universe, pictured as the sacred fig-tree [the Pipal tree, not the Banyan tree which has aerial roots descending from its branches], there are secondary roots, described as anusantatāni [spread about] from the tap root, they reach adhas [downwards], meaning in the world of humans and karman, भ॰गी॰१५.२).

अनुस्मरत् anusmarat (anu-smar-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √स्मृ चिन्तायाम् remember, आध्याने contemplate) अनुचिन्तयत् contemplating, remembering.


अनेक an-eka (an-eka) a. (“not one”) बहु many, countless (esp. in reference to a limitless being). ॰अद्भुतदर्शन -adbhuta-darśana a. अनेकानि अद्भुतानि विस्मापकानिदर्शनानि यस्मिन् in which are countless amazing sights. ॰चित्तविभ्रान्त -citta­vibhrānta a. अनेकैः चित्तैः विविधं भ्रान्तः variously deluded by many (such) thoughts. ॰जन्मसंसिद्ध -janma-saṃsiddha a. अनेकेषु जन्मसु उचितेन संसिद्धः accomplished (by accumulated effort) after many births. ॰दिव्याभरण -divyābharaṇa a. अनेकानि दिव्यानि आभरणानि यस्मिन् in which are countless celestial ornaments. ॰धा -dhā in. (6.19:) अनेकप्रकारेण in manifold ways. ॰बाहूदरवक्त्रनेत्र -bāhūdara-vaktra-netra a. अनेके बाहवः उदराणि वक्त्राणि नेत्राणि च यस्य ­as having countless arms, bellies, mouths, and eyes. ॰वक्त्रनयन -vaktra-nayana a. अनेकानि वक्त्राणि नयनानि च यस्मिन् in which are countless mouths and eyes. ॰वर्ण -varṇa a. अनेके वर्णाः रूपाणि यस्य having countless appearances.

अन्त् ant √1.P. बन्धने bind, limit.

अन्त anta (a̍nt-a) m. (sometimes n.) (fr. √अन्त् बन्धने bind, limit) सीमन् border, limit, end; निश्चय conclusion, निर्णय resolution, outcome, determination; अवसान cessation, मरण death; उपशम alleviation. ॰काल -kāla m. अन्ते मरणे कालः the time of death. ॰गत -gata a. (“come to an end”) क्षीण exhausted, समाप्त-प्राय mostly finished. ॰वत् -vat a. अन्तः अस्य अस्ति having an end, limited.

अन्तर् antar (anta̍r) in. prefix मध्ये within, between. ॰आत्मन् -ātman m. अन्तर् आत्मा the self; अन्तः-करण mind (भ॰गी॰६.४७). ॰आराम -ārāma a. अन्तर् आत्मनि एव आरमणं आक्रीडा यस्य whose pleasure/revelling is in him/herself. ॰ज्योतिस् -jyotis a. अन्तर् आत्मनि एव ज्योतिः प्रकाशामिकं अन्तःकरणं यस्य whose mind is centered in ātman (the self). ॰शरीरस्थ -śarīra-stha (॰न्तःश॰ 2.24: & 2.28:) a. अन्तर् शरीरे स्थितः obtaining within the body. ॰सुख -su-kha (॰न्तःसु॰ 2.24: & 2.28:) a. अन्तर् आत्मनि एव सुखं यस्य whose fulfillment is within him/herself. ॰स्थ -stha (॰न्तःस्थ 6.24.1: & 2.24: & 2.28:) a. अन्तर् तिष्टति इति exists within.

अन्तर antara (a̍nta-ra) prn. a. अन्य other, another; मध्य inner. अन्तर antara n. व्यवधान interval, separation, भेद difference, distinction; मध्य middle, interior. ॰ए -e (loc. ॰रे) ॰म् -m (acc.) in. मध्ये within, in between (with gen., loc., or in cmpd. -॰).

अन्तिक antika (ant-[a]-ika̍) a. (fr. √अन्त् बन्धने bind, limit) समीप near, at hand. अन्तिक -antika n. सामीप्य nearness, vicinity. ॰ए -e (॰के loc.) in. समीपे near, close at hand.

अन्न anna (a̍n-na) n. (fr. √अद् भक्षणे eat, or fr. √अन् प्राणने live) आहार food. ॰सम्भव -sambhava m. अन्नस्य उत्पत्तिः birth of food, food is born.

अन्य anya (anya̍) prn. a. (n. nom. sg. अन्यद् 4.16.1:) इतर other, another; different; a certain. किम् अन्यद् kim anyad (lit. “what else?”) nothing else, no other, none other than. ॰त्र -tra in. (6.19: & 6.16:) अन्यस्मिन् in other, in another, in reference to other; वर्जने other than, except (w/abl.). ॰था -thā in. (6.19:) इतरथा otherwise, other than (w/abl.). ॰देवता -devatā f. pl. अन्याः देवताः other deities, deities as other (than the Lord [paramātman], भ॰गी॰७.२०). ॰देवताभक्त -devatā-bhakta a. अन्यासु भिन्नासु देवतासु भक्तः who worships the deities as different (from Me, the Lord, and from each other).

अन्याय a-nyāya (a-ny-āy-a) a. (fr. √इ प्राप्तौ attain) विचार-शून्य lacking inquiry; औचित्य-शून्य lacking propriety. अन्याय a-nyāya m. विचाराभाव lack of inquiry; अ-नौचित्य inappropriate or illegal behavior.

अन्वशोचस् anvaśocas (anv-a-śoc-as) impf. 2nd sg. (of √शुच् दुःखे sorrow) (you) grieved, have grieved (भ॰गी॰२.११) (impf. loosely used like an aorist expressing an action completed at the present time 7.22.3:).

अन्वित anvita (anv-i-ta̍) pp. (of √इ प्राप्तौ attain) अनुगत accompanied with, possessing, filled with, riddled with, endowed with.


अप् ap f. (only in pl., nom. voc. आपः, acc. अपः 3.16:) जल water; आपः भूतम् the element water (i.e., द्रवता/ liquidity).

अप apa (a̍pa) in. prefix in the sense of वियोगे away from; विकृतौ deterioration; विपरीते opposition, negation, contradiction; निदर्शने direction, mention; वर्जने exclusion; चौर्ये concealment, denial. अप apa in. in cmpd. with nouns and non-verbal adjectives ॰- it also has the senses of दुर् bad, inferior, wrong, etc.; अधस् downward.

अपमान apamāna (apa-mān-a) m. n. (fr. √मन् चिन्तायाम् think) अवज्ञा disrespect.

अपर a-para (a̍-par-a) prn. a. (fr. √पृ, न पृणाति सन्तोषयति what/who does not satisfy, as mental satisfaction only comes from within oneself, not from outside of oneself, since desires are, like fire, unquenchable) (sometimes declines like and has subst. sense of a pronoun 4.16.3:) अन्य other; अतिरिक्त more, additional; भिन्न different; न स्वः not one’s own; न पूर्वः latter, later, last; न अस्ति परः यस्मात् from which there is not a greater, unrivalled; निकृष्ट (न पर्घः not superior, or poss. a̍pa-ra see ॰र 6.27:) inferior, lower. ॰स्परसम्भूत -s-para-sambhūta (apara-s-para-sambhūta (2.26:) a. काम-प्रयुक्तयोः स्त्री-पुरुषयोः अन्योन्य-संयोगात् सम्भूतः born of the mutual union (of female and male, भ॰गी॰१६.८).

अपराजित a-parājita (a̍-parā-ji-ta) pp. (of परा + √जि लाभे be victorious 6.12:) न पराजितः not conquered, unsurpassed.

अपरिग्रह a-parigraha (a-pari-grah-a) a. (fr. √ग्रह् उपादाने grasp) परिग्रह-रहित without possessions.

अपरिमेय a-parimeya (a-pari-me-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √मा माने measure 6.8:) न परिमातुं शक्य्ते cannot be measured, immeasurable, innumerable.

अपरिहार्य a-parihārya (a-pari-hār-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of परि + √हृ परिवर्जने avoid 6.8:) cannot be given up, unavoidable.

अपर्याप्त a-paryāpta (a-pary-āp-ta) pp. (of √आप् लम्भने reach) अ-समर्थ insufficient (the common meaning), न परिगतः (the literal sense of the root in passive “not reached around”) not surrounded, overwhelming (as the contextual meaning in भ॰गी॰१.१०). Dur-yodhana’s forces were eleven divisions, about 2,400,000 fighters, assuming each division (akṣauhiṇi) has the full traditional compliment of forces. They were larger than the Pāṇḍava forces numbering seven divisions, or about 1,500,000 fighters. See B.H.S.C.vol. 1 pp. 113-4. At the end of the war, only ten warriors survived or remained: three on Dur-yodhana’s side and seven on Pāṇḍava’s winning side!

अपलायन a-palāyana (a-palā-ay-ana) m. n. (fr. परा + √इ अपसरे गतौ go away 1.5.d:) अ-पराङ्मुखी-भाव not turning or running away.

अपहृत apahṛta (apa-hṛ-ta̍) pp. (of परि + √हृ स्तैन्ये take or steal away) taken away, carried away, stolen. ॰चेतस् -cetas a. अपहृतं चेतः ज्ञानं यस्य whose mind is taken away (i.e., whose knowledge is not there when needed). ॰ज्ञान -jñana a. संमुषित-विवेक robbed of discriminating capacity.

अपात्र a-pātra (a-pā-tra) n. (fr. √पा पाने drink) (lit. “not a vessel”) अ-योग्य-पुरुष unworthy person (for charity, etc.).

अपान apāna (apa-an-a̍) m. (fr. √अन् प्राणने breathe) अधो-गमन-वायु the downward breath (i.e., inhalation), one of the five prāṇas [energies], downward force in the body including evacuation.

अपायिन् apāyin (apa-ay-[a]-in) a. (fr. अप + √इ अपसरे गतौ go away, end) अन्तवत् having an end.

अपावृत apāvṛta (apa-ā-vṛ-ta̍) pp. (of √वृ आच्छादने cover) उद्घाटित open.

अपाश्रित्य apāśritya (ap-ā-śri-tya) in. pt. (of √श्रि सेवायाम् seek, आलम्बने depend on 6.9:) अनुष्ठाय following, taking refuge in (w/acc.).

अपि api (a̍pi) in. adv. समुच्चये and, also; अवधारणे only, even; यद्यपि even though, though. Connects (like ca [and]) parts of a sentence; always follows the word to which it belongs; at beginning of sentence it is used as an interrogative particle. अपि api in. prefix सामीप्ये near; उपरि on, upon, over, above; अन्तरे in, within.

अपुनरावृत्ति a-punarāvṛtti (a-punar-ā-vṛt-ti) f. (fr. आ + √वृत् प्रत्यागमने return) अ-पुनर्देह-सम्बन्ध no re-birth.

अपैशुन a-paiśuna (a-paiś-un[a]-a) n. (fr. √पिश् अवयवे form, carve out) परस्मै पर-रन्ध्र-प्रकटी-करणं पैशुनं तदभावः अ-पैशुनं अ-पिशुनता not exposing a defect of one person to another, absence of gossiping or slandering.

अपोहन apohana (apa-uh-ana) n. (fr. अप + √वह् अपहरणे carry away 2.3.a: & 2.8:) अपगमन departure, lapse, forgetting (departure of information in the mind, or, usually, the lack of [timely] access to the information).

अप्यय apyaya (api-ay-a) m. (fr. √इ गतौ go) प्रवेश entrance; लय disappearance (into something else).

अप्रकाश a-prakāśa (a-pra-kāś-a) m. (fr. √काश् दीप्तौ shine) न दीप्तिः absence of light, darkness; (as an attribute of the mind) dullness, अ-विवेक lack of discernment.

अप्रतिम a-pratima (a-prati-ma) a. (अ + प्रतिमा, fr. √मा माने measure) प्रतिमीयते यथा सा प्रतिमा न विद्यते यस्य what has no comparison, nothing similar to be measured against, incomparable. ॰प्रभाव -prabhāva a. अ-प्रतिमः प्रभावः यस्य (m. Lord Kṛṣṇa) whose glory is incomparable.

अप्रतिष्ठ a-pratiṣṭha (a-prati-ṣṭha̍) a. (fr. प्रति + √स्था प्रकर्षेण गति-निवृत्तौ be established 2.101:) निराश्रय without support, without a basis (existentially, no permanent reality throughout this ephemeral existence; or ethically, no dharma-adharma [no natural retribution or justice] for virtuous or non-virtuous activity, i.e., according to brute mentality, भ॰गी॰१६.८).

अप्रतीकार a-pratīkāra (a-pratī-kār-a) a. (fr. √कृ करणे do 6.12: irreg. prefixing) न अस्ति प्रतिकारः यस्य without resisting, not resisting.

अप्रदाय a-pradāya (a-pra-dā-ya) in. pt. (of √दा दाने give 6.9:) not giving.

अप्रमेय a-prameya (a-pra-me-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √मा माने measure 6.8:) प्रत्यक्षादि-प्रमाणैः अ-परिच्छेद्यः cannot be separately known (as an object) by the pramāṇas (the means of knowledge: seeing, etc.), cannot be grasped with the senses.

अप्रवृत्ति a-pravṛtti (a-pra-vṛt-ti) f. (fr. प्र + √वृत् अग्रे चलने set in motion) प्रवृत्त्यभाव absence of activity.

अप्राप्य a-prāpya (a-pra-āp-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √आप् लम्भने obtain) not having gained.

अप्रिय a-priya (a-priy-a̍) a. (fr. √प्री तर्पणे satisfy 2.67:) न हृद्यः unpleasant.

अफल a-phala (a-phal-a) a. (fr. √फल् विशरणे burst) फल-वर्जित without a result. ॰आकाङ्क्षिन् -ākāṅkṣin a. न फलस्य काङ्क्षी not anticipating a result, not requiring a result. But why do an action without anticipating a result? Because one is only capable of doing an action, whereas one is not capable of determining the result (भ॰गी॰२.४७), which depends on many more factors outside one’s control. So anticipation is an inappropriate attitude to take toward the results of action. The appropriate attitude taken to the result is called prasāda-buddhi (an attitude of gracefully accepting the result as coming from the Lord – the Lord whose embodiment is this universe, and all its laws of nature, and who is oneself). And why do an action without requiring/desiring its result? Because it is your duty (भ॰गी॰३.१९), and because it is for the good of the society (भ॰गी॰३.२०), and because it is reciprocating within the cyclic order of the universe (भ॰गी॰३.१६), and, for these reasons, it gives you antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi (a certain clarity [less conflicts] of mind) (भ॰गी॰५.११), conducive for assimilating tattva-jñāna (knowledge of realities) (भ॰गी॰२.६४-६५), which is mokṣa (freedom) and that alone is the goal of the most mature person in the vision of this teaching. The appropriate attitude taken to the action is called Īśvarārpaṇa-buddhi (an attitude of offering to the Lord). ॰प्रेप्सु -prepsu a. फलं प्रेप्सति इति फल-प्रेप्सुः फल-तृष्णः तद्विपरीतः without a requirement to attain a result.

अबुद्धि a-buddhi (a-bud-dhi) a. (fr. √बुध् अवगमने know 2.76:& 2.78:) अ-विवेकिन् lacking discernment.


अभक्त a-bhakta (a-bhak-ta) pp. (of √भज् सेवायाम् seek 2.81:) गुरौ देवे च भक्ति-रहितः who has no devotion (towards the teacher and the Lord).

अभय a-bhaya (a-bhay-a) n. (fr. √भी त्रासे fear 2.71:) त्रासा-भाव fearlessness, भीरु-मुक्ति freedom from fear.

अभवितृ a-bhavitṛ (a-bhav-i-tṛ) a. (fr. √भू उत्पादे become 2.71:) अ-भावं गन्ता one that comes not to be, one that ceases to be (as in the 2nd pāda of भ॰गी॰२.२०, “nāyaṃ bhūtvā'bhavitāvā na bhūyaḥ Not that, coming to be, it again comes not to be, or the opposite [i.e., a-bhūtvābhūyaḥ bhavitā (not that) becoming non-existent, it again comes to be]”).

अभाव a-bhāva (a̍-bhāv-a) m. (fr. √भू सत्तायाम् be, उत्पादे become 2.71:) अ-भवन non-being, न अस्तिता non-reality (“no is-ness”); उद्भव-विपर्यय un-becoming (i.e., change), death, destruction (of one form into another form).

अभावयत् a-bhāvayat (a-bhāv-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (of cs. √भू विचारणे reflect upon 2.71:) not contemplative.

अभि abhi in. prefix आभिमुख्ये towards, to; सामीप्ये near; विरुद्धे against; उपरि on, upon, over, above; अत्यर्थम् greatly, excessively.

अभिक्रम abhikrama (abhi-kram-a) n. (fr. √क्रम् पाद-विक्षेपे step) प्रारम्भ undertaking, effort; आरोहण ascent, progress. ॰नाश -nāśa m. अभिक्रमस्य नाशः loss of progress.

अभिजनवत् abhijanavat (abhi-jan-a-vat) a. (fr. √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born.) उच्च-कुलवत् having an exalted family.

अभिजात abhijāta (abhi-jā[n]-ta̍) pp. (of √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born 6.6: irreg., cf. 5.16.4:) उत्पन्न born.

अभितस् abhitas (abhi̍-tas) in. (6.19:) समीप्ये near; उभयतस् on both sides, उभयतस् जीवतां मृतानां च both (in the here and the hereafter, भ॰गी॰५.२६).

अभिधीयते abhidhīyate (abhi-dhī-ya-te) ps. pr. 3rd sg. (of अभि + √धा आख्याने mention 5.37.1:) (he/she/it/who) is said to be, is called.

अभिप्रवृत्त abhipravṛtta (abhi-pra-vṛt-ta̍) pp. (of √वृत् प्रवृतौ be engaged, perform) व्यापारित fully engaged.

अभिभव abhibhava (abhi-bhav-a) m. (fr. अभि + √भू प्रतिमुखं सत्तायाम् be against2.71:) पराजय overwhelming, predominance, conquering, defeating; in cmpd. -॰ being overwhelmed by.

अभिभूय abhibhūya (abhi-bhū-ya) in. pt. (of अभि + √भू प्रतिमुखं सत्तायाम् be against 6.9:) आक्रम्य overwhelming.

अभिमान abhimāna (abhi-mān-a̍) m. (fr. √मन् चिन्तायाम् think) अत्यर्थं मान exaggerated self-opinion, demanding respect from others.

अभिमुख abhimukha (abhi-mukha) a. अभिमुखागत facing, converging.

अभियुक्त abhiyukta (abhi-yuk-ta̍) pp. (of √युज् सङ्गमने unite 2.81:) अभियोगिन् being one with, devoted to.

अभिरक्षित abhirakṣita (abhi-rakṣ-i-ta̍) pp. (of √रक्ष् पालने protect 6.6:) पालित protected.

अभिरत abhirata (abhi-ra[m]-ta̍) pp. (of √रम् क्रीडायाम् revel 6.6:) who delight; तत्पर having that (whatever that is) as the ultimate, who are dedicated.

अभिविज्वलत् abhivijvalat (abhi-vi-jval-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √ज्वल् दीप्तौ burn) burning, flaming.

अभिसन्धाय abhisandhāya (abhi-san-dhā-ya) in. pt. (of √धा धारणे hold 2.55:) उद्दिश्य with respect to, keeping in view, having as purpose.

अभिहित abhihita (abhi-hi-ta̍) pp. (of अभि + √धा आख्याने mention 6.6: irreg.) has been told.


अभ्यधिक abhyadhika (abhy-adhi-ka) a. अधिक (अतिरिक्त) surpassing, superior, better.

अभ्यन्तर abhyantara (abhy-ant-a-ra) prn. a. (fr. √अन्त् बन्धने bind, limit) मध्य inner, inside.

अभ्यर्च्य abhyarcya (abhy-arc-ya) in. pt. (or pot. ps. pt.) (of √अर्च् पूजायाम् worship 6.9:) worshipping, invoking (the whole Lord in a local form. A common expression of this pūjā (worship) in the darkened interior of the temple is showing a small oil lamp, which stands for the devotee’s small intellect, before a form of the Lord lighting up a small portion of the form at a time, but at the same time recognizing that all of this form and all forms are the Lord by reciting mantras that express this idea, such as in क॰उ॰२.२.१५ and echoed in भ॰गी॰१५.६).

अभ्यसन abhyasana (abhy-as-ana) n. (fr. √अस् क्षेपणे cast, throw) आवृत्ति (daily) repetition.

अभ्यसूयक abhyasūyaka (abhy-asūy[ā]-aka) a. (fr. असूया) असूयां गुणेषु दोषारोपणम् अभिकुर्वन् cynical (finding fault in virtues), सन्मार्ग-स्थानां गुणेषु अ-सहमानः who cannot stand the virtues of those who follow dharma.

अभ्यसूयत् abhyasūyat (abhy-asūy[ā]-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of den. fr. असूया 5.43:) असूयां गुणेषु दोषारोपणम् अभिकुर्वन् being cynical (finding fault in virtues), निन्दत् blaming (e.g., teacher, fellow students, yourself).

अभ्यसूयति abhyasūyati (abhy-asūy[ā]-a-ti) pr. 3rd sg. (of den. fr. असूया 5.43:) (he/she/it/who) is cynical (finds fault in virtues).

अभ्यहन्यन्त abhyahanyanta (abhy-a-han-y[a]-anta) ps. impf. 3rd pl. (of अभि + √हन् नादे sound5.5.b:) (they) were sounded.

अभ्यास abhyāsa (abhy-ā-as-a) m. (fr. √अस् क्षेपणे cast) आवृत्ति (daily) repetition (in reading, listening, or study), continued practice, समान-प्रत्ययावृत्ति repetition (of the same or like thought in contemplation). ॰योग -yoga m. अभ्यासः एव योगः the yoga (means/discipline) consisting of continued practice (study and contemplation). ॰योगयुक्त -yoga-yukta a. अभ्यासः एव योगः तेन युक्तः endowed with the yoga consisting of continued practice (study and contemplation).

अभ्युत्थान abhyutthāna (abhy-ut-thā-ana) n. (fr. अभि + उद् + √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ arise 2.99:) उद्भव rise, ascendancy.

अभ्र abhra (abhra̍) n. मेघ cloud.

अम् am √10.P. (or 1.P. cs.) रोगे be ill.

अमर्ष a-marṣa (a-marṣ-a) m. (fr. √मृष् तितिक्षायाम् allow) क्षमा-विरुद्ध intolerance; कोप anger.

अमल a-mala (a-mal-a) a. (fr. √मल् धृतौ cling) पाप-रहित without karmic demerit, पाप-विमुक्त free from karmic demerit.

अमानित्व a-mānitva (a-mān-i-tva) n. (fr. √मन् चिन्तायाम् think) अभिमानः मानः अस्य इति मानी तस्य मानिनः भावः मानित्वं आत्मनः गुणाविष्करणं तदभावः absence of conceit (boasting of myself, demanding that others know my virtues), the absence of the imposition (adhyāsa) of conceit upon myself.

अमित a-mita (a-mi-ta̍) pp. (of √मा माने measure 6.6:) (lit. “not measured”) immeasurable, innumerable.

अमी amī prn. m. pl. nom. (of असौ/अदस् 4.9:) those.

अमुत्र amutra (amu̍-tra) in. (6.19:) अमुष्मिन् in that; परस्मिन् लोके in the other world, hereafter. इह अमुत्र वा iha amutra vā in. इह लोके परस्मिन् वा लोके in this world or the next, here or hereafter.

अमूढ a-mūḍha (a-mū-ḍha) pp. (of √मुह् वैचित्त्ये be confused 2.107:) not deluded.

अमृत a-mṛta (a-mṛ̍-ta) pp. (of √मृ प्राण-त्यागे die) not killed, immortal; शाश्वत perpetual, relatively eternal (till the end of a kalpa [eon], until the next birth, etc.); अ-काल not within time. अमृत a-mṛta n. अ-कालता immortality; मोक्ष complete freedom (in this life); यज्ञावशिष्ट-द्रव्य (प्रसाद) offering left after a yajña (ritual) (which is then distributed to the participants and the public), सुधा immortal nectar (in the mythology it is described like milk that, a sip of which, gives immortality – an allegory to gaining self-knowledge). ॰उद्भव -udbhava (॰तो॰) a. अ-मृतस्य जातः born of immortal nectar; अ-मृत-निमित्त-मथनोद्भव born from (the churning of the primordial milky ocean by the deities for producing) immortal nectar (भ॰गी॰१०.२७). ॰उपम -upama (॰तो॰) a. अ-मृतम् उपमा यस्य like immortal nectar. ॰त्व -tva n. स्वर्ग-स्थान a stay in heaven (where there is no ageing, no mortality, yet is temporary); मोक्ष complete freedom in this life.

अमेध्य a-medhya (a-medh-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √मेध् मेधे offer) not fit to be offered (or is not an offering, i.e., has not been first offered to the Lord), unfit as an offering.

अम्बर ambara (a̍mbara) n. आच्छादन clothing.

अम्बु ambu n. जल water. ॰वेग -vega m. अम्बूनां वेगः flow of waters.

अम्भस् ambhas (a̍mbhas) n. जल water.

अम्ल amla a. रस-भेद a kind of taste: sour.


अयज्ञ a-yajña (a-yaj-ña) a. (fr. √यज् देव-पूजादिषु worship 2.87:) यज्ञः यस्य न अस्ति इति who does not perform ritual (yajña).

अयथावत् a-yathāvat (a-ya-thā-vat) in. (6.19:) न यथावत् falsely, wrongly.

अयति a-yati (a-ya̍t-i) m. (fr. √यत् उद्यमे make effort) अ-प्रयत्नवत् one who does not make (proper) effort.

अयन ayana (a̍y-ana) n. (fr. √इ गतौ go/attain) गतौ going, course, goal; सैन्य-निवेश-विशेष-रूप-व्यूह-प्रवेश-मार्ग an entrance, a lane (of attack into any special array of troops, भ॰गी॰१.११).

अयशस् a-yaśas (a-yaś-as) n. अ-धर्म-निमित्ता अ-कीर्तिः ill-fame (due to one’s a-dharma).

अयुक्त a-yukta (a-yuk-ta) pp. (of √युज् सङ्गमने unite 2.81:) अ-समाहित not composed, not tranquil, not clear, disturbed; अ-सम्पन्न unprepared; अननुष्ठित not committed.

अयोगतस् a-yogatas (a-yog-a-tas) in. (6.19: Ablative) (fr. √युज् सङ्गमने unite, समाधाने contemplate, प्रयत्ने make effort) योगेन विना without yoga (a valid means for spiritual maturity).

अरति a-rati (a-ra[m]-ti) f. (fr. √रम् क्रिडायाम् revel) अ-रमण not longing.

अरागद्वेषतस् a-rāga-dveṣatas (a-rāg-a-dveṣ-a-tas) in. (6.19:) (राग fr. √रञ्ज् प्रलोभने attracted, द्वेष fr. √द्विष् अ-प्रीतौ displeased) राग-प्रयुक्तेन च द्वेष-प्रयुक्तेन च राग-द्वेषतः तद्विपरीतः without attraction or repulsion, free from attraction or repulsion.

अरि a-ri (a-r-i̍) m. (fr. √ऋ निक्षेपे offer, न अर्पणम् “not giving”) शत्रु foe. ॰सूदन -sūdana m. अ-रीन् सूदयति (LordKṛṣṇa) (who does the) destroying of foes, destroyer of foes (those who only take and never give back, who fight against the natural, reciprocating order).

अर्क arka (ark-a̍) m. (fr. √अर्च् पूजायाम् worship 2.82:) सूर्य sun.

अर्च् arc (=√ऋच् √1.P. सुतौ) √1.P. (in. pt. ॰अर्च्य 6.6:, inf. अर्चितुम्) पूजायाम् worship, praise. अभि॰ abhi- worship, etc.

अर्चितुम् arcitum (arc-i-tum) inf. (of √अर्च् पूजायाम् worship) to worship.

अर्जुन arjuna (a̍rj-una) a. (fr. √ऋज् प्राप्तौ शक्ति-प्राप्तौ acquire, be vigorous) शुक्ल bright, pure (“अहः च कृष्णम् अहर् अर्जुनं च the day is overcast and the day is clear,” ऋग् वेद ६.१.१). अर्जुन Arjuna m. name of a son of Pāṇḍu and Kuntī, student of Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad Gītā. ॰विषादयोग -viṣāda-yoga a. अर्जुन-विषादः इति योगः प्रकरणं यस्य whose topic is Arjuna’s sorrow.

अर्थ् arth √10.Ā. (pr. अर्थयते) उपयाचने request, pray. प्र॰ pra- request, etc.

अर्थ artha (ar-tha) m. (fr. √ऋ प्रापणे acquire) लक्ष्य aim, goal, pursuit; प्रयोजन purpose, use, motive, sake; अभिप्राय meaning, intention; द्रव्य wealth, thing(s); विषय subject-matter, situation; in cmpd. -॰ निमित्तम् for the sake of. ॰अय -aya (dat.) ॰ए -e (॰र्थे loc.) ॰एन -ena (॰र्थेन inst.) ॰म् -m (acc.) in. निमित्तम् for the sake of, on account of. ॰अर्थिन् -arthin a. धन-कामिन् who desires/requires wealth. ॰काम -kāma n. sg. (or m. du. ॰मे 6.40:) अर्थः च कामः च security and pleasure (the second and third of the four puruṣārthas [human goals, levels of maturity]: dharma [harmony with nature and creatures, including fellow humans, protecting and contributing to the environment, living in conformity to basic human values], artha[security wealth, power, recognition], kāma [pleasure sensual, intellectual, aesthetic] and mokṣa [complete freedom]); ॰काम -kāma a. अर्थान् कामयति इति desirous of/requiring (their own) ends/goals (भ॰गी॰२.५), अर्थानां कामाः यस्य having desires for (their own) ends/goals; अर्थाः च कामाः च यस्य having security and pleasure goals. ॰व्यपाश्रय -vyapāśraya m. अर्थस्य आलम्बनम् dependence for any thing. ॰सञ्चय -sañcaya m. अर्थस्य सञ्चयः accumulating wealth.

अर्थीय arthīya (ar-th[a]-īya) a. in cmpd. -॰ (fr. √ऋ प्रापणे acquire) अभिप्रेत intended for-.

अर्दन ardana (ard-ana) a. (fr. √अर्द् गतौ go, याचने pray) गमन moving, going; याचन praying, asking; (poss. fr. √ऋद् विक्षेपे disperse or क्लेशे afflict) क्लेशक afflicting.

अर्पण arpaṇa (ar-p-aṇa) n. (fr. cs. √ऋ गतौ go 5.40: irreg.) निक्षेपण tossing, offering (into the fire); निक्षेपण-करणे the instrument or means for offering.

अर्पित arpita (ar-p-i-ta̍) pp. (of cs. √ऋ गतौ go 6.6:) cast, placed into, offered, resolved into (lit. cause to go/attain). ॰मनोबुद्धि -mano-buddhi (2.24: & 2.33:) a. अर्पिते मनो-बुद्धी यस्य whose mind and intellect are (both) offered (to Me, the Lord, भ॰गी॰८.७), whose mind and intellect are (both) resolved (in Me, the Lord, भ॰गी॰१२.१४).

अर्यमन् aryaman (ar-ya-ma̍n) m. (fr. √ऋ प्रापणे attain) आदित्य-भेदः पितृ-राजा one of the ādityas (sun deities) and king of the ancestors.

अर्ह् arh √1.P. (pr. अर्हति) पूजायाम् be worthy; (with inf.) शक्ते be able, can, योग्यत्वे fit for (having sense of potential); कर्तव्यतायाम् ought (to), should (having sense of imperative).

अर्ह arha (arh-a) a. (fr. √अर्ह् योग्यत्वे fit for) योग्य deserving, worthy, qualified, able.


अलस a-lasa (a-las-a̍) a. (fr. √लस् क्रीडने play) अ-प्रवृति-शीलः कर्तव्येषु अपि not actively engaged (even in what is supposed to be done, भ॰गी॰१८.२८), not lively, lazy.

अलाभ a-lābha (a-lābh-a) m. (fr. √लभ् प्राप्तौ obtain) अ-प्राप्ति loss, non-gain.

अलोलुप्त्व a-loluptva (a-lo-lup-tva) n. (fr. intens. √लुप् विमोहने confound 5.13.1:; possibly cognate to √लुभ् गार्ध्ये covet) इन्द्रियाणां विषय-सिन्नधौ अ-विक्रिया absence of agitation of the senses in the presence of objects, अतिलोभायुक्ति absence of intense greed or covetousness.

अल्प alpa (a̍lpa) prn. a. क्षुद्र small, feeble; परिमित limited. ॰बुद्धि -buddhi a. विषय-विषया अल्प एव बुद्धिः यस्य whose mind is limited (to just the field of sense objects). ॰मेधस् -medhas a. अल्प-प्रज्ञ having limited discrimination.

अव् av √1.P. रक्षणे protect.

अव ava in. prefix नीचे down; परे off, away; निश्चये definitely, certainly; अनादरे disrespect, disregard.

अवगम avagama (ava-gam-a) m. (fr. √गम् प्राप्तौ reach) ज्ञान knowledge, understanding, appreciation.

अवज्ञात avajñāta (ava-jñā-ta̍) pp. (of √ज्ञा अवबोधने know) अनादृत disrespected, accompanied with disrespect.

अवध्य a-vadhya (a-vadh-ya̍) pot. ps. pt. (of √वध् नाशने destroy) नाशनं न अर्हति indestructible.

अवनि avani (av-a̍-ni) f. (or ॰नी) (fr. √अव् रक्षणे protect) भूमि earth; नदी river. ॰पालसङ्घ -pāla­saṅgha m. pl. अवनिं पृथ्वीं पालयन्ति इति hosts of kings (protectors of the earth).

अवबोध avabodha (ava-bodh-a) m. (fr. √बुध् अवगमने know) जागर waking; ज्ञान knowledge, perception.

अवर avara (a̍va-ra) prn. a. अधम inferior.

अवश a-vaśa (a-vaś-a̍) a. (fr. √वश् इच्छायाम् wish) अ-स्व-तन्त्र without control, helpless, without will.

अवष्टभ्य avaṣṭabhya (ava-ṣṭabh-ya) in. pt. (of √स्तभ् दृढं करणे make firm w/irreg. application of 2.101:) आश्रित्य relying on, having recourse to; वशी-कृत्य controlling.

अवस्थातुम् avasthātum (ava-sthā-tum) inf. (of √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain) to stand.

अवस्थित avasthita (ava-sthi-ta̍) pp. (of √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain 6.6:) स्थित based, fixed, standing, stationed, abiding.

अवहास avahāsa (ava-hās-a) m. (fr. √हस् laugh) परिहास jest. ॰अर्थम् -artham in. (6.32:) परिहास-प्रयोजनाय out of jest.

अवाच्य a-vācya (a-vāc-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √वच् परिभाषणे speak 6.8:) unspeakable. ॰वाद -vāda m. pl. अ-व्यक्तव्याः वादाः (vulgar) speech that should not be spoken.

अवाप्तव्य avāptavya (ava-āp-tavya) pot. ps. pt. (of √आप् लम्भने obtain) to be obtained or accomplished.

अवाप्तुम् avāptum (ava-āp-tum) inf. (of √आप् लम्भने obtain) to gain.

अवाप्य avāpya (ava-āp-ya) in. pt. (of √आप् लम्भने obtain) obtaining, accomplishing.

अविकम्प a-vikampa (a-vi-kamp-a) a. (fr. √कम्प् चलने waver) अ-प्रचलित unshaking.

अविकार्य a-vikārya (a-vi-kār-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √कृ करणे do 6.8:) अ-परिणाम-योग्य not able to be modified.

अविज्ञेय a-vijñeya (a-vi-jñe-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √ज्ञा अवबोधने know 6.8:) न ज्ञातव्यः unknowable; दुःखेन ज्ञातव्यः difficult to know.

अविद्वस् a-vidvas (a-vid-vas) redup. perf. pt. (of √विद् ज्ञाने know 5.28: & 6.4:) न ज्ञानी unwise person.

अविधि a-vidhi (a-vi-dh[ā]-i) a. (fr. √धा प्रदाने give, set) आज्ञा-रहित not having direction or instruction, प्रमाण-रहित not having a valid means of knowing (that the Lord is adhiyajña [centered on worship], भ॰गी॰९.२३). ॰पूर्वकम् -pūrvakam in. प्रमाण-रहित-पूर्वकम् being preceded by ignorance, not in accordance with a valid means of knowing, not according to injunction (from theVeda).

अविनश्यत् a-vinaśyat (a-vi-naṣ-y[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √नश् अ-दर्शने be lost) न नाशं गच्छन् not being destroyed; what does not perish.

अविनाशिन् a-vināśin (a-vi-nāś-[a]-in) a. (fr. √नश् अ-दर्शने be lost) अ-क्षयी indestructible.

अविपश्चित् a-vipaścit (a-vipaś-cit) a. न विप्रकृष्टं चेतति short-sighted thinker, अ-विवेकी non-discerning.

अविभक्त a-vibhakta (a-vi-bhak-ta) pp. (of √भज् विभागे divide 2.81:) अ-विच्छिन्न not divided, undivided, एक one.

अविरुद्ध a-viruddha (a-vi-rud-dha) pp. (of √रुध् आवरणे impede 2.76: & 2.78:) प्रतिकूलं अ-कृतः not opposed to (w/inst.).

अवेक्ष्य avekṣya (ava-īkṣ-ya) in. pt. (or pot. ps. pt.) (of √ईक्ष् दर्शने see) अधिकृत्य (उद्दिश्य) regarding.


अव्यक्त a-vyakta (a-vy-a[ñ]k-ta) pp. (of √अञ्ज् प्रत्यक्षे be manifest 6.6: & 2.81:) न व्यक्तः not objectified, अ-प्रकाशित unmanifest, not manifest, अ-प्रत्यक्ष unseen, सर्व-करणाविषयत्वात् न व्यज्यते cannot be manifest since not an object to any of the senses; अ-स्थूल non-material, formless. अव्यक्त a-vyakta n. अ-प्रकाशिता स्थितिः unmanifest condition, प्रलय dissolution of the universe; निराकारं ब्रह्म the unmanifest reality, निर्गुण-ब्रह्मन् reality without qualification. ॰आदि -ādi a. अ-व्यक्तः अ-प्रत्यक्षः आदिः यस्य whose beginning is unseen (i.e., unseen before [its] beginning) 6.39:. ॰आसक्तचेतस् -āsakta-cetas a. अ-व्यक्ते आसक्तं चेतः यस्य whose mind is committed to what is not manifest (nir-ākāraṃ brahma [formless reality]). ॰निधन -nidhana a. अ-व्यक्तं अ-प्रत्यक्षं निधनं मरणं यस्य whose end is unseen (i.e., unseen after [its] end – said of the jīva [individual] about whom, like a moving arrow emerging out of darkness and back into darkness, no one knows where or what it was, nor where or what it will be afterwards, भ॰गी॰२.२८). ॰मूर्ति -mūrti a. न व्यक्ता मूर्तिः स्व-रूपं यस्य whose form (nature) is not objectified. ॰सञ्ज्ञक -sañjñaka a. अ-व्यक्तं इति आख्या named “a-vyakta.”

अव्यभिचार a-vyabhicāra (a-vy-abhi-cār-a) m. (fr. √चर् गतौ go/attain) अ-च्युति not swerving, not failing. ॰इन् -in (॰रिन्) a. (f. ॰इणी -iṇī 3.15: & 3.9: & 2.92:) अ-प्रतिकूल unswerving. ॰एन -ena (inst. ॰रेण) in. अ-च्युतेन without swerving, without failure.

अव्यय a-vyaya (a-vy-ay-a) a. (fr. वि + √इ अपसरे गतौ go away 2.71:) उपचयापचयौ न याति इति what does not wax or wane, unchanging, changeless, imperishable; दीर्घ-कालिक (relatively) long-lasting. ॰आत्मन् -ātman a. अ-व्ययः आत्मा यस्य whose nature (sva-rūpa) (or jñānādi-śakti [capacities of intelligence, etc.], भ॰गी॰४.६) does not wane, undiminished.

अव्यवसायिन् a-vyavasāyin (a-vy-ava-sāy-[a]-in) a. (fr. √सो/√सि अन्त-कर्मणि bring to an end or a resolve) प्रमाण-जनित-विवेक-बुद्धि-रहित without a discerning understanding (born of a valid means of knowledge), lacking resolution.

अश् √5.U. (pr. P. अश्नोति Ā. अश्नुते, pr. pt. अश्नत्) व्याप्तौ attain, gain, reach.

अश् √9.P. (pr. sg. अश्नाति, pl. अश्नन्ति, pr. pt. अश्नत्) भोजने eat, consume, स्वी-करणे receive.

अशक्त a-śakta (a-śak-ta) pp. (of √शक् सामर्थ्ये be able) is not able, cannot (with inf.).

अशन aśana (aś-ana̍) (fr. √अश् भोजने eat) n. भोजन the act of eating, the food itself.

अशम a-śama (a-śam-a) m. (fr. √शम् सन्तुष्टे be satisfied) अन्तःकरणस्य अनुपशमः restlessness of the mind, lack of clarity.

अशस्त्र a-śastra (a-śas-tra) a. (fr. √शस् हिंसायाम् injure) शस्त्र-रहित unarmed, न अस्ति शस्त्रं पाण्योः यस्य without a weapon (in the hands).

अशान्त a-śānta (a-śān-ta) pp. (of √शम् सन्तुष्टे be satisfied, प्रसन्ने be clear 6.6: irreg. & 2.55:) अ-सन्तुष्ट not satisfied, अ-प्रसन्न not clear.

अशाश्वत a-śāśvata (a-śāśvat-a) a. अनवस्थित ever changing; अ-नित्य finite.

अशास्त्रविहित a-śāstra-vihita (a-śās-tra-vi-hi-ta) a. (शास्त्र fr. √शास् ज्ञापने teach, विहित fr. √धा प्रदाने give, set) न शास्त्रेण विहितः not enjoined by śāstra (sacred instructional literature).

अशिन् aśin (aś-in) (fr. √अश् भोजने eat) a. अशितुं शीलं यस्मिन् in whom is the habit to eat.

अशुचि a-śuci (a-śuc-i) a. (fr. √शुच् स्वच्छतायाम् be clean) अ-शुद्ध impure, unclean, unworthy. ॰व्रत -vrata a. अ-शुचीनि व्रतानि यस्य whose vows are unworthy.

अशुभ a-śubha (a-śubh-a) a. (fr. √शुभ् दीप्तौ shine, शोभने be beautiful) न रम्यः unpleasant; अ-शुभ-कर्म-कारिन् those who do ugly deeds. अशुभ a-śubha n. संसार the unpleasant life of becoming (भ॰गी॰४.१६).

अशुश्रूषु a-śuśrūṣu (a-śu-śrū-ṣ[a]-u) a. (fr. des. of √श्रु आकर्णने hear 5.41: & 5.8.4:) न श्रवणेच्छावान् not willing to listen.

अशेष a-śeṣa (a-śeṣ-a) a. (fr. √शिष् अवशेषणे leave as a remainder) न अस्ति शेषः यस्य without remainder, entire. ॰एन -ena (inst. ॰षेण 2.92:) ॰तस् -tas (6.19:) ॰म् -m (acc.) in. अ-खण्डम् entirely, completely, all.

अशोच्य a-śocya (a-śoc-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √शुच् दुःखे grieve 6.8:) not to be grieved.

अशोष्य a-śoṣya (a-śoṣ-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of cs. √शुष् निर्जले be dry 6.8:) cannot be dried.

अश्नत् aśnat (aś-n-at) pr. pt. (of √अश् भोजने eat) eating.

अश्मन् aśman (a̍ś-man) m. (fr. √अश् व्याप्तौ attain) पाषाण stone.

अश्रद्दधान a-śrad-dadhānaa-śrad-dadh-āna) pr. mid. pt. (of √धा प्रदाने give 6.5: & 5.8.2: & 5.20.2: & 6.13:) अ-विश्वासवत् having no trust.

अश्रद्धा ­a-śrad-dhā (a̍-śrad-dh[ā]-[a]-ā) f. (fr. श्रद् heart/mind/truth + √धा प्रदाने give 6.13:) अ-विश्वास no respect, no trust; भक्ति-रहित no faith or devotion (towards the Lord).

अश्रु aśru (a̍ś-ru) n. (fr. √अश् व्याप्तौ fill, अश्नुते नेत्रे अ-दर्शनाय filling the eyes so they cannot see) नेत्राम्बु tear drop. ॰पूर्णाकुलेक्षण -pūrṇākulekṣaṇa a. अश्रुभिः पूर्णे च आकुले च ईक्षणे यस्य whose eyes are full of tears and stressed.

अश्रौषम् a-śrauṣam (a-śrau-ṣ-am) स्- Aorist 1st sg. (of √श्रु आकर्णने 5.30.1.b: & 2.101:) (I) have heard.

अश्व aśva (a̍ś-va) m. (fr. √अश् व्याप्तौ reach) हय horse.

अश्वत्थ aśvattha (aś-va-ttha̍) m. (अश्व “horse” fr. √अश् व्याप्तौ reach, ॰त्थ being a Prākṛta form from ॰स्थ “stand,” itself from √स्था 6.24.1:) वृक्ष-भेद the sacred fig-tree, ficus religiosa (the common name is Peepul or Pipal tree [pippala in Saṃskṛta], a long-lived tree where one in Sri Lanka is over 2200 years old, and is mainly used as a shade tree for travelers and animals, such as horses). अश्वत्थ aśvattha a-śva-ttha̍m. (in the context of the tree of saṃsāra imagery, भ॰गी॰१५.१, lit. “न श्वः अपि तिष्ठति what does not remain [in the same form] even [till] tomorrow,”) this world of saṃsāra.

अश्वत्थामन् aśvatthāman (aś-va-tthā̍-man) m. (fr. √अश् व्याप्तौ reach) (अश्वस्य इव स्थामबलम् अस्य “whose stamina is like that of a horse”) the name of Droṇa’s son, who fought on Dur-yodhana’s side.

अश्विन् aśvin (aś-v[a]-i̍n) m. du. (fr. √अश् व्याप्तौ reach) अश्विनौ देवते the twin deities (charioteers of the sun, the dawn [the harbingers of visual duality], the one is the physician and the other the surgeon for the gods).

अष्टन् aṣṭan (aṣ-ṭa̍n) num. a. n. pl. (4.23.a:) eight. अष्ट aṣṭa (6.29:) in cmpd. ॰-. ॰दश -daśa ordinal (4.26:) seventeenth. ॰धा -dhā in. (4.28:) eight-fold.

अष्टम aṣṭama (aṣ-ṭa[n]-ma̍) ordinal (4.26:) eighth.


अस् as √2.P. (pr. sg. अस्ति pl. सन्ति 5.19.4: 2nd sg. असि 5.19.4:, impf. 1st sg. आसम्, impv. 3rd sg. अस्तु, pot. 3rd sg. स्यात् 3rd pl. स्युः 1st sg. स्याम् 5.19.4:, perf. आस 3rd sg., pr. pt. सत् 5.19.4:) भुवि be.

अस् as √4.P. (pr. अस्यति, pp. अस्त, in. pt. ॰अस्य) क्षेपणे cast, throw. व्युद्॰ vyud- विष्वङ् निधाने cast about; त्यागे renounce. सन्नि॰ sanni- (॰न्न्य॰) सम्यङ् निधाने completely cast aside, सम्यक् त्यागे completely renounce.

असंयत a-saṃyata (a-saṃ-ya[m]-ta) pp. (of √यम् सन्तुष्टे be satisfied 6.6: & 2.54:) अ-वशी-कृत not mastered. ॰आत्मन् -ātman a. अ-वशी-कृतम् अन्तःकरणं यस्य whose mind is not mastered.

असंशय a-saṃśaya (a-saṃ-śay-a) a. (fr. सम् + √शी सन्देहे lit. “lie together,” be confused between the two 2.54:) अ-सन्देह doubtless, without doubt. असंशय a-saṃśaya m. न संशयः no doubt, a lack of doubt. ॰म् -m (acc.) in. no doubt, doubtlessly.

असक्त a-sakta (a̍-sa[ñ]k-ta) pp. (of √सञ्ज् संसर्गे attach 6.6: & 2.81:) सङ्ग-रहित unattached (in reference to karma-yoga, it is descriptive of a mind that is not attached to fulfilling rāgas and dveṣas [attractions and repulsions], i.e., the mind has little or no requirement to fulfill them in order to be satisfied – directly related to samatva [sameness of attitude/understanding] in भ॰गी॰२.४८), not identified (with possessions). ॰आत्मन् -ātman a. अ-सक्तम् अन्तःकरणं यस्य whose mind is unattached/not identified. ॰बुद्धि -buddhi a. अ-सक्तम् अन्तःकरणं यस्य whose mind is not attached (anywhere, to any one thing by uncontrolled likes and dislikes).

असक्ति a-sakti (a-sak-ti) f. (fr. √सञ्ज् संसर्गे attach तादात्म्ये identity 2.81:) विषयेषु आसक्तिः तदभावः absence of fixation towards objects, absence of ownership.

असङ्ग a-saṅga (a-saṅg-a) a. (fr. √सञ्ज् संसर्गे attach तादात्म्ये identity 2.82:) अनासक्त not attached, non associated, not identified with. असङ्ग a-saṅga m. अ-सङ्गति non-association or non-attachment (in reference to karma-yoga, it is with reference to a mind that is not attached to fulfilling rāgas and dveṣas [attractions and repulsions], i.e., the mind has little or no requirement to fulfill them in order to be satisfied – directly related to samatva [sameness of attitude/understanding] in भ॰गी॰२.४८), अ-तादात्म्य non-identity with; पुत्र-वित्त-लोकैषणाभ्यः व्युत्थानम् independence from seeking (or detachment from) progeny, security, and experiences. ॰शस्त्र -śastra n. अ-सङ्गः एव शस्त्रम् the ax (or sword) that is detachment (भ॰गी॰१५.३).

असत् a-sat (a̍-[a]s-at) pr. pt. (of √अस् भुवि be 6.4: & 5.19.4:) अ-विद्यमान not real, non-existent, non-being; सतः अन्यद् other than real, unreal; अ-साधु wrong, bad, non-virtuous, improper, mal-adaptive. असत् a-sat n. सतः अन्यद् (āgama-apāyin, what has a beginning and/or an end, भ॰गी॰२.१४-१६) the unreal, what is other than the real, त्रि-कालाबाधितं सत्यम् the real/reality is what cannot be negated at any time, what is time-less, नामदेय “exists” in name only, मिथ्या what is apparent (apparently existing), अ-निर्वचनीय what cannot be categorically said to exist or not exist, व्यवहारिक-सत्य the transactional world, कार्य the effect (called this world, including this mind-body complex). ॰कृत -kṛta a. (a-satkṛta “treated like [you were] not there”) अवज्ञात without proper respect, ignored, slighted; (as asat-kṛta) अ-सम्यक् कृतः done improperly, disrespected. ॰ग्राह -grāha (असद्॰ 2.43:) m. अ-शुभ-निश्चय improper understanding.

असत्य a-satya (a-[a]s-at-ya̍) a. (fr. सत् pr. pt. of √अस् भुवि be 6.4: & 5.19.4:) अ-तथ्य not as it is, unreal, untruthful, false. असत्य a-satya n. त्रि-काल-बाधित what is negated (i.e., never permanent) in the three times (past, present, or future; waking, dreaming, or sleeping), unreality, falsehood.

असन्न्यस्त a-sannyasta (a-san-ny-as-ta) pp. (of √अस् क्षेपणे cast away 2.55:) अ-परित्यक्त who has not completely renounced. ॰सङ्कल्प -saṅkalpa a. अ-परित्यक्तः फल-विषय-सङ्कल्पः अभिसन्धिः यस्य who has not completely given up anticipation/requirement/scheming (regarding the results of action, like heaven, etc.).

असपत्न a-sapatna (a-sa-pat-na̍) a. ( fr. सह with, पत्न/पत्नी perhaps fr. √पा रक्षणे protect) अ-शत्रु without a rival.

असमर्थ a-samartha (a-sam-ar-tha) a. (fr. √ऋ प्रापणे acquire) अ-शक्त unable (with dat., loc., inf., or in cmpd. -॰).

असम्मूढ a-sammūḍha (a-sam-mū-ḍha̍) pp. (of √मुह् वैचित्त्ये be confused 2.107:) without delusion.

असम्मोह a-sammoha (a-sam-moh-a) m. (fr. √मुह् वैचित्त्ये be confused) न सम्मोहः non-delusion, freedom from delusion.

असि asi (as-i̍) m. (fr. √अस् क्षेपणे propel) खङ्ग sword.

असित asita (a̍sita) m. मुनि-भेद a seer/sage called Asita.

असिद्धि a-siddhi (a-sid-dhi) f. (fr. √सिध् संराद्धौ succeed 2.76: & 2.78:) अ-पूर्णता incompletion; विफलता non-success.

असु asu (a̍s-u) m. (fr. √अस् क्षेपणे throw, अस्यते क्षिप्यते what is expelled) प्राण life-breath, breath.

असुख a-sukha (a-su-kha) a. (fr. √खन् अवदारणे dig6.24.3:, originally in ऋ॰वे॰ meaning “having a सु/good /axle-hole,” i.e., a smooth ride; or सुष्टं खनति easy dig [a very apt, basic agricultural metaphor], also सुष्टं खम् “a good space (in the heart/mind),” cf. दुःख) सुख-वर्जित (6.24.3:) unpleasant, not easy.

असुर asura (as-u-ra) m. (fr. √अस् क्षेपणे cast, throw) अस्यति क्षिपति देवान् one who shoots at (fights) the deities (i.e., who goes against the forces of nature, against dharma), (in mythological language) a demon.

असृष्ट a-sṛṣṭa (a-sṛṣ-ṭa) pp. (of √सृज् विसर्गे emit 2.81: & 2.88:) न उत्पादितः not manifested; न विसृष्ट not distributed. ॰अन्न -anna a. न सृष्टम् अन्नं यस्मिन् in which food is not distributed.

अस्थिर a-sthira (a̍-sthi-ra) a. (fr. √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain) स्थिर-भिन्न without steadiness, unsteady.

अस्मदीय asmadīya (asmad-īya) poss. prn. (4.15:) अस्माकम् our.

अस्माकम् asmākam (asma-a̍ka-m) prn. pl. gen. (of अहम् 4.2.a:) our.

अस्वर्ग्य a-svargya (a-svar-g[a][m]-ya̍) a. (स्वर् heaven/shining space fr. √स्वृ [=√स्वर्] शब्दोपतापयोः resound/praise or heat/shine, ॰ग fr. √गम् प्राप्तौ attain (6.24.3:); or per Paninian grammar fr. √गै गाने sing, what is sung about in Vedic accent/svarita, or a-sv-arg-yafr. सु + √ऋज् गति attain good 2.82:) स्वर्गं न प्राप्तिः not leading to heaven.


अह् ah √4.P. (defective root, perf. sg. आह 5.8.5: pl. आहुः 2nd sg. आत्थ 5.28:) व्यक्तायां वाचि speak (aloud); √4.U. दीप्तौ shine. प्र॰ pra- प्रकर्षेण॰ thoroughly speak, teach, speak of.

अहत्वा a-hatvā (a-ha[n]-tvā) in. pt. (of √हन् हिंसायाम् destroy 6.9: & 6.6:) not killing.

अहन् ahan (a̍h-an) n. (fr. √अह् दीप्तौ shine 3.21:) दिवस day (including night-time or excluding night-time); अहः देवता the deity that is the day (भ॰गी॰८.२४). Usually अहर् in cmpd. ॰- 3.21.a:. ॰आगम -āgama (अहरा॰ 3.21.a: & 2.24: & 2.34:) m. अह्नः आगमः the coming of the day, ब्रह्मणः प्रबोध-कालः the awakening (of Lord Brahmā, भ॰गी॰८.१८). ॰रात्रविद् -rātra-vid (॰होरा॰  3.21: & 2.24: & 2.33: & 6.24:) a. अहो-रात्रे वेति who knows a day and a night (of Lord Brahmā, भ॰गी॰८.१७); काल-सङ्ख्या-विद् who reckons time.

अहम् aham (ah-a̍m) prn. nom. sg. (pl. nom. वयम् 4.2:) (poss. fr. √अह् दीप्तौ shine, व्यक्तायां वाचि speak aloud) I, आत्मन् myself. ॰कार -kāra (॰ङ्क॰ 2.55:) m. कार्य-करण-सङ्घातात्म-प्रत्यय the judgment/notion that I (am this collection of effects and causes), the “I”-sense, the judgment that I (am only this or that much), कर्तृत्वं भोक्तृत्वं च the status of being an agent and a consumer, (in the context of the manifestation of the universe) the “I”-sense of the Lord when He says “Let Me become many,” etc., Lord Brahmā (Hiraṇya-garbha); अभिमान egotism, exaggerated self-opinion. ॰कार-विमूढात्मन् -kāra-vimūḍhātman (॰ङ्क॰ 2.55:) a. कार्य-करण-सङ्घातात्म-प्रत्ययः अहङ्कारः तेन विविधं नाना-विधं मूढः अन्तःकरणं यस्य whose mind is confused (in many and various ways) by a judgment about I (the judgment that I am this collection of effects and causes, i.e., that I am this collection of gross and subtle elements, the combination of body and mind). ॰कृत -kṛta (॰ङ्क॰ 2.55:) a. अहङ्कारिन् (thinking) “I did (this).”

अहिंसा a-hiṃsā (a̍-hiṃs-[a]-ā) f. (fr. √हिंस् हिंसायाम् destroy 2.104:) प्राणिनाम् अ-पीडनम् not (deliberately for my own sake) hurting any living being (including my own body and mind) (this, as well as any other value, needs to be interpreted in each situation according to dharma, such as in Arjuna’s situation, where it was his duty to fight in that particular war), harmlessness.

अहित a-hita (a̍-hi-ta) pp. (of √धा धारणे support 6.6:) hostile. अहित a-hita m. शत्रु enemy.

अहैतुक a-haituka (a-hai-tu-ka) ­a. (fr. √हि प्रेरणे impel, वृद्धौ promote) हेतु-वर्जित without reason, illogical.

अहो aho interj. शोके oh! (exclamation expressing sorrow, धिगर्थे anger, blame; or विस्मये surprise, प्रशंसायाम् praise). अहो बत aho bata interj. अहो (with the same exclamation expressing as above).

*** आ — Ā ***

 ←अ  आत्म  आद  आय  आश  इ→ 

ā in. prefix सामीप्ये near; अभिमुखम् towards; (with verbs of motion) विपरीते expresses the reverse direction. (with adjectives and some nouns) अल्पार्थे a little, slightly, scarcely. ā in. (w/abl. 6.15: or in अव्ययी-भाव indeclinable cmpd. with substantives ॰-) पर्यन्तम् up to- (but excluding), as far as-, (sometimes means) from-, सह including- (up to and including).

आकर ākara (ā-kar-a̍) m. (fr. √कृ करणे do) समूह collection, deposit, mine, source; (fr. √कॄ विक्षेपे ) आकिरति इति who scatters, bestower (usually in cmpd. -॰).

आकाङ्क्षिन् ākāṅkṣin (ā-kāṅkṣ-[a]-[ā]-in) a. (fr. √काङ्क्ष् इच्छायाम् wish) आकाङ्क्षा आशा अस्य इति having an anticipation, anticipating, desiring, requiring.

आकाश ākāśa (ā-kāś-a̍) m. n. (fr. cs. √काश् व्यञ्जने reveal) अवकाशयति इति what gives room, खम् space, आकाशः भूतम् the element space. ॰स्थित -sthita a. आकाशे स्थितः which exists in space.

आकुल ākula (ā-kul-a) a. (fr. √कुल् संहतौ compact, collect) आर्त distressed, stressed.

आकृति ākṛti (ā̍-kṛ-ti) f. (fr. √कृ करणे do) अवयव-संस्थान component part; आकार form, appearance.

आख्यात ākhyāta (ā-khyā-ta̍) pp. (of √ख्या प्रकथने tell) कथित told.

आगत āgata (ā-ga[m]-ta̍) pp. (of आ + √गम् समीपे गतौ come 6.6:) समनुप्राप्त attained, come back to.

आगम āgama (ā̍-gam-a) m. (fr. आ + √गम् समीपे गतौ come) उत्पत्ति a beginning. ॰अपायिन् -apāyin a. आगमः च अपायः च यस्य having a beginning and an end.

आचरत् ācarat (ā-car-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of आ + √चर् निर्वर्तने perform) कुर्वत् performing.

आचार -ācāra (ā-cār-a) m. (fr. आ + √चर् निर्वर्तने perform) वृत्त (व्यवहार) conduct, behavior; सदाचार virtuous conduct.

आचार्य ācārya (ā-cār-ya) (Vedic accent: ācāri̍a) m. (fr. √चर्) आचाराध्यापक the one who communicates the tradition, a teacher, स्वयम् आचरति अन्यान् च आचारयति one who himself or herself understands and follows (the tradition) and who also makes others understand and follow, an exemplar and teacher. ॰उपासन -upāsana (॰र्यो॰) n. मोक्ष-साधनोपदेष्टुः आचार्यस्य सेवनम् reverence for and attendance to the teacher (who teaches the means for complete freedom).

आज्य ājya (ā̍j-ya) n. घृतं सूर्यार्द्री-भूतम् clarified butter (ghee) melted by the sun.

आढ्य āḍhya (ā-ḍhy-a̍) a. धनिन् wealthy.

आततायिन् ātatāyin (ā-ta[n]-ta-ā-y-in) a. (fr. आ + √तन् विस्तारे stretch plus आ + √इ आगमने come) आततेन विस्तीर्णेन शस्त्रादिना आयितुं शीलम् अस्य whose nature is to approach (with bow) stretched, वधोद्यत bent on killing, technically anyone of the six felons: agni-da (an arsonist), gara-da (one who poisons another), śastronmatta (one who madly attacks with a weapon [an unarmed person]), dhanāpaha (a stealer of wealth), kṣatra-hara (a stealer of land [including the euphuistically labelled “pioneer”]), and dāra-hara (a kidnapper of someone’s wife), which at that time were all punishable by death on sight (and all these crimes were committed by Dur-yodhana against the Pāṇḍavas).

आत्थ āttha (āt-tha) perf. 2nd sg. (of √अह् व्यक्तायां वाचि speak 5.28:) (you) said, (commonly with pr. sense) say, call, tell.


आत्मन् ātman (ā-at-ma̍n) m. (fr. √अत् सातत्य-गमने go continuously, wander; within Upaniṣad teaching tradition where, when necessary, precision in meaning overrides the niceties of phonetics, the word ātman, directly meaning “the all-pervading reality,” “the source and resolution of everything,” and “the limitless conscious being” as distinguished from indirectly meaning “the traveling jīva,” is said to be related to √आप् व्यापने pervade [cf. 3.16.b:], आ + √दा ग्रहणे take in, and आ + √अद् भक्षणे experience – i.e., who is brahman [the one who pervades, who is all this], and who is also jīva [oneself the experiencer of all this]) अहम् I, the self, साक्षिन् the witness (of all), चैतन्य the conscious being, परमात्मन्, ब्रह्मन् reality; कार्य-करण-सङ्घात-परिच्छिन्न-चैतन्य the conscious being limited to the body-mind complex, i.e., the jīva or individual (who travels from birth to birth); what one takes oneself to be: रूप this form, देह the body, प्राण the life force within, मनस् the mind, or बुद्धि intellect (which are all also where the ātman is mistakenly understood), or कार्य-करण-सङ्घात the entire body-mind complex; सत्त्व one’s character, mental makeup; आत्मन् ātman reflex. prn. a. स्व oneself, himself, herself, itself, yourself. आत्म ātma (6.29:) in cmpd. -॰ as a final member has the meaning स्व-रूप of the nature of-, प्राचुर्य (mostly) full of-. ॰औपम्य -aupamya (आत्मौ॰) n. आत्मा स्वयम् एव उपमा तस्या उपमायाः भावः oneself being the basis of comparison (i.e., as for yourself, so for others, भ॰गी॰६.३२). ॰क -ka a. (f. ॰का) in cmpd. -॰ स्व-रूप having the nature of-, consisting of-. ॰कारण -kāraṇa n. आत्मनः एव हेतुः (only) for the sake of oneself. ॰तृप्त -tṛpta a. आत्मना एव तुष्टः satisfied with myself (paramātman) alone. ॰परदेह -para-deha m. pl. स्व-देहः च पर-देहाः च one’s own body and another’s bodies. ॰बुद्धिप्रसादज -buddhi-prasāda-ja a. आत्मनः बुद्धिः आत्म-बुद्धिः आत्म-बुद्धेः प्रसादः स्वच्छता ततः जातः born of the clarity of self-knowledge. ॰भावस्थ -bhāva-stha a. आत्मनः अन्तःकरणस्य भावः आशयः तस्मिन् एव स्थितः (aham [I] the Lord as pratyag-ātman, भ॰गी॰१०.११) obtaining in (every) thought of the mind. ॰माया -māyā f. आत्मनः माया My (the Lord’s, भ॰गी॰४.६) own projecting power. ॰योग -yoga m. आत्मनः ऐश्वर्यस्य योगः सामर्थ्यम् My (the Lord’s, भ॰गी॰११.४७) own power. ॰रति -rati a. आत्मनि एव रतिः यस्य whose pleasure is only within oneself (and not in external objects); आत्म-ज्ञान-निष्ठ devoted only in (knowing, भ॰गी॰३.१७) oneself. ॰वत् -vat a. (6.27:) (आत्मा बुद्धिः अस्य अस्ति “possessing an intellect” बुद्धिमत्, an equivalent to the expression “keeping one’s wits”) अ-प्रमत्त attentive. ॰वश्य -vaśya a. स्व-वशी-भूत under one’s command. ॰विनिग्रह -vinigraha m. आत्मनः संयमः self-discipline, मनो-निरोध discipline over the mind, आत्मनः अपकारकतया आत्म-शब्द-वाच्यस्य कार्य-करण-सङ्घातस्य विनिग्रहः स्व-भावेन सर्वतः प्रवृत्तस्य सन्मार्गे एव निरोधः holding to the pursuit of truth, away from the various tendencies (such as laziness, a condition of tamas) natural to this mind-body complex we call ourselves, which can be detrimental (by pursuing what keeps us in saṃsāra). ॰विभुति -vibhuti f. स्वस्य विभूति my glory. ॰विशुद्धि -viśuddhi f. सत्त्व-शुद्धि transparency/clarity of character/mind (the immediate purpose of karma-yoga) (i.e., an unconflicted and calm mind born of following a life of dharma). ॰शुद्धि -śuddhi f. सत्त्व-शुद्धि transparency/clarity of character/mind (i.e., an unconflicted and calm mind born of following a life of dharma). ॰संयमयोगाग्नि -saṃyama-yogāgni m. आत्मनि संयमः आत्म-संयमः स एव योगाग्निः the fire is the discipline that is the mastery over oneself (body-mind complex). ॰संस्थ -saṃstha a. आत्मनि अवस्थितः centered on I (ātman). ॰सम्भावित -sambhāvita a. सर्व-गुण-विशिष्टतया आत्मना एव सम्भावितः न साधुभिः honored (as having all special virtues) only by oneself (not by those qualified to discern virtue).

आत्यन्तिक ātyantika (āty-ant-[a]-ika) a. (fr. √अन्त् बन्धने bind, limit) अत्यन्तम् एव भवति इति being beyond the end, अनन्त without limit, absolute.


आदर्श ādarśa (ā-darś-a̍) m. (fr. √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see) दर्पण mirror.

आदि ādi (ā-d[ā]-i) a. (fr. आ + √दा स्वी-करणे take in hand, commence) in cmpd. ॰- प्रथम first; in cmpd. -॰ beginning with, etcetera (6.39:). आदि ādi m. प्रभव beginning, origin; कारण cause. ॰अन्तवत् -antavat (॰द्यन्त॰) a. आदिः च अन्तः च यस्य having a beginning and an end. ॰कर्तृ -kartṛ m. प्रथमं कारण the primal cause. ॰देव -deva m. प्रथमः देवः the first among the gods; प्रथमः देवः the one who shines at the beginning, the Lord who was there at the beginning.

आदित्य āditya (ā-d[ā]-i-t[i]-ya̍) m. (lit. “son of अ-दितिfr. √दा दाने give, अ-दिति without giving) सूर्य sun; सूर्य-देवता the sun deity; pl. (in पुरा॰ lit.) the twelve suns/deities (in the twelve months of the year): Dhātṛ, Matra, Aryaman, Rudra, Varuṇa, Sūrya, Bhaga, Vivasvat, Pūṣan, Savitṛ, Tvaṣṭṛ, and Viṣṇu. ॰गत -gata a. आदित्याश्रय obtaining in the sun. ॰वत् -vat in. (6.19:) सूर्यः इव like the sun. ॰वर्ण -varṇa a. सूर्यस्य इव नित्य-चैतन्य-प्रकाशः वर्णः यस्य whose appearance (ever effulgent conscious being, भ॰गी॰८.९) is like that of the sun.

आद्य ādya (ā-d[ā]-y-a) a. (fr. आ + √दा स्वी-करणे take in hand, commence) प्रथम first, primal. आद्य ādya n. आदौभवः which exists in the beginning, the cause.

आधत्स्व ādhatsva (ā-dhat-sva) impr. 2nd sg. (of √धा धारणे hold प्रदाने place 5.20.2: & 2.76: & 2.77: & 2.42:) (you) please hold, place.

आधाय ādhāya (ā-dhā-ya) in. pt. (of √धा प्रदाने give) निक्षिप्य offering unto (loc.), धारणं कृत्वा placing.

आधिपत्य ādhipatya (ādhi-p[ā]-a-t[i]-ya) n. (fr. अधि + √पा रक्षणे protect) ऐश्वर्य lordship.

आनक ānaka (ān-aka) m. (fr. √अन् प्राणने breathe) पटह-भेद a type of (small or large) drum (including a large military drum beaten at one end).

आनन ānana (ān-ana) n. (fr. √अन् प्राणने breathe) मुख face, mouth.

आप् āp √5.P. (sometimes Ā.) (pr. 3rd sg. आप्नोति pl. आप्नुवन्ति 5.21.2: 2nd sg. आप्नोषि 2.101:, pot. आप्नुयात् 1st sg. आप्नुयाम्, fut. आप्स्यति ॰ते 2nd pl. आप्स्यथ Ā. 1st  आप्स्ये, ps. pr. आप्यते, pp. आप्त, pot. ps. pt. आप्य, in. pt. ॰आप्य, inf. आप्तुम्) लम्भने obtain, attain, reach, incur; अन्तर्भवने exist in, obtain in, attain in, pervade. अव॰ ava- obtain, etc. परि॰ pari- (पर्य्॰) reach around; ps. be full (or the opposite: be surrounded, see paryāpta). परिसम्॰ parisam- ps. अन्तर्भूते be contained in, be subsumed in, be culminated in. प्र॰ pra- obtain, etc. वि॰ vi- (व्य्॰) obtain, etc., प्रवेशने pervade. सम्॰ sam- obtain, etc.; सम्यक्॰ completely obtain, etc.

आपन्न āpanna (ā-pan-na̍) pp. (of √पद् प्राप्तौ attain 6.6:) प्राप्त attained, become, gaining, falling into.

आपस् āpas (āp-as) f. pl. nom. voc. (of अप् water) O water.

आपूर्य āpūrya (ā-pūr-ya) in. pt. (of √पॄ व्यापने fill 6.9: & 2.69:) filling.

आपूर्यमाण āpūryamāṇa (ā-pūr-ya-māṇa) pr. ps. pt. (of √पॄ व्यापने fill 5.37.4: & 2.92:) being full, which is full.

आप्तुम् āptum (āp-tum) inf. (of √आप् लम्भने obtain) to obtain, to accomplish.

आभरण ābharaṇa (ā-bhar-aṇa) n. (fr. √भृ धारणे bear 2.92:) भूषण ornament (that one wears).

आभास ābhāsa (ā-bhās-a) m. (fr. √भास् दीप्तौ shine) अवभासते इति what appears; अन्य-धर्मस्य अन्यस्मिन् आरोपेण भानम् an appearance (in one thing of the attributes of another due to erroneous imposition), a manifestation.

आमय āmaya (ām-a-ya) m. (fr. √अम् रोगे be ill + √या गतौ go 6.24.1:) आमं रोगं याति अनेन disease, ill-health.


आयाम āyāma (ā-yām-a) m. (fr. √यम् विस्तारे extend) दै॑र्य length, duration.

आयास āyāsa (ā-yās-a̍) m. (fr. √यस् प्रयत्ने make effort) परिश्रम exertion, toil, trouble.

आयुध āyudha (ā̍-yudh-a) n. (fr. √युध् सम्प्रहारे fight) प्रहरण weapon.

आयुस् āyus (ā̍-y-us) n. (fr. √इ गतौ move) जीवन life; जीवनावधि allotted term of life. ॰सत्त्व-बलारोग्य-सुखप्रीति-विवर्धन -sattva-balārogya-su-kha-prīti-vivardhana (॰युःस॰) a. आयुः च सत्त्वं च बलं च आरोग्यं च सुखं च प्रीतिः च तासां विवर्धनः (food) that increases longevity, mental clarity, strength, health, pleasure (in taste), and satisfaction (visually and physically, भ॰गी॰१७.८).

आरम्भ ārambha (ā-rambh-a̍) m. (fr. √रभ् कार्योपक्रमे undertake an action) उपक्रम beginning, initiation (of activities or an event); कार्य undertaking, amending, action, work, endeavor.

आराधन ārādhana (ā-rādh-ana) n. (fr. √राध् संसिद्धौ accomplish, flourish) प्राप्ति accomplishment; पूजन propitiating (causing to flourish), propitiation, worship.

आराम ārāma (ā-rām-a̍) m. (fr. √रम् क्रीडायाम् play) आरमण (क्रीडा) reveling, pleasure.

आरुरुक्षु ārurukṣu (ā-ru-ruk-ṣ[a]-u) a. (fr. des. of √रुह् प्रादुर्भावे be manifest 5.41: & 2.105: & 2.76:) आरोढुम् इच्छन् desiring to attain or rise to.

आरूढ ārūḍha (ā-rū-ḍha) pp. (of √रुह् प्रादुर्भावे be manifest 2.107:) उत्थित risen; अधिष्ठित standing on, mounted on (acc. or loc.); सिद्ध attained.

आरोग्य ārogya (ā-rog[a]-ya) n. (fr. √रुज् भङ्गे break 2.82:) अ-रोगस्य भावः the state of being free from disease, health.

आर्जव ārjava (ārj-av-a) n. (fr. √ऋज् गतौ go, प्राप्तौ acquire) ऋजु-भावः अ-वक्रत्वम् straightforwardness (alignment of thought, word, and deed, in that causal order only, so that all action is in keeping with my word, and my word is in keeping with my thought – not the other way around where my actions dictate my word and thought).

आर्त ārta (ā-ṛ-ta̍) pp. (of √ऋ गतौ go प्रापणे attain 2.18:) आर्ति-परिगृहीत seized by trouble.

आर्य ārya (ā̍r-ya) a. (fr. √ऋ प्रापणे attain) वैदिक conforming to the Veda, संस्कृत cultured. “कर्तव्यम् आचरन् कामम् अ-कर्तव्यम् अनाचरन्। तिष्ठति प्राकृताचारे स वा आर्य इति स्मृतः॥ The one who follows what is to-be-done, does not follow after pleasures not to-be-done, and is steadfast in following the natural order (dharma) is said to be an ārya.”

आलय ālaya (ā-lay-a) m. (fr. √ली श्लेषणे adhere) आश्रय abode.

आलस्य ālasya (ā-las[a]-ya) n. (fr. √लस् क्रीडायाम् play) अ-लसस्य भावः the state of being not lively, अ-वश्य-कर्तव्ये अनुसाह-रूपे अ-लसत्वम् laziness (in undertaking what is necessary to do).

आवयोस् āvayos (āva-yos) prn. du. gen. loc. (of अहम् 4.2:) our, between us, among us (two).

आवर्तिन् āvartin (ā-vart-in) a. (fr. आ + √वृत् प्रत्यागमने return) आवर्तन-स्व-भाव having (the nature of) returning.

आवह āvaha (ā-vah-a) a. (fr. √वह् प्रापणे convey) आहर bringing.

आविश्य āviśya (ā-viś-ya) in. pt. (of √विश् अन्तर्गमने enter into) having entered.

आविष्ट āviṣṭa (ā-viṣ-ṭa̍) pp. (of √विश् अन्तर्गमने enter into 2.85:) अभिभूत overwhelmed, व्याप्त pervaded with (ps. meaning); व्यापक having pervaded (act. meaning 7.17.2:).

आवृत āvṛta (ā-vṛ-ta̍) pp. (of √वृ आच्छादने cover) आच्छादित covered.

आवृत्ति āvṛtti (ā-vṛt-ti) f. (fr. आ + √वृत् प्रत्यागमने return) प्रत्यागमन return, re-birth; अभ्यास repetition.

आवृत्य āvṛtya (ā-vṛ-tya) in. pt. (of √वृ आच्छादने cover6.9:) आच्छाद्य covering; आवाप्य pervading.

आवेशित āveśita (ā-veś-i-ta̍) pp. (of cs. √विश् अन्तर्गमने enter into 6.6:) अन्तर्स्थपित placed into, caused to enter, absorbed. ॰चेतस् -cetas a. आवेशितं समाहितं चेतः यस्य whose mind is absorbed.

आवेश्य āveśya (ā-veś-ya) in. pt. (of cs. √विश् अन्तर्गमने enter into 6.9:) अन्तरं स्थापित्वा placing into.


आश āśa (āś-a) a. (fr. √अश् भोजने eat) in cmpd. -॰ आशिन् eater. आश āśa m. अन्न food; अशन eating.

आशय āśaya ā-śay-a̍m. (fr. √शी स्वप्ने lie down, sleep) आधार resting-place, seat, place; चित्त mind (seat of thought).

आशा āśā (ā-aś-ā̍) f. (fr. √अश् व्याप्तौ reach) अनधिगत-विषया तृष्णा longing for what is not yet gained, hope, requirement, anticipation, expectation; आशा āśā (ā̍śā) दिश् (compass) direction, quarter, region. ॰पाशशत -pāśa-śata n. आशा एव पाशाः तच्छतम् hundred(s) of fetters that are anticipations/requirements.

आशिन् āśin (āś-in) a. (fr. √अश् भोजने eat) अशन-शील who has the nature to eat.

आशिस् āśis (ā-śis) f. (fr. आ + √शास् प्रार्थनायाम् ask, taking weak base form शिस् 5.19.11:) (nom. sg. ॰शीः 3.6.l:) हित-प्रार्थन wish, prayer, benediction.

आशु āśu in. शीघ्रम् soon.

आश्चर्य āścarya (ā-ś-car-ya) a. (likely pot. ps. pt. of आ + √चर् सामीप्ये गतौ approach) अद्भुत extraordinary, marvelous; अ-पूर्व surprising, अ-दृष्टं पूर्वं not seen before, rare. आश्चर्य āścarya n. विस्मय a wonder, a marvel, अ-पूर्वं वस्तु a rarity. ॰वत् -vat in. (6.19:) आश्चर्य-तुल्यम् like a wonder.

आश्रय āśraya (ā-śray-a) m. (fr. √श्रि आलम्बने depend on) आधार basis, support, foundation.

आश्रित āśrita (ā-śri-ta̍) pp. (of √श्रि सेवायाम् seek) सेवित sought; प्रतिपन्न taken refuge in, has obtained, obtaining, committed to, tend(ed) towards.

आश्रित्य āśritya (ā-śri-tya) in. pt. (of √श्रि सेवायाम् seek 6.9:) seeking; taking to, taking refuge in.

आश्वासयामास āśvāsayāmāsa (ā-śvās-ay[a]-ā̍-m-ās-a) cs. peri. perf. 3rd or 1st sg. (of √श्वस् प्राणे breathe 5.29:) (he/she/it/who/I) caused to breathe, revived, allowed to catch (his/her) breath, soothed, calmed.

आस् ās √2.Ā. (pr. sg. आस्ते pl. आसते 5.6.b:, pot. आसीत, pr. mid. pt. आसीन irreg. ॰ईन for ॰आन) उपवेशने sit, enter, engage in; गति-निवृत्तौ remain. उद्॰ ud- उपेक्षणे indifferent, being neutral (i.e., “not moving” or “not being moved”). उप॰ upa- आश्रये seek, perform (esp. of upāsana [a meditation that is a purely mental worship in which one thing is super-imposed on another thing]), do upāsana, worship. पर्युप॰ paryupa- आश्रये resort to, seek, enter into, contemplate; अनुष्ठाने practice, follow, perform (esp. of upāsana).

आसक्त āsakta (ā-sa[ñ]k-ta̍) pp. (of √सञ्ज् संसर्गे attach, तादात्म्ये identify with 6.6: & 2.81:) attached to, identified with; committed. ॰मनस् -manas a. आसक्तं मनः यस्य whose mind is committed (भ॰गी॰७.१).

आसङ्ग āsaṅga (ā-saṅg-a̍) m. (fr. √सञ्ज् संसर्गे attach, तादात्म्ये identify with 2.82:) प्राप्ते विषये मनसः प्रीति-लक्षणः संश्लेषः excessive attachment of the mind characterized by love towards objects that one has; तादात्म्य identification (with).

आसद āsada (ā-sad-a) m. (fr. √सद् प्राप्तौ attain) प्राप्ति meeting, arrival, fixing.

आसन āsana (ā̍s-ana) n. (fr. √आस् sit) उपवेशन sitting, seat (place for sitting); स्थिति position.

आसम् āsam (a̍-as-am) impf. 1st sg. (of √अस् भुवि be) (I) was.

आसाद्य āsādya (ā-sād-ya) in. pt. (of cs. √सद् प्राप्तौ attain) सम्प्राप्य attaining.

आसीन āsīna (ā̍s-īna) pr. mid. pt. (of √आस् irreg. ॰ईन for ॰आन) sitting, remaining.

आसुर āsura (ās-ur[a]-a̍) a. (f. ) (fr. असुर, अस्यति क्षिपति देवान् who goes against the deities, fr. √अस् क्षेपणे cast, throw) असुरस्य अस्य इति आसुरः अ-धर्मी against dharma, तामसिक predominantly of tamo-guṇa, barbaric (who is untrusting and tamasic), demonic (even a demon is not completely demonic. Everyone is essentially satyaṃ jñānam an-antam [completely free consciousness-existence]. This cannot be completely hidden even by the darkest ignorance, so everyone has some virtuous traits – be it loyalty, commitment, or whatever, even if fleetingly); अ-युक्त inappropriate, unworthy (e.g., unworthy behavior). ॰निश्चय -niścaya a. आसुरः निश्चयः यस्य whose conviction is unworthy.

आस्तिक्य āstikya (ās-ti-k[a]-ya) n. (fr. √अस् भुवि be) आस्तिक-भावः श्रद्दधानता आगमार्थेषु acceptance in the veracity of the Veda-s.

आस्थाय āsthāya (ā-sthā-ya) in. pt. (of √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain) आश्रित्य following.

आस्थित āsthita (ā-sthi-ta̍) pp. (of √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ 6.6:) प्रवृत्त proceeded; अनुष्ठित followed; आरूढ mounted; प्राप्त attained; अपेक्षित regarded (as); स्थित remained.

आह āha (āh-a) perf. 3rd sg. (of √अह् व्यक्तायां वाचि speak 5.8.5:) (he/she/it/who) said, (commonly with pr. sense) says, calls.

आहव āhava (ā-hav-a) m. (fr. √ह्वे स्पर्धायाम् call out a challenge) युद्ध challenge, contest, battle.

आहार āhāra (ā-hār-a) m. (fr. √हृ प्रापणे acquire) आहरण gathering; भोजन eating; अन्न food.

आहुस् āhus (āh-us) perf. 3rd pl. (of √अह् व्यक्तायां वाचि speak) (they) said, (commonly with pr. sense) say, call.

आहो āho (ā̍ho) in. अथवा or.

*** इ — I ***

 ←आ  इव  उ→ 

i √2.P. (अधि + √इ is usually Ā.) (pr. एति 5.3:, fut. एष्यति 5.33:, pp. इत, in. pt. ॰इत्य 6.9:) गतौ go; प्राप्तौ attain, take to- (w/abstract noun in acc. 7.8.2:). अति॰ ati- अतिगमने go beyond, transcend. अधि॰ adhi- 2.Ā. पठने study, recite (esp. the Veda). अनु॰ anu- (अन्व्॰) अनुगमने fill, pervade. अप॰ apa- अपसरे॰ go away, end. उप॰ upa- समीपे॰ go towards; reach, attain. परा॰ parā- अपसरे॰ go away, end. प्र॰ pra- अपसरे॰ go away, disappear, die. प्रत्यव॰ pratyava- प्रतिकूले॰ go against, offend; नीचे॰ go down (again), diminish. वि॰ vi- अपसरे॰ go away, disappear. विपरि॰ vipari- विपर्यये turn around, reverse, fail. व्यति॰ vyati- व्यतिक्रमणे elapse. व्यप॰ vyapa- विगमने depart, cease. समति॰ samati- अतिगमने go beyond, transcend; व्यतिक्रमणे elapse. समनु॰ samanu- (समन्व्॰) ps. संयक्ते be endowed with. समव॰ samava- मिलिने come together, assemble.

इक्ष्वाकु ikṣvāku (ikṣvāku̍) m. मनु-पुत्र son of Manu (son of the sun deity, the first man in each age of Manu [called a Manvantara]).

इङ्ग् iṅg √1.U. (pr. इङ्गति ॰ते) गतौ move, चलने stir, flicker (of a flame), waver.

इच्छत् icchat (icch-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √इष् अन्वेषणे seek 5.17.3:) having a tendency or preference for, desiring, requiring.

इच्छति icchati (icch-a-ti) pr. 3rd sg. (of √इष् अन्वेषणे seek 5.17.3:) (he/she/it/who) desires, requires.

इच्छा icchā (icch-ā) f. (fr. √इष् अन्वेषणे seek) सङ्कल्प wish, anticipation; काम desire, requiring, requirement, anticipation, expectation. ॰द्वेषसमुत्थ -dveṣa-samuttha a. इच्छा च द्वेषः च इच्छा-द्वेषौ ताभ्यां समुत्तिष्ठति इति born of desire/requiring and aversion.

इज्य ijya (ij-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √यज् देव-पूजादिषु worship 6.8: irreg.) पूज्य to be worshiped. इज्या ijyā f. यज्ञ ritual.

इतर itara (i̍-tara) prn. a. 4.16.1: other.

इतस् itas (i-ta̍s) in. (6.19:) अस्मात् from this, from here, hence.

इति iti pcl. thus (after an exposition, or after an explicit listing of one or more items to be discussed or defined), equivalent of an end-quote (there is no begin-quote identifier), at the end of a direct or indirect quote, or a thought not uttered; हेतु ending an expression of the reason for what what lies outside of that expression. (भ॰गी॰४.३). इति अर्थः iti arthaḥ (इत्य॰) m. इति अभिप्रायः i.e.-, the idea is-, in other words-.

इदम् idam (i-d-a̍m) prn. n. (m. अयम्, f. इयम्, m. pl. इमे 4.8:) यत् सन्निकृष्टम् this, he, she, it – generally referring to what is near. इदम् idam in. इह now, here, इतः thus.

इदानीम् idānīm (i-d-ā̍nīm) in. (6.19:) अधुना now, at this moment.

इध् idh (=√इन्ध्) √2.Ā. (pp. इद्ध 2.76: & 2.78:) दीप्तौ ignite, kindle. सम्॰ sam- ignite, etc.

इन्द् ind √1.P. परमैश्वर्ये have great power.

इन्द्र indra (i̍nd-ra) m. (fr. √इन्द् परमैश्वर्ये have great power) देवाधिप leader of the deities, Lord इन्द्र; in cmpd. -॰ नायक chief, leader, king.

इन्द्रिय indriya (ind-r[a]-iya̍) a. (fr. √इन्द् परमैश्वर्ये have great power) belonging to Lord Indra. इन्द्रिय indriya n. शक्ति power; pl. ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि कर्मेन्द्रियाणि च the organs, the sense organs, the powers or functions of knowing (sensing): hearing, feeling (touching), seeing, tasting, and smelling (matching the five sense objects: space, air, fire, water, and earth), also the powers of action: speech, hands (fashioning), feet (locomotion), evacuation, and generation. ॰अग्नि -agni m. pl. ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि एव अग्नयः the fires that are organs of sense perception. ॰अर्थ -artha m. pl. इन्द्रियाणाम् अर्थाः विषयाः objects of the senses. ॰आराम -ārāma a. इन्द्रियैः आक्रीडा विषयेषु यस्य who (finds his/her) pleasure through the senses (in the playground of objects), given only to sensual pursuits. ॰कर्मन् -karman n. इन्द्रियाणां क्रिया activity of the sense and action organs. ॰गोचर -gocara m. pl. शब्दादयः विषयाः (the field of) sense objects (such as sounds, etc.). ॰ग्राम -grāma m. इन्द्रिय-समुदाय the group of sense and action organs.


इव iva (i-va) in. (6.19:) यथा in which way, like, as, an enclitic that follows the word it modifies; may also follow a verb with the sense of seems to-.

इष् iṣ √4.P. गतौ move, set in motion.

इष् iṣ √6.P. (pr. इच्छति 5.17.3:, impv. इच्छ 5.17.3:, pr. pt. इच्छत् 5.17.3:, pp. इष्ट 2.88:, in. pt. इष्ट्वा 2.88:) अन्वेषणे seek, strive for, wish, anticipate, desire, require. अनु॰ anu- (अन्वि॰ 2.11:) seek, etc.

इषु iṣu (i̍ṣ-u) f. (fr. √इष् गतौ move) शर arrow. ॰आस -āsa (॰ष्वा॰) m. (lit. “arrow shooter”) चाप (धनुस्) archery bow; धन्विन् bowman, archer (also used as an adjective in this sense).

इष्ट iṣṭa (iṣ-ṭa̍) pp. (of √इष् अन्वेषणे seek 2.88:) what is desired, desirable, beloved, favorite. इष्ट iṣṭa pp. (of √यज् देव-पूजा-सङ्गति-करण-यजन-दानेषु worship 6.6: & 2.3.a: & 2.81: & 2.88:) पूजित worshiped (भ॰गी॰१८.७०). ॰अनिष्टोपपत्ति -an-iṣṭopapatti f. pl. इष्टानां अनिष्टानां च उपपत्तयः सम्प्राप्तयः occurrences of the desirable and undesirable. ॰कामदुह् -kāma-duh f. (sg. nom. ॰धुक् 3.6.m:) (6.24:) अभिप्रेतान् कामान् फल-विशेषान् दोग्धि what yields all desired results, the wish-fulfilling cow.

इष्ट्वा iṣṭvā (iṣ-ṭvā̍) in. pt. (of √यज् देव-पूजादिषु worship 6.9: & 2.3.a: & 2.81: & 2.88:) propitiating.

इह iha (i-ha̍) in. (6.19:) अत्र here, अस्मिन् in this, in this world, in this life, in regard to this; इदानीम् now.

*** ई — Ī ***

ईक्ष् īkṣ √1.Ā. (pr. ईक्षते 1st sg. ईक्षे, pot. ps. pt. ईक्ष्य, in. pt. ॰ईक्ष्य) दर्शने see, ज्ञाने know. अप॰ apa- (अपे॰ 2.8:) अवलोकने observe, consider, regard. अव॰ ava- (अवे॰ 2.8:) अवलोकने observe, consider; संदर्शने examine. निस्॰ nis- (निरी॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) see, etc.; संदर्शने examine. वि॰ vi- (वीक्ष्॰) see, etc. सम्॰ sam- see, etc. सम्प्र॰ sampra- (॰प्रे॰ 2.8:) see, etc.

ईक्षण īkṣaṇa (īkṣ-aṇa) n. (fr. √ईक्ष् दर्शने see) दर्शन sight; चक्षुर् eye.

ईड् īḍ √2.Ā. (pot. ps. pt. ईड्य) स्तुतौ praise, worship.

ईड्य īḍya (ī̍ḍ-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √ईड् स्तुतौ praise) to be praised, worshipful.

ईदृश् īdṛś (ī-dṛś) a. (fr. pronominal stem of इदम् compounded with √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see, alternatively Paninian grammar takes ॰दृश्/॰दृश as a suffix) (nom. sg. ॰दृक्) (4.17.1:) (lit. “of this appearance”) एवं-विध of this kind, such.

ईदृश īdṛśa (ī-dṛś-a) a. (fr. pronominal stem of इदम् compounded with √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see [4.17.2:], alternatively Paninian grammar takes ॰दृश्/॰दृश as a suffix) (lit. “of this appearance”) एवं-विध of this kind, such.

ईप्सु īpsu (īp-s[a]-u) a. (fr. des. of √आप् लम्भने obtain 5.41: & 5.12.2:) ईप्सति इति desiring to obtain.

ईश् īś √2.Ā. शासने rule.

ईश īśa (īś-a) a. (fr. √ईश् शासने rule) स्वामिन् master, lord. ईश īśa m. देव deity, the Lord (manifest through that deity).

ईश्वर īśvara (īś-vara̍) m. (fr. √ईश् शासने rule) ईशन-शील the one who rules (including the jīva, who rules his or her body-mind complex, भ॰गी॰१५.८), प्रभु master, leader; परमेश्वर the Lord (the embodiment of all physical laws, including the law of karman). ॰भाव -bhāva m. ईश्वरस्य प्रभोः भावः leadership, lordship.

ईह् īh √1.Ā. (pr. ईहते) चेष्टायाम् exert, engage in (w/acc.).

*** उ — U ***

 ←इ  उप  उपम  ऋ→ 

उक्त ukta (uk-ta̍) pp. (of √वच् परिभाषणे speak 6.6: & 2.3.a: & 2.80:) said, told.

उक्त्वा uktvā (uk-tvā̍) in. pt. (of √वच् परिभाषणे speak 6.9: & 6.6: & 2.3.a:2.80:) having spoken.

उग्र ugra (ug-ra̍) a. (prob. fr. √वज् स्थैर्ये be firm 2.3.a: & 2.82:, cf. ओजस्) उत्कट violent, excessive, severe. ॰कर्मन् -karman a. क्रूराणि कर्माणि यस्य whose actions are violent or cruel. ॰रूप -rūpa a. क्रूरं रूपं यस्य whose form is violent.

उच्च ucca (uc-ca) a. (fr. उद् + च in. 2.45:) उन्नत high, loud. ॰ऐस् -ais (॰च्चैस् pl. inst.) in. उन्नते highly, loudly. उच्चैःश्रवस् uccaiḥ-śravas m. (lit. “tall ears”) उन्नत-कर्णः समुद्र-जातः श्वेत-वर्णः इन्द्रस्य वाहन-भूतः अश्व-भेदः the name of a white horse born of the (churning of the milky) ocean who became a vehicle for Lord Indra.

उच्छिष्ट ucchiṣṭa (uc-chiṣ-ṭa) pp. (of √शिष् अवशेषणे leave as a remainder 2.45: & 2.56: & 2.88:) अवशिष्ट left over. उच्छिष्ट ucciṣṭa n. भुक्त-शिष्ट leavings, scrapes (from someone else’s plate).

उच्छोषण ucchoṣaṇa (uc-choṣ-aṇa) a. (fr. उद् + cs. √शुष्  make dry 2.24: & 2.45:) जलापहरण drying up.

उच्यते ucyate (uc-ya-te) ps. pr. 3rd sg. (of √वच् परिभाषणे speak 5.37.6: & 2.3.a:) (he/she/it/who) is said, is called.

उत uta (u-ta̍) in. अपि also, and, even; (at the end of a line of verse with the sense of) किल indeed (expressing emphasis, or just filling the meter).

उत्क्रामत् utkrāmat (ut-krām-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √क्रम् पाद-विक्षेपे walk 5.15.1:) विगच्छत् departing, dying.

उत्तम uttama (ut-tama̍) spv. a. (fr. prefix उद् 6.25:) उत्कृष्ट most, highest, greatest, best, most profound, most exalted, better or higher than (w/abl.), पर (सीमापरिच्छिन्न) limitless, transcendent (of limitations). ॰अङ्ग -aṅga n. (lit. “highest limb”) शिरस् head. ॰ओजस् -ojas (॰मौ॰) m. (उत्तमं तेजः यस्य lit. “of greatest power”) name of a brother of Yudhā-manyu on the Pāṇḍava side. ॰विद् -vid m. (6.24:) उत्तमं वेत्ति who knows the most exalted (deities, like Indra, etc., भ॰गी॰१४.१४).

उत्तर uttara (u̍t-tara) prn. cpv. a. (fr. prefix उद् 6.25:) उत्तर-स्थ northern (opp. dakṣiṇa) (in this sense declines like prn. a. 4.16.3:); उच्चतर upper, higher (opp. adhara); उत्तर-वर्तिन् later, last (opp. pūrva), आगामिन् future; वाम left (facing the rising sun for prayer, the left is towards the north) (opp. to dakṣiṇa); मुख्य chief, श्रेष्ठ superior, अधिक exceeding. उत्तर uttara n. प्रतिवचन reply, answer; in cmpd. -॰ आवरण a cover. ॰अयण -ayaṇa (॰ण because of 2.92:) n. उत्तर-स्था भ॰गी॰८.२४).

उत्तिष्ठ uttiṣṭha (ut-tiṣṭh-a) impv. 2nd sg. (of उद् + √स्था ऊर्ध्वं गति-निवृत्तौ stand up 5.15.4: & 2.24:) (you) please get up, stand up.

उत्थ uttha (ut-[s]tha) a. (fr. उद् + √स्था ऊर्ध्वं गति-निवृत्तौ stand up 2.99: & 2.24:) only in cmpd. -॰ (6.24.1:) उत्तिष्ठति इति what arises-; तस्मात् उत्थित arisen from-.

उत्थित utthita (ut-[s]thi-ta̍) pp. (of उद् + √स्था ऊर्ध्वं गति-निवृत्तौ stand up 6.6: & 2.99: & 2.24:) ऊर्ध्वं स्थितः arisen.

उत्सन्न utsanna (ut-san-na̍) pp. (of √सद् विशरणे disintegrate 6.6: & 2.24:) नष्ट destroyed. ॰कुलधर्म -kula-dharma a. उत्सन्नः कुलस्य धर्मः यस्य who has destroyed the family tradition (भ॰गी॰१.४४).

उत्सादन utsādana (ut-sā̍d-ana) n. (fr. उद् + cs. √सद् विशरणे disintegrate 2.24:) विनाश destruction, विनाशन destroying. ॰अर्थम् -artham in. (6.32:) विनाशस्य अर्थम् for destroying.

उत्साह utsāha (ut-sāh-a) m. (fr. √सह् क्षमायाम् endure) उद्यम effort, diligence; क्षमा endurance.

उत्सृज्य utsṛjya (ut-sṛj-ya) in. pt. (of √सृज् विसर्गे emit 6.9: & 2.24:) त्यक्त्वा casting away.

उद् ud in. prefix उच्चे up, upwards, upon, over; परे beyond; बहिस् forth, out, apart.

उद uda (ud-a) (उदन् per Paninian grammar, which drops न् as first or last member of cmpd. 6.29:) (fr. √उन्द् क्लेदने wet) only in cmpd. for उदक water. ॰पान -pāna m. n. (lit. “water-drinking”) कूप-तडागादि a water-hole, bathing tank, etc.

उदक udaka (ud-a-ka̍) n. (fr. √उन्द् क्लेदने wet) जल water.

उदर udara (ud-a̍r-a) n. (maybe fr. √ऋ गतौ move) जठर belly.

उदार udāra (ud-ār-a) a. (fr. √ऋ प्रापणे attain) उत्कृष्ट exalted.

उदासीन udāsīna (ud-ās-īna) pr. mid. pt. (of √आस् उपवेशने sit irreg. ॰ईन for ॰आन) being indifferent, उपेक्षक indifferent, neutral (understands both sides in any dispute and is not dependent upon its outcome). उदासीन udāsīna m. न कस्यचित् पक्षं भजते one who does not take a side (in a dispute), bystander, an acquaintance. ॰वत् -vat in. (6.19:) यथा उपेक्षकः कश्चित् like (someone) indifferent, seemingly indifferent.

उदाहृत udāhṛta (ud-ā-hṛ-ta̍) pp. (of उदा + √हृ वाचि speak) stated, said, called.

उदाहृत्य udāhṛtya (ud-ā-hṛ-tya) in. pt. (of उदा + √हृ वाचि speak 6.9:) उच्चार्य pronouncing.

उद्दिश्य uddiśya (ud-diś-ya) in. pt. (of √दिश् आज्ञापने point out) (lit. “pointing to”) अपेक्ष्य with regard to, considering; प्रति towards, अर्थम् for.

उद्देश uddeśa (ud-deś-a) m. (fr. √दिश् आज्ञापने point out) निर्देश reference, description; अन्वेषण inquiry. ॰तस् -tas in. (6.19:) एक-देशेन in part; सङ्क्षेपेण in summary.

उद्भव udbhava (ud-bhav-a̍) a. (fr. √भू उत्पादे become) in cmpd. -॰ उत्पत्तिः यस्य born of-. उद्भव udbhava m. उत्पत्ति origin, birth; उदय arising, prosperity.

उद्यत udyata (ud-ya[m]-ta̍) pp. (of उद् + √यम् उत्थापने hold up 6.6:) ऊर्ध्वी-कृत upheld, raised, poised; युक्त prepared, about to, set to (with dat., loc., inf., or in cmpd. -॰).

उद्यम्य udyamya (ud-yam-ya) in. pt. (of उद् + √यम् उत्थापने hold up) raising.

उद्वेग udvega (ud-veg-a) m. (fr. √विज् भय-चलनयोः be afraid, be agitated 2.82:) व्याकुल-चित्तता agitated state of mind, anxiety.

उन्द् und √7.P. क्लेदने wet. सम्॰ sam- wet.

उन्मिषत् unmiṣat (un-miṣ-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of उद् + √मिष् उन्मीलने open the eyes 2.24: & 2.44:) opening the eyes.


उप upa in. prefix सामीप्ये near, next to; अन्तर् within, into; आरम्भे expressing commencement; पूजायाम् expressing reverence or worship. उप upa in. in cmpd. with nouns and non-verbal adjectives ॰- it also has the senses: अधीनतायाम् subordinate, inferior; (with numerals) प्रायः nearly.

उपद्रष्टृ upadraṣṭṛ (upa-draṣ-ṭṛ) m. (fr. √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 2.85:) समीप-स्थः सन् द्रष्टा immediate witness.

उपनिषद् upaniṣad (upa-ni-ṣa̍d) f. (fr. √सद् विशरणे disintegrate, अवसादने bring to an end, प्राप्तौ attain/know 6.24: & 2.101:) ब्रह्म-विद्या section/knowledge of Veda (any complete book of knowledge, esp. the four Vedas: Ṛg, Yajus, Sāma, and Atharvan) which concluding section teaches brahman, the final teaching of the Veda. Upa + ni + √sad means what causes the disintegration and (final) destruction (√sad viśaraṇe avasādane) of what is not wanted, i.e., saṃsāritvam, and the attainment (√sad gatau) of what is wanted, i.e., mokṣa, by definite knowledge (ni- niścayena jñānena) of what is nearest (upa- upānte), i.e., the pratyag-ātman (or upa- upagamanasya [for the one who approaches] the teacher).

उपपत्ति upapatti (upa-pat-ti) f. (fr. उप + √पद् समीपे गतौ approach 2.42:) सङ्गति occurrence; युक्ति connection, proof, reasoning.

उपपन्न upapanna (upa-pan-na̍) pp. (of उप + √पद् समीपे गतौ approach 6.6:) आगत has come.

उपभोग upabhoga (upa-bhog-a) m. (fr. √भुज् भोजने consume) आस्वाद consumption, experiencing.


उपमा upamā (upa-m[ā]-[a]-ā̍) f. (fr. √मा माने measure) सादृश्य simile, comparison.

उपरत uparata (upa-ra[m]-ta̍) pp. (of √रम् निवृत्तौ stop 6.6:) ceased, quit.

उपविश्य upaviśya (upa-viś-ya) in. pt. (of √विश् अन्तर्गमने enter into 6.9:) sitting down, entering.

उपसङ्गम्य upasaṅgamya (upa-saṅ-gam-ya) in. pt. (of √गम् attain 6.9: & 2.55:) समीपं गत्वा to be attained.

उपस्थ upastha (upa̍-stha) m. (fr. √स्था अन्तर् गति-निवृत्तौ stand within) पीठ (lower) seat.

उपहत upahata (upa-ha[n]-ta̍) pp. (of √हन् हिंसायाम् destroy 6.6:) अभिभूत overwhelmed, overcome.

उपहृत upahṛta (upa-hṛ-ta̍) pp. (of √हृ हरणे convey) प्रापित offered.

उपाय upāya (upa-ay-a) m. (fr. √इ प्राप्तौ reach) उपगमन approach; साधन means, method. ॰तस् -tas in. (6.19:) उपायात् by (proper) means.

उपाश्रित upāśrita (upa-ā-śri-ta̍) pp. (of √श्रि सेवायाम् seek) आश्रय-प्राप्त taken refuge in (w/acc.), committed to.

उपाश्रित्य upāśritya (upa-ā-śri-tya) in. pt. (of √श्रि सेवायाम् seek 6.9:) अनुष्ठाय following, taking refuge in (w/acc.).

उपासन upāsana (upa-ās-ana) n. (fr. √आस् उपवेशने sit) सेव worship (esp. mentally worshipping or appreciating some aspect of the Lord), reverence (in attitude), service (in actions).

उपेत upeta (upa-i-ta̍) pp. (of √इ प्राप्तौ reach) उपगत arrived; युक्त endowed (w/inst.), in cmpd. -॰ possessed of.

उपेत्य upetya (upa-i-tya) in. pt. (of √इ प्राप्तौ reach 6.9:) उपगम्य reaching.

उपैष्यसि upaiṣyasi (upa-e-ṣya-si) fut. 2nd sg. (of √इ प्राप्तौ reach 2.9: & 2.101:) you will attain.

उभ ubha (ubh-a̍) prn. a. (only in du. 4.16.b:) द्वय both.

उभय ubhaya (ubha̍-ya) prn. a. (only in sg. or pl. 4.16.2:) द्वय both. ॰विभ्रष्ट -vibhraṣṭa a. उभाभ्याम् अधः-पतितः fallen from both.

उरस् uras n. वक्षस् chest. Often उर ura in cmpd. ॰-. ॰ग -ga (ura̍-ga) m. (lit. “moves on its chest”) सर्प snake.

उल्ब ulba (u̍lba) n. गर्भ-वेष्टन womb.

उवाच uvāca (u-vā̍c-a) perf. 3rd sg. (of √वच् परिभाषणे speak 5.10.3:) (he/she/it/who) said.

उशनस् uśanas (uś-a̍n-as) m. (3.6.i: irreg. nom. sg. ॰ना) उशना कविः the name of a seer in the Vedas, he is also called Śukra, the counsel for the asuras (demons).

उष् uṣ √1.P. दाहे burn.

उषित्वा uṣitvā (uṣ-i-tvā̍) in. pt. (of √वस् स्थाने stay 6.9: & 2.3.a: & 2.101:) वासं अनुभूय having lived (there).

उष्ण uṣṇa (uṣ-ṇa̍) a. (fr. √उष् दाहे burn) तप्त hot; रस-भेद a kind of taste: spicy hot. उष्ण uṣṇa n. तप्तता heat, hot season.

*** ऊ — Ū ***

ऊरु ūru (ūru̍) m. सक्थि thigh.

ऊर्जित ūrjita (ūrj-i-ta̍) pp. (of den. fr. ऊर्ज् meaning बल force) बलातिशय-युक्त powerful, mighty.

ऊर्ध्व ūrdhva (ūrdh-va̍) a. उच्च raised, elevated, upward; उत्कृष्ट superior, beyond. ॰म् -m in. (6.16:) उच्चैः high, above, उपरि afterwards. ॰मूल -mūla a. ऊर्ध्वं मूलं यस्य whose root is superior or beyond (i.e., अ-व्यक्त/माया [the unseen, unmanifest cause of the seen universe] – a material cause is always viewed as superior to its effects, भ॰गी॰१५.१).

ऊष्मप ūṣmapa (ūṣ-ma-pa) m. pl. (fr. √उष् दाहे burn + √पा पाने drink 6.24.1:) (lit. “drinking the stream of hot [श्राद्ध] food”) पितृ-गण-भेद a certain group of ancestors.

*** ऋ — Ṛ ***

 ←उ  ए  ओ  क→ 

√6.P. (pr. ऋच्छति 5.17.3:, pp. ऋत, pp. cs. अर्पित 6.6:) गतौ go; प्रापणे gain, attain; cs. निक्षेपे cast, offer, resolve (the mind) into. आ॰ ā- आर्ति-परिग्रहणे get into trouble. सम्॰ sam- go, etc.

ऋच् ṛc f. (fr. √ऋच् स्तुतौ praise) सूक्त a Vedic hymn (in general); ऋग्वेदस्य मन्त्रः a mantra (here a metrical verse that is so recited) of or from the Ṛg Veda; generally in pl. ऋग्वेद the whole Ṛg Veda (10,522 mantras in the saṃhita section, i.e., the initial, pure mantra section without the brāhmaṇa [the ensuing internal prose commentary]).

ऋच्छा ṛcchā (ṛcch-ā) f. (fr. √ऋछ् गमने befall, incur) संगति occurrence.

ऋज् ṛj √1.Ā. प्राप्तौ acquire, शक्ति-प्राप्तौ be vigorous.

ऋत ṛta (ṛ-ta̍) pp. (of √ऋ गतौ go प्रापणे attain) सत्य true, उचित fitting (true to the facts). ऋत ṛta n. सत्यम् truth.

ऋतु ṛtu (ṛ-tu̍) m. (fr. √ऋ गतौ go/attain) शिशिरः वसन्तः ग्रीश्मः वर्षा शरद् हिमः षट् ऋतवः इति काल-भेदः season (the six seasons of two lunar months each are in order described here more in terms of the northern Indian climate: the cool [śiśira, part of January to part of March], spring, summer, rainy, autumn, and start of cool).

ऋते ṛte (ṛte̍) in. (6.16:) विना without, except (w/acc. or abl.).

ऋद्ध ṛddha (ṛd-dha̍) pp. (of √ऋध् वृद्धौ thrive 2.76: & 2.78:) सुस्थ prosperous.

ऋध् ṛdh √4.P. (also 5.P.) (pp. ऋद्ध 2.76: & 2.78:) वृद्धौ thrive, increase. सम्॰ sam- thrive, etc.

ऋष् ṛṣ √6.P. गतौ flow, attain.

ऋषभ ṛṣabha (ṛṣ-a-bha̍) m. (fr. √ऋष् गतौ flow, attain) वृषभ bull; श्रेष्ठ chief (in cmpd. -॰).

ऋषि ṛṣi (ṛ̍ṣ-i) m. (fr. √ऋष् गतौ flow, attain) सम्यग्दर्शिन् a seer (of the Vedic mantras), one with clear knowledge, sage.

*** ए — E ***

एक eka num. a. (4.23.a:) one. एक eka prn. a. single, alone; a, an (an indefinite article 7.3.2:), a certain, some one; केवल only; अ-द्वितीय non-dual, oneness. एकम् अक्षरम् ekam a-kṣaram n. ओङ्कार the sacred sound symbol Om (भ॰गी॰१०.२५). ॰अंश -aṃśa m. एकः भागः one part. ॰अक्षर -a-kṣara n. एकम् अ-क्षरम् single syllable. ॰अग्र -agra a. एकम् अग्रं विषयः यस्य having a single subject matter, single-pointed. ॰अन्तम् -antam in. अत्यन्तम् fully, adequately. ॰त्व -tva n. ऐक्य oneness, identity, being one, अभेद being not different. ॰भक्ति -bhakti a. एकस्य एव भक्तिः यस्य whose worship is of the one (the Lord who is everything). ॰स्थ -stha a. (6.24.1:) एकस्मिन् एव स्थितः in one place, together, एकस्मिन् आत्मनि स्थितः united or resolved into one (ātman, भ॰गी॰१३.३०).

एकादश ekā-daśa (ekā-daś-a̍) ordinal (4.23.b: & 4.26:) eleventh.

एकाकिन् ekākin (ek[a]-ākin) a. अ-सहाय without a companion, alone.

एतद् etad (e-ta̍-d) prn. (m. एषः, n. एतद्, f. एषाः 4.7:) यत् समीपतरम् this, he, she, it – generally referring to what is immediate (more near than इदम्). एतद् etad in. एवम् in this way; अतः thus; अत्र here, now. ॰योनि -yoni a. एते परापरे प्रकृती योनिः यस्य having these two (the lower and higher prakṛtis, भ॰गी॰७.६) as their source.

एतावत् etāvat (etā̍-vat) a. इयत् so much, so many, this much or many; एतदवधि so far, this far.

एति eti (e-ti) pr. 3rd sg. (of √इ प्राप्तौ reach) (he/she/it/who) goes, reaches, attains.

एधस् edhas (e̍[n]dh-as) n. (fr. √इन्ध् दीप्तौ kindle) इन्धन fuel, काष्ठ wood log.

एन ena (e-na) defective enclitic prn. (m. एनम्, n. एनद्, f. एनाम् 4.10:) this, he, she, it.

एव eva (e-va̍) in. (6.19:) अवधारणे only, just, the very same, a restrictive particle following the word to which it belongs; sometimes merely for stress or to fill meter.

एवम् evam (e-va̍-m) in. (6.19:) येन प्रकारेण in this way; यथा as, such. ॰रूप -rūpa (॰वंरू॰) a. यथा-दर्शितं रूपं यस्य of such (a previously shown) form. ॰विध -vidha (॰वंवि॰) a. यथा-प्रकार in such a manner, in such a form.

एष्यति eṣyati (e-ṣya-si) fut. 3rd sg. (of √इ गतौ go/attain 5.33: & 2.101:) (he/she/it/who) will go, will attain.

*** ऐ — Ai ***

ऐकान्तिक aikāntika (aika-ant-[a]-ika) a. (fr. √अन्त् बन्धने bind, limit) (lit. “being the only end or conclusion”) एकान्तं व्याप्नोति attaining exclusiveness or perfection, attaining absolute necessity, अ-व्यभिचारिन् unfailing, unerring, not subject to negation.

ऐरावत airāvata (airā-vat-a) m. (इरा water/milk fr. √इ प्राप्तौ reach) इरावान् समुद्रः तत्र भवः one who is born of the (mythological milky) ocean (irāvat); समुद्र-जातः श्वेत-वर्णः इन्द्रस्य वाहन-भूतः गज-भेदः the name of a white elephant born of the (churning of the milky) ocean who became a vehicle for Lord Indra.

ऐश्वर aiśvara (aiś-var[a]-a) a. (fr. √ईश् शासने rule) ईश्वर-भव lordly, as the Lord. ऐश्वर aiśvara n. प्रभुत्व lordship; शक्ति power, the power which is the Lord.

ऐश्वर्य aiśvarya (aiś-var[a]-ya) n. (fr. √ईश् शासने rule) प्रभुत्व lordship; शक्ति power, the power which is the Lord.

*** ओ — O ***

ओजस् ojas (o̍j-as) n. (prob. fr. √वज् स्थैर्ये be firm 2.3.a:, cf. वज्र) बल strength, तेजस् power.

ओम् om (o̍m) in. (fr. √अव् रक्षणे protect; the syllable is composed of, but not separately pronounced with, the three letters a̍ u m, upon which in Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad are superimposed as a praṇava, sound symbol, the threefold manifestation of life’s experience: waking-consciousness, dream-conciousness, and sleep-consciousness; with the so-called “fourth” being ātman/brahman, the silent basis before, during, and after those three sounds/experiences. Sometimes written with the pratimā, stylized written symbol, ) n. ब्रह्मन् reality (“ओम् इति ब्रह्म,” ­तै॰उ॰१.८.१); प्रणव the sacred sound “Om”; आरम्भे used at commencement (and conclusion) of an action; मङ्गले used to invoke auspiciousness; स्वी-कारे yes, एवम् अस्तु may it be so. ॰कार -kāra (॰ङ्का॰ 2.55:) m. प्रणव the sacred sound symbol Om. ओं तत्सत् oṃ tat sat Om (ātman/brahman) is that reality.

ओषधि oṣadhi (or ॰धी) (oṣ-a-dh[ā]-i) f. (fr. ओष burning, maybe contextually sun rays + √धा धारणे hold) व्रीहि-यवादि a plant (such as rice, barley, etc.).

*** औ — Au ***

औपम्य aupamya (aupa-m[ā]-ya) n. (fr. √मा माने measure) उपमायाः भावः basis of comparison (upamā).

औषध auṣadha (auṣ-a-dh[i]-a̍) n. (lit. “made from oṣadhi [plants]”) सर्व-प्राणिभिः यद् अद्यते what is eaten by all living beings, food; व्याध्युपशमनार्थं भेषजम् herbal medicine (for curing hunger and other diseases).

*** क — K ***

 ←ऋ  कर  कल  का  कार

 कि  कृ  के  क्र  क्ष  क्षि  ग→ 

ka interrogative prn. (m. कः, n. किम्, f. का) प्रश्ने who, what, which? why? w/inst. निन्दायाम् “what is gained by…?” or “what is the use of…?” (usually with the neuter form किम्) (7.9.7:). ॰अपि -api (m. कोऽपि, n. किमपि, f. कापि), ॰चन -cana (m. कश्चन, n. किञ्चन, f. काचन), ॰चिद -cid (m. कश्चिद्, n. किञ्चिद्, f. काचिद्) prn. cmpd. a. or noun  (where only prn. stem is inflected) (an indefinite) some, any, a certain, one, a rare one; with (e.g., na kiñ-cid) no one, nothing 4.20:.

ka n. सुख happiness; जल water. ka m. ब्रह्मन् reality; प्रजा-पति Lord Prajā-pati.

कच्चिद् kac-cid (ka̍c-cid) in. (Vedic neut. sg. acc. कद् + चिद् 4.20: & 2.24: & 2.45:) प्रश्ने (a particle of interrogation expressing) has? (meaning I hope that?); (with a negative) I hope not that–?

कटु kaṭu a. रस-भेद a kind of taste: pungent. ॰अम्ल-लवणात्युष्ण-तीक्ष्ण-रूक्ष-विदाहिन् -amla-lavaṇātyuṣṇa-tīkṣṇa-rūkṣa-vidāhin (॰ट्वम्ल्॰) a. अतीव कटुः च अम्लः च लवणः च उष्णः च तीक्ष्णः च रूक्षः च विदाही च (too) pungent, sour, salty, spicy hot, bitter, astringent, or burning (भ॰गी॰१७.९).

कतर katara (ka-tara̍) prn. (n. sg. कतरद् 4.16.1:) तयोः किम् which of the two?

कथ् kath √10.U. (impv. कथय, fut. कथयिष्यति, pr. pt. कथयत्) वाक्य-प्रबन्धे report (verbally or in writing), tell.

कथम् katham (ka-tha̍m) in. (6.19:) केन प्रकरणेन in what way, how?

कथयत् kathayat (kath-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √कथ् वाक्य-प्रबन्धे report) talking, telling, teaching.

कदा kadā (ka-dā̍) in. (6.19:) कस्मिन् काले at which time, when? ॰चन -cana or ॰चिद् -cid in. कस्मिश्चित् काले (an indefinite) at some time; with (e.g., na kadā-cana) never (4.20:).

कन्दर्प kandarpa (kan-darp-a) m. (कम् meaning सुखम् pleasure + दर्प fr. √दृप् मोहले be confused, be proud) कं सुखं तेन दृप्यति (हर्षयति मोहयति वा) what (or who) elates or deludes by pleasure, काम desire, passion, love; काम-देव the deity that is love/desire.

कपि kapi (kap-i̍) m. (fr. √कम्प् चलने waver) वानर monkey. ॰ध्वज -dvaja a. कपि हनुमान् ध्वजे यस्य (Arjuna) who has Lord Hanumān on his banner. Lord Hanumān (the son of the Lord as Wind, the same as was Bhīma, Arjuna’s brother) offered to sit atop Arjuna’s chariot as his banner to bless their side. He slept through most of the war as he was very old and the battles were not the equal of the one he saw between Lord Rāma and the ten-headed demon Rāvaṇa in the more ancient Rāmāyaṇa epic (as Vyāsa playfully knits together in this side story India’s two great epics).

कपिल kapila (kap-i-la̍) a. (fr. √कम्प् चलने waver) पिङ्गल-वर्ण tan colored (monkey-colored). कपिल kapila m. मुनि-भेदः the name of a seer/sage and a siddha (one who is born already wise) who as a young boy was said to have taught his mother brahma-vidyā (the knowledge of reality).

कम् kam √1.Ā. इच्छायाम् desire.

कमल kamala (kam-ala) m. n. (fr. √कम् इच्छायाम् desire) उत्पल lotus. ॰आसनस्थ -āsana-stha a. कमलस्य आसने स्थितः (said of Lord Brahmā, the originator of the universe, who is picturesquely portrayed as) seated in the lotus (in the universe, i.e., in Brahma-loka [the heaven of Lord Brahmā] within the universe; that lotus/universe itself growing from the navel of [i.e., sustained by] Lord Viṣṇu, see pralaya). ॰पत्राक्ष -patrākṣa m. कमलस्य पत्रं कमल-पत्रं तद्वत् अक्षिणी यस्य (Lord Kṛṣṇa) whose eyes are like a lotus petal.

कम्प् kamp √1.Ā. (inf. कम्पितुम्) चलने waver. वि॰ vi- waver.


कर kara (kar-a̍) a. (fr. √कृ करणे do) उत्पदक producing (usually in cmpd. -॰).

करण karaṇa (ka̍r-aṇa) n. (fr. √कृ करणे do 2.92:) साधन means, instrument; इन्द्रिय organ (of action, perception, or knowledge – the means for movement, sensing, or understanding).

कराल karāla a. विकट (विकृत) horrible.

करुण karuṇa (karu̍ṇa) a. करुणा कृपा दुःखितेषु दया तद्वान् करुणः who has compassion, has sympathy (towards those in pain).

कर्ण karṇa (ka̍rṇa) m. श्रवणः ear; name of a great warrior fighting against the Pāṇḍavas (a foe of Arjuna, who was generally, including by himself, thought to be a son of a chariot driver, but was actually a secreted older brother to the Pāṇḍavas).

कर्तव्य kartavya (kar-tavya) pot. ps. pt. (of √कृ करणे do 6.8:) करणीय to be done.

कर्तुम् kartum (ka̍r-tum) inf. (of √कृ करणे do 6.10: & 5.34:) to do.

कर्तृ kartṛ (kar-tṛ̍) m. (fr. √कृ करणे do) कारक doer, the agent of action, maker, author. ॰त्व -tva n. कर्तृता doership; उत्पादकत्व origination.

कर्मन् karman (ka̍r-man) n. (fr. √कृ करणे do) क्रिया action (often limited to choice-based and therefore human action that creates puṇya or pāpa [meritous or demeritous results], i.e., action born of the judgment “I am the doer,” “I am the experiencer” ahaṃ kartā ahaṃ bhoktā), बन्धनम् एव कर्म action that binds (the agent of the action to the eventual result of the action, which may require another birth, for a different type of body, in order to experience the result); कर्तव्य duty; विधि enjoined action, ritual (There are three technical categories of enjoined actions or rituals prescribed in the Veda. They are: nitya-karman [daily or periodic rituals that must be regularly done], naimittika-karman [occasional rituals that must be done at various times], and kāmya-karman [optional rituals that may be done to attain certain desirable results]. Also the term kāmya-karman may be extended to the first two [that are considered kartavya (to-be-done duties or obligatory actions), and this is how Lord Kṛṣṇa used the term in भ॰गी॰१८.२], in as much as they may be performed to gain puṇya, a desirable result such as heaven, and in as much as even these duties cease to be obligatory duties through the formal ceremony of taking to a lifestyle of sannyāsa, भ॰गी॰१८.२. When even this notion of gaining a desirable result drops due to natural maturity and by inquiry guided by a teacher and texts like the Bhagavad Gītā, then the karma-yogin who still carries out these activities – simply because it is a duty, simply because they are for rallying the people to the path of dharma, and simply because it is reciprocating within the cyclic order of the universe – is living a life equivalent to a sannyāsin. Both these lifestyles, karma-yoga and sannyāsa, are sanctioned by the Veda, are an expression of the knowledge that is eternally true, and are conducive for gaining clarity in that knowledge); sometimes used for कर्म-फल the result of action, ईप्सिततमं कर्तुः what is most desired by an agent, the desired object (भ॰गी॰१८.१८); (in the terminology of the grammarian Pāṇini) the grammatical object (in a sentence). कर्म karma in cmpd. -, (6.29:). ॰अनुबन्धिन् -anubandhin a. कर्म धर्माधर्म-लक्षणम् अनुबन्धः अस्य connecting to karman (karmic merit and demerit – said of the secondary roots [rāga-dveṣas (overpowering likes and dislikes)] feeding the tree of saṃsāra that are born of karman and which lead to further karman, भ॰गी॰१५.२). ॰इन् -in (॰र्मिन्) a. अग्नि-होत्रादि-कर्मा नुवर्तिन् who performs Vedic rituals (such as the daily fire ritual called agni-hotra, etc.). ॰इन्द्रिय -indriya (॰मेन्द्रि॰) n. pl. कर्मणाम् इन्द्रियाणि the organs/functions of action (within the body): the organ of speech, hands (fashioning), feet (locomotion), evacuation, and generation. ॰कृत् -kṛt a. (6.24.2:) कर्म करोति who does action. ॰चोदना -codanā f. कर्मणां प्रवर्तिका what impels action, instigator of action. ॰ज -ja a. (6.24.3:) कर्मभ्यः जातः arising from actions. ॰फल -phala n. कर्मणः फलम् result of action. ॰फलत्याग -phala-tyāga m. कर्मणां फलस्य त्यागः renunciation of (the false notion of being the author and experiencer of) the result of action. ॰फलत्यागिन् -phala-tyāgin a. कर्मणां फलस्य त्यागी one who renounces (the false notion of being the author and experiencer of) the result of action. ॰फलप्रेप्सु -phala-prepsu a. कर्म-प्रेप्सति इति who has a requirement/anticipation (i.e., binding desire) to obtain the result of action. फलं ॰फलसंयोग -phala-saṃyoga m. कर्म-फलस्य संयोगः connection with (i.e., attainment of) the results of action. ॰फलहेतु -phala-hetu n. कर्म-फलानां कारणम् (भ॰गी॰२.४७, do not take yourself as the…) cause of the results of action. ॰फलासङ्ग -phalāsaṅga m. कर्मसु अभिमानं फलेषु आसङ्गः च identification with actions and attachment to results. ॰बन्ध -bandha m. कर्म एव बन्धः bondage which is but karman (“ahaṃ kartā I am the doer” backed action). ॰बन्धन -bandhana a. कर्म बन्धनं यस्य for whom karman binds; n. कर्म एव बन्धनम् the bondage that is action. ॰योग -yoga m. कर्म एव योगम् उपायः the means which is but karman (as a bhoktṛ/experiencer with samatva/evenness of  attitude, as a kartṛ/doer with kauśalya/propriety, i.e., in keeping with dharma); कर्म-निष्ठा pursuit of duty (as a means for preparing the mind for ātma-jñāna), उपासन invoking or appreciating the Lord in all one’s activities. ॰योग -yoga a. कर्म इति योगः प्रकरणं यस्य whose topic is karman. ॰सङ्ग -saṅga m. दृष्टादृष्टार्थेषु कर्मसु सञ्जनं तत्परता attachment (excessive devotion) in action (or in rituals, for their results seen in this life or in any future life). ॰सङ्गिन् -saṅgin a. कर्मणि आसङ्गवान् committed to (the results of) action. ॰सङ्ग्रह -saṅgraha m. कर्मणः सङ्ग्रहः total components (i.e., constituents) of action. ॰सञ्ज्ञित -sañjñita a. कर्म-शब्दित called “karman.” ॰सन्न्यास -sannyāsa m. कर्मणः परित्यागः complete renunciation of action. ॰सन्न्यासयोग -sannyāsa-yoga m. कर्म-सन्न्यासः इति योगः प्रकरणं यस्य whose topic is karma-sannyāsa. ॰समुद्भव -samudbhava a. कर्मणः उत्पत्तिः यस्य born of karman.

कर्शयत् karśayat (karś-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (of cs. √कृश् तनू-करणे become thin) कृशी-कुर्वत् emaciating.


कल् kal √10.P. (pr. pt. कलयत्) सङ्ख्याने enumerate, calculate; गतौ go, take to; क्षेपे impel; 1.Ā. शब्दे sound.

कलयत् kalayat (kal-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √कल् सङ्ख्याने enumerate) कलनं गणनं कुर्वन् one who calculates.

कलिल kalila (kal-i-la) a. (of √कल् क्षेपे impel) गहन thick, dense, मिश्र mixture, impure. कलिल kalila m. कालुष्य (मलिनता) turbidness, confusion (of the mind).

कलेवर kalevara (kale-var-a) n. (poss. kale-vara कले शुक्रे वरं श्रेष्ठम् “best in seed”) देह body.

कल्प kalpa (ka̍lp-a) m. (fr. √कॢप् सामर्थ्ये be able, be fit for) न्याय rule, usage; ब्रह्म-दिन a day of Lord Brahmā, the length in time of one manifestation of the universe (kalpa = 1,000 mahā-yugas = 1,000 cycles of the 4 yugas = 4.32 billion human years = 1 day-time of Lord Brahmā, see pralaya). ॰आदि -ādi m. उत्पत्ति-काल the beginning (moment) of the manifestation period of the universe. ॰क्षय -kṣaya m. कल्पस्य क्षय the waning (moment) of the manifestation period of the universe, प्रलय-काल the start of pralaya (the dissolution of the universe).

कल्पते kalpate (kalp-a-te) pr. 3rd sg. (of √कॢप् सामर्थ्ये be able, be fit for) (he/she/it/who) is fit (for).

कल्मष kalmaṣa n. पाप karmic demerit; अ-शुद्धि impurity, अन्तःकरणाशुद्धि impurity of the mind (what blocks one from assimilating tattva-jñāna, i.e., rāga-dveṣas, etc.), impediment.

कल्याण kalyāṇa (kal-ya̍-aṇa) a. (fr. √कल् शब्दे sound) शुभ-युक्त pleasant, beautiful, good. कल्याण kalyāṇa n. मङ्गल the good, virtue, health, prosperity. ॰कृत् -kṛt a. (6.24.2:) शुभ-कृत् who performs good actions, who does adaptive actions (in conformity with dharma).

कवि kavi (kav-i̍) m. (fr. √कु शब्दे sound) मेधाविन् wise person, sage, seer, क्रान्त-दर्शिन one who sees far (– all, as well as past, present, and future), सर्व-ज्ञ one who is all-knowing (in general, i.e., knowing the essence of everything; not in detail, which only can be attributed to the Lord who is everything, and lights up everything as the only conscious being).

कश् kaś √2.Ā. शासने whip, strike.

कश्चिद् kaś-cid (kaś-cid) (see ka + cid) prn. cmpd. masc. sg. nom. (an indefinite) some, any, a certain.

कश्मल kaśmala (kaś-mal-a) n. (fr. √कश् शासने whip, strike) अवसाद despair.

कस्मात् kasmāt (ka̍-smāt) in. किम् why?


काङ्क्ष् kāṅkṣ √1.P. (sometimes Ā. in epic lit.) (pr. काङ्क्षति Ā. 1st sg. काङ्क्षे, pr. pt. काङ्क्षत्, pp. काङ्क्षित 6.6:) इच्छायाम् desire, long for, strive for, anticipate, require, expect. आ॰ ā- desire, etc.

काङ्क्षत् kāṅkṣat (kāṅkṣ-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √काङ्क्ष् इच्छायाम् desire) प्रार्थयत् desiring, requiring.

काङ्क्षित kāṅkṣita (kāṅkṣ-i-ta̍) pp. (of √काङ्क्ष् इच्छायाम् desire 6.6:) desired, required.

काङ्क्षिन् kāṅkṣin (kāṅkṣ-[a]-[ā]-in) a. (fr. √काङ्क्ष् इच्छायाम् desire) काङ्क्षा इच्छा अस्य इति having a desire, desirous, requiring, seeking.

काञ्चन kāñcana n. सुवर्ण gold.

काम kāma (kā̍m-a) m. (fr. √कम् इच्छायाम् desire) इच्छा like (non-binding desire), inclination, preference; राग-द्वेषौ attraction and repulsion, requirement/anticipation (requirements in order to be happy and anticipation of their fruition), binding desire (for or against – “binding” in the sense that it forces one into actions that commit one to reaping their specific results in this life, or necessitating future lives), demand, craving, requiring, want; काम-विषय object of desire; काम-पुरुषार्थ the third of the four puruṣārthas (see artha-kāma); a. कामयते इति in cmpd. -॰ desirous of. ॰आत्मन् -ātman a. कामेषु आत्मा अन्तःकरणं यस्य whose mind is (steeped) in desires, बन्दन-कामानां प्राचुर्यम् full of requiring (of binding desires). ॰ईप्सु -īpsu (॰मे॰) a. कर्म-फलं ईप्सति इति काम-प्रेप्सुः with a requirement/anticipation to attain an object of desire. ॰उपभोगपरम -upabhoga-parama (॰मो॰) a. काम्यन्ते इति कामाः विषयाः तेषाम् उपभोगः परमः यस्य having consumption of objects of desire as the ultimate (in life). ॰काम -kāma a. कामान् विषयान् कामयते इति who requires objects of desire. ॰कामिन् -kāmin a. कामाः विषयाः तान् कामयितुं शीलं यस्य whose tendency is to require/anticipate objects. ॰कार -kāra m. कामस्य करणम् action (i.e., pressure) of desire, the action of requiring. ॰कारतस् -kāratas in. (6.19:) कामस्य करणतः due to the action (i.e., pressure) of desire, due to the action of requiring. ॰क्रोधपरायण -krodha-parāyaṇa a. काम-क्रोधौ परम् अयनम् आश्रयः यस्य whose ultimate end is requiring/desire (initially) and anger (eventually). ॰क्रोधवियुक्त -krodha-viyukta a. कामः च क्रोधः च काम-क्रोधौ ताभ्यां विमुक्तः free from requiring and anger. ॰क्रोधोद्भव -krodhod bhava a. कामः च क्रोधः च तौ उद्भवः यस्य whose origin is requiring and anger. ॰दुह् -duh f. (nom. sg. धुक् 3.6.m:) (6.24:) (lit. “wish yielder”) वसिष्ठस्य सर्व-कामानां दोग्ध्री गौः (in mythology, seer/sage Vasiṣṭha’s) milk-cow who yields all desirable things (for one who is a brāhmaṇa by attitude), produced from the churning of the primordial milky ocean by the deities and demons. ॰भोग -bhoga m. कामस्य भोगः object of desire. ॰भोगार्थम् -bhogārtham in. (6.32:) काम-भोग-प्रयोजनाय for the consumption of objects of desire. ॰रागबलान्वित -rāga-balānvita a. कामः च रागः च काम-रागौ तत्कृतं बलं काम-राग-बलं तेन अन्वितः filled with the pressure of requiring (demands for fulfilling likes and dislikes) and attraction (adding virtues on things that they don’t have). ॰रागविवर्जित -rāga-vivarjita a. कामः तृष्णा अ-सन्निकृष्टेषु विषयेषु रागः रञ्जना प्राप्तेषु विषयेषु, कामः च रागः च काम-रागौ ताभ्यां विवर्जितः who is free from requiring (towards unattained objects) and attachment (towards attained objects, literally “brightening up because of the acquired objects”). ॰रूप -rūpa a. कामः एव रूपः अस्य whose form is but kāma, as काम. ॰सङ्कल्पवर्जित -saṅkalpa-varjita a. कामैः तत्कारणैः च सङ्कल्पैः वर्जितः free from kāma and (its cause) saṅkalpa (scheming for the future). ॰हैतुक -haituka a. कामः हेतुः यस्य whose cause is (binding) passion.

काम्य kāmya (kā̍m[a]-ya) a. (fr. √कम् इच्छायाम् desire) कमनीय desirable, backed by desire; ऐच्छिक optional; यत् किञ्चित् फलम् उद्दिश्य यज्ञ-दान-तपः-क्रिया क्रियते बहुलायासं तत् काम्यं परिकीर्तितम् any rite such as a ritual, charity or prayerful discipline which is done with a view to (its) result and involves much effort is proclaimed to be a kāmya (optional) karman. काम्या kāmyā f. इच्छा desire.

काय kāya m. देह body. ॰क्लेशभय -kleśa-bhaya n. शरीरस्य दुःखस्य भयम् fear of affliction to the body. ॰शिरोग्रीव -śiro-grīva n.sg. कायः च शिरः च ग्रीवा च (2.4: & 2.24: & 2.33:) body-head-neck.


कार kāra (kār-a) a. (fr. √कृ करणे do) generally in comp. -॰ करण performing-, performer of-, causing-. कार kāra m. कर्तृ doer, maker; करण action, making; (in comp. -॰) अ-क्षर the letter-, sound-, also considered a suffix (-कार) उच्चारणार्थे for the sake of pronouncing-. ॰क -ka a. in comp. -॰ कार performing-, performer of-, causing-. ॰तस् -tas in. (6.19:) in comp. -॰ करणात् because of the action of-, out of (binding) desire.

कारण kāraṇa (kār-aṇa) n. (fr. cs. √कृ करणे do) हेतु cause, reason; उपाय means; sometimes in cmpd. -॰ for the sake of-.

कारयत् kārayat (kār-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (of cs. √कृ करणे do) causing (others) to act.

कार्पण्य kārpaṇya (kārp-aṇ[a]-ya) n. (fr. √कृप् दौर्बल्ये be weak, pity 2.92:) दीनता miserliness (unwillingness to employ one’s resources when required, cf. बृ॰उ॰३.८.१०, “one who departs from this world without knowing this imperishable, O Gārgya, is a miser,” and भ॰गी॰२.४२, “कृपणाः फल-हेतवः Those motivated only for the results of action are misers”); कृपा pity. ॰दोषोपहतस्वभाव -doṣopahata-sva-bhāva a. कार्पण्यम् एव दोषः तेन उपहतः स्व-भावः यस्य (lit. “whose disposition [i.e., mind] is overcome with the defect of miserliness”) whose mind is overcome with miserliness; whose mind is overcome with pity.

कार्य kārya (kār-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √कृ करणे do 6.8:) कर्तव्य to be done, to be made. कार्य kārya n. प्रयोजन purpose; विकार effect; कर्मन् duty (what is to be done), service, activity. ॰अकार्य -a-kārya n. du. विहित-प्रतिषिद्धे लौकिके वैदिके वा शास्त्र-बुद्धेः कर्तव्याकर्तव्ये what is to be done and not to be done (in regard to enjoined and prohibited actions, expounded both commonly and scripturally). ॰अकार्यव्यवस्थिति -a-kārya-vyavasthiti f. कार्यस्य च अ-कार्यस्य च व्यवस्थितिः determination of what is to be done and not to be done. ॰करणकर्तृत्व -karaṇa-kartṛtva n. कार्यं शरीरं विषयानि च करणानि सर्वेन्द्रियाणि गुणानि च कार्य-करणानि तेषां कर्तृत्वं उत्पाधित्वम् origination of the effects (the body and objects) and the instruments (for experiencing them, i.e., the senses and mind, including their attributes, such as pleasure, pain, etc.).

काल kāla (kāl-a̍) m. (fr. √कल् सङ्ख्याने count) समय time, juncture, occasion, season; यम Lord Death. ॰अनलसन्निभ -an-ala-sannibha a. प्रलय-काले अनलः अग्निः कालानलः तत्सदृशः like the fire (at the end) of time (at the end of a cosmic cycle, when the universe is resolved in a conflagration into an unmanifest state).

काश् kāś √1.U. (cs. pr. काशयति ॰ते) दीप्तौ shine; cs. व्यञ्जने reveal. प्र॰ pra- shine, etc.

काशिराज kāśi-rāja (kāś-i-rāj-a) m. (fr. √काश् दीप्तौ shine) काश्याः राजा the king of the Kāśis, who fought on the Pāṇḍava side.

काश्य kāśya (kā̍ś-y-a) m. (fr. √काश् दीप्तौ shine) (7.4.5:) काश्याः राजा a name for the king of the Kāśis on the Pāṇḍava side.


कित् kit √3.P. (Vedic) ज्ञाने know.

किम् kim interrogative prn. (n. sg. nom., see also prn. stem ) प्रश्ने who, what, which? why? 4.12:; w/inst. निन्दायाम् “what is gained by…?” or “what is the use of…?” (7.9.7:). किम् kim interrogative pcl. (6.20:) कथा how? प्रश्ने why? (often not translated, except by turning an expression into a question of whether something is or is not); bad; w/negative निषेधे not, never. ॰आचार -ācāra m. कः अस्य आचारः what is his conduct? (भ॰गी॰१४.२१). किम् नु kim nu interj. निन्दायाम् how much less! or how much more! (as a censure).

किरीट kirīṭa (kirīṭ-a) n. मुकुट crown, jeweled headband. ॰इन् -in (॰टिन्) a. किरीटं नाम शिरो-भूषण-विशेषः तत् यस्य अस्ति (m. Arjuna or Lord Kṛṣṇa) adorned with a crown.

किल्बिष kilbiṣa (kilbiṣ-a) n. पाप karmic demerit; अपराध transgression, fault (which for the one who wants complete freedom, even puṇya as well as pāpa are faults, as they both bind one to saṃsāra).

कीर्त् kīrt (or √कॄत्, or maybe a den. fr. कीर्ति) √10.U. (pr. pt. कीर्तयत्, pp. कीर्तित 6.6:) संशब्दने proclaim, narrate, recite, acknowledge. परि॰ pari- proclaim, etc. सम्प्र॰ sampra- proclaim, etc.; सम्यक् प्रकर्षेण॰ state very well.

कीर्तयत् kīrtayat (kīrt-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √कीर्त् संशब्दने proclaim) acknowledging.

कीर्ति kīrti (kīrt-i̍) f. (fr. √कीर्त् संशब्दने proclaim) यशस् fame, honor, name recognition.

कुतस् kutas (ku̍-tas) in. (6.19:) कस्मात् from which or what, how? निन्दायाम् how much less!

कुन्ति kunti m. pl. name of a people. ॰भोज -bhoja m. name of the king of the Kunti people, who adopted Kuntī, and who fought on the Pāṇḍava side.

कुन्ती kuntī f. mother of the Pāṇḍavas. She was given, as a young girl, the gift by the irascible brahmin Dur-vāsas to conceive a son by any deity she so invoked. In her virginity to test the boon, she invoked Lord Sun and gave birth to Karṇa, whom she secretly adopted out. Once married to Pāṇḍu, who could not have progeny due to a curse, she was allowed to give birth to Yudhi-ṣṭhira through Lord Dharma, Bhīma through Lord Vāyu, and Arjuna through Lord Indra, hence their special gifts and powers. ॰पुत्र -putra m. कुन्त्याः पुत्र a son of Kuntī.

कुरु kuru (ku̍r-u) m. (fr. √कृ करणे do, cf. 5.22.1:) name of a king (founder of the Kuru dynasty). ॰क्षेत्र -kṣetra n. कुरोः भूमिः the land or field of Kuru, an extensive plain (72 by 72 miles) near present day Delhi, and the site of the great war in the Mahabharata epic. ॰नन्दन -nandana m. (Arjuna) कुरून् नन्दयति इति the one who brings joy to the Kuru people. ॰प्रवीर -pravīra m. (Arjuna) कुरोः शूरः hero of the Kuru people. ॰वृद्ध -vṛddha a. कुरूणां वृद्धः the senior of the Kuru family. ॰श्रेष्ठ -śreṣṭha m. (Arjuna) कुरोः प्रधानः best of the Kuru people. ॰सत्तम -sattama a. (m. Arjuna) कुरोः अतिशय-साधुः very best of the Kuru people.

कुर्वत् kurvat (kur-v-at) pr. pt. (of √कृ करणे do 5.22.1:) doing, acting, performing action.

कुर्वाण kurvāṇa (kur-v-āṇa) pr. mid. pt. (of √कृ करणे do 6.5: & 2.92:) अनुतिष्ठत् following, performing

कुल् kul √1.P. संहतौ compact, collect.

कुल kula (ku̍l-a) n. (fr. √कुल् संहतौ compact, collect) वंश family, lineage, clan; स-जातीय-गण (“group of the same kind”) community, guild, herd, flock, swarm. ॰क्षय -kṣaya m. कुलस्य क्षयः destruction of the family. ॰क्षयकृत -kṣaya-kṛta a. कुलस्य क्षयेण कृतः acquired by destroying the family. ॰घ्न -ghna a. कुलं हन्ति इति destroyer of the family or clan. ॰धर्म -dharma m. कुलस्य धर्मः family or clan custom, clan tradition. ॰स्त्री -strī f. pl. कुलस्य स्त्रियः the women of the clan (the women being the maintainers of the family traditions, भ॰गी॰१.४१).

कुश् kuś (or कुस्) √4.P. संश्लेषे embrace, encircle.

कुश kuśa (kuś-a̍) m. (fr. √कुश् संश्लेषे encircle) तृण-विशेष a kind of grass (also called darbha) (used for covering the ground of a ritual area; the grass is long and has a sharp end; it can be woven into rope or a mat).

कुशल kuśala (ku̍ś-a-la) a. (fr. कुश a grass used for sacred rituals) युक्त (यथार्थ) proper, शोभन auspicious.

कुसुम kusuma n. पुष्प flower. ॰आकर -ākara m. (lit. “bestower of flowers”) वसन्त the spring season (see ṛtu).

कूट kūṭa (kū̍ta) a. निश्चल immovable, immutable; (also kūta̍) मिथ्यार्थे false, deceptive. कूट kūṭa m. n. धान्यादि-राशि heap (of grain, etc.); अयो-घन iron hammer; माया deception, the (mere) apparent. ॰स्थ -stha a. (6.24.1:) कूटं निश्चलं तिष्ठति who or what remains immutable or unchanged (a jñānin, भ॰गी॰६.८); कूट मायायां तिष्ठति what remains (true) in the apparent (brahman, भ॰गी॰१२.३), अनेक-माया-वञ्चनादि-प्रकारेण स्थितः what remains (as material cause of the world, as māyā) in the (endless) form(s) of deception (because, without this teaching, we misunderstand ourselves, the world, and the Lord, भ॰गी॰१५.१६).

कूर्म kūrma (kūrma̍) m. turtle.


कृ kṛ √8.U. (pr. करोति कुरुते 5.22.1: pl. कुर्वन्ति 5.22.1:, impf. Ā. 3rd pl. अकुर्वत 5.6.b:, impv. P. कुरु Ā. कुरुष्व 5.22.1: & 2.101:, pot. P. कुर्यात् 1st sg. कुर्याम् 5.22.1:, fut. करिष्यति Ā. 1st sg. करिष्ये, ps. pr. क्रियते 5.37.3:, cs. pr. कारयति, cs. ps. pr. कार्यते 5.37.7:, pr. pt. कुर्वत् 5.22.1:, pr. pt. cs. कारयत्, pr. ps. pt. क्रियमाण 6.5: & 2.92:, pr. mid. pt. कुर्वाण 6.5: & 2.92:, pp. कृत, pot. ps. pt. कार्य 6.8: or कर्तव्य 6.8:, in. pt. कृत्वा, inf. कर्तुम् 6.10: & 5.34:) करणे (कल्पने) do, accomplish, make, used with nouns in acc. to express the tense or mood of accomplishing the action indicated by the noun. नि॰ ni- नीचे॰ make low, bring down, humble. वि॰ vi- वैपरीत्ये॰ make different, modify.

कृत् kṛt a. (fr. √कृ करणे do) only in cmpd. -॰ (6.24.2:) करोति इति what does- (the action of-).

कृत kṛta (kṛ-ta̍) pp. (of √कृ करणे do) having done, done, performed, accomplished, acquired; doing; in cmpd. -॰ also has the sense of ॰विषय relating to-, having to do with-. कृत kṛta n. कर्म action. ॰अञ्जलि -añjali a. संपुटी-कृत-हस्त with hands folded (in supplication). ॰अन्त -anta a. कृतं कर्म तस्य अन्तः परिसमाप्तिः यस्मिन् where action is brought to an end; m. कृतान्तः वेद-कर्मणः अन्तः वेदान्तः Vedānta (the Upaniṣads, which teach brahma-vidyā wherein one understands oneself as free from all karman), the culmination of the Veda (which mostly prescribes ritual actions, भ॰गी॰२.४२-४६ & १८.१३). ॰ए -e (॰ते loc.) in. (6.16:) अर्थे on account of, for the sake of (w/gen. or in cmpd. -॰). ॰कृत्य -kṛtya a. कृतं कृत्यं कर्तव्यं येन by whom what is to be done has (all) been done, who has accomplished (all of) his/her duties. ॰निश्चय -niścaya a. कृतः निश्चयः येन (lit. “by whom resolve is formed”) having resolved.

कृतिन् kṛtin (kṛt-in) a. (fr. √कृ करणे do) कारिन् doing; कृत-कार्य accomplished.

कृत्वस् kṛtvas (kṛ-tv-as) (fr. √कृ करणे do) in cmpd. -॰ in. (4.27:) ॰गुण -times (used with numerals).

कृत्वा kṛtvā (kṛ-tvā) in. pt. (of √कृ करणे do 2.11:) निर्वृत्य doing, performing. बहिस् कृत्वा bahis kṛtvā (bahiḥ kṛtvā) in. pt. बाह्यः बहिर् एव कृतः भवति what is external remaining external (भ॰गी॰५.२७), i.e., keeping external.

कृत्स्न kṛtsna (kṛt-sna̍) a. (fr. √कृत् वेष्टने surround) स-कल complete, entire, in entirety. ॰कर्मकृत् -karma-kṛt a. समस्त-कार्य-कृत् who has accomplished everything that is (essential) to-be-done (i.e., who is mukta [completely free]). ॰वत् -vat in. समस्तम् इव as though (it is) complete, as if (it is) everything. ॰विद् -vid a. (6.24:) कृत्स्ना प्रज्ञा यस्य whose knowledge is complete (with ātma-jñāna).

कृप् kṛp √6.Ā. (Vedic) दौर्बल्ये be weak, pity.

कृपण kṛpaṇa (kṛp-aṇa̍) m. (fr. √कृप् दौर्बल्ये be weak, pity 2.92:) दीन miser (बृ॰उ॰३.८.१० “he who, without knowing this immutable one, O Gargi, departs from this world, he is a kṛpaṇa”) (one who is unwilling to employ one’s resources when required, who does not chose to inquire into one’s own nature and thus end saṃsāritva, when one has this human capability of choice and the means for inquiry are available).

कृपा kṛpā (kṛp-[a]-ā) f. (fr. √कृप् दौर्बल्ये be weak, pity) करुणा pity (along with its accompanying regret), commiseration, rue; दया compassion. कृप kṛpa m. (कृपाचार्य) Droṇa’s brother-in-law, who fought on Dur-yodhana’s side.

कृश् kṛś √4.P. (cs. pr. कर्शयति, pr. pt. cs. कर्शयत्) ननू-करणे become thin; cs. make thin, emaciate.

कृष् kṛṣ √1.P. (pr. कर्षति) आकर्षणे draw (drag along), pull, attract.

कृषि kṛṣi (kṛṣ-i̍) f. (fr. √कृष् आकर्षणे drag) भूमेः विलेखनम् plowing (the land), agriculture (भ॰गी॰१८.४४). ॰गौरक्ष्यवाणिज्य -gau-rakṣya-vāṇijya n. कृषिः च गौ-रक्ष्यं च वाणिज्यं च agriculture, maintaining animals, and commerce.

कृष्ण kṛṣṇa (kṛṣ-ṇa̍) a. (fr. √कृष् आकर्षणे draw, attract) कृष्ण-वर्णिन् dark, black, नील dark-blue. कृष्ण kṛṣṇa m. name of a son of Vasu-deva and Devakī, and grandson of Śūra who was also the father of Kuntī (Arjuna’s mother), teacher of Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gītā, विष्णु-अवतार incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu. कृष्ण kṛṣṇa n. कृष्ण-वर्ण dark color; कृष्ण-पक्ष the dark fortnight, the period of the waning of the moon; कृष्ण-पक्ष-देवता the deity that is the dark fortnight (भ॰गी॰८.२५); कृष्ण-पक्ष-देवता-गति the path (of the departed jīva) associated with the deity which is the dark fortnight (भ॰गी॰८.२६).

कॢप् kḷp √1.Ā. (pr. कल्पते) (said to be a substitute for √कृप् with the following meaning) सामर्थ्ये fit for, conduce to, become; कल्पने (करणे) fashion, make.


केतु ketu (ket-u̍) m. (fr. √कित् ज्ञाने know) द्युति light, ray of light, splendor; पताका banner, flag; चिह्न mark, sign.

केवल kevala (ke̍vala) a. एक alone, pure, only, mere; कृस्न complete, every, all. ॰म् -m in. (7.8.8:) एव only; सर्वशस् entirely; मात्रम् but (only…).

केशव keśava (keś-a-va) m. (Lord Kṛṣṇa) केशि-निषूदन the destroyer of the demon Keśin. ॰अर्जुन -arjuna m. du. केशवः च अर्जुनः च Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna.

केशिन् keśin (keś-[a]-in) m. (lit. “having a mane”) केशि-नामा हय-च्छद्मा कश्चित् असुरः the name of a demon disguised as a horse. केशि keśi in cmpd. ॰-. ॰निषूदन -niṣūdana (॰शिनि॰) m. केशिनं निषूदितवान् (Lord Kṛṣṇa) the destroyer of the demon Keśin.

कौन्तेय kaunteya (kaunt[ī]-eya) m. (Arjuna) कुन्त्याः अपत्यम् son of Kuntī (Pṛthā wife of Pāṇḍu).

कौमार kaumāra (kau-mār-[a]-a) n. (maybe fr. कु + √मृ प्राण-त्यागे die, i.e., lacking death) कुमार-भाव pre-puberty (before yauvana), बाल्यावस्था childhood.

कौशल kauśala (kauś-a-l[a]-a) n. (maybe fr. √कुश् [॰स्] संश्लेषे embrace, encircle) कुशल-भावः उचित-भावः (यथार्थता) discretion, appropriateness, propriety (as in भ॰गी॰२.५०, i.e., living a life of dharma, knowing the proper thing to do at the proper time, where the end does not justify the means, where the end and the means are in keeping with dharma – by this one protects oneself, cf. “धर्मान्न प्रमदितव्यम्। कुशलान्न प्रमदितव्यम्,” तै॰उ॰१.११); कल्याण prosperity; नैपुण्य expertise, skillfulness. This last meaning, “skillfulness,” has been adopted by many translators in भ॰गी॰२.५०. But without a clear explanation of what that means in the context it can be very misleading. At best this meaning in the context of karma-yoga can be employed metaphorically for the careful cutting and handling of the sharp edged kuśa grass used as mats in rituals, hence this same skill and care should be employed in doing karman that needs to be carefully selected and handled so as not to hurt one with its binding nature. But this physical-handling metaphor does not do the work of a definition of karma-yoga, which is essentially a mental attitude. And भ॰गी॰२.५० is a definition of karma-yoga. The central tāt-parya/purport of the Bhagavad Gītā is not business management, rather it is personal maturation and mokṣa/complete freedom. Karma-yoga cannot make you a more skillful worker, or efficient warrior, as it has nothing whatsoever to do with skill in action as we normally understand skill. Arjuna was already the most skillful warrior of his time, but it does not follow that he must then have been an accomplished karma-yogin before Kṛṣṇa even started His discourse. Who would think the most skilled warrior, entrepreneur, politician, artist, athlete, and entertainer would, because of their skill, be the best prepared for mokṣa? In most Sanskrit dictionaries you will see two main meanings for kauśalya, “prosperity” and “skillfulness.” Please see The Aruna Coursebook Lessons 35 & 53. Rather, here the etymological meaning, kuśala-bhāva, is clearly the most appropriate, as kauśalya means “the nature of being kuśala,” and the primary conventional meaning of kuśala is “proper,” therefore kauśalya clearly can and does mean “propriety,” and this ties karma-yoga as a definition directly to doing what is one’s duty, sva-dharma. And this meaning is the most appropriate in the context, as nowhere else in the Bhagavad Gītā is it claimed that karma-yoga gives you skills or makes you prosperous. And everywhere in the Bhagavad Gītā karma-yoga is presented as doing one’s duty because it is to-be-done, and not because one will gain some limited result like marketable skills, special powers, a kingdom, or heaven. That is, you do an action just because it is the right thing to do – and that is what personal maturity is all about.


क्रतु kratu (kr-a-tu) m. (fr. √कृ करणे do) श्रौत-कर्मन् Vedic ritual; सङ्कल्प resolution, purpose.

क्रम् kram √1.U. (pr. क्रामति ॰ते 5.15.1:, pr. pt. क्रामत् 5.15.1:, pp. क्रान्त 6.6:) पाद-विक्षेपे walk, step; गतौ move. अभि॰ abhi- walk, etc. उद्॰ ud- (उत्क्र्॰) विगमने depart, die. वि॰ vi- परिक्रमे step over, overtake.

क्रियमाण kriyamāṇa (kri-ya-māṇa) pr. ps. pt. (of √कृ करणे do 6.5: & 5.37.3:) is performed.

क्रिया kriyā (kri-yā) f. (fr. √कृ करणे do 2.70:) कर्मन् action, activity, a practice; अग्नि-होत्रादिः श्रौतादि-कर्म ritual (prescribed in the Veda, such as agni-hotra, etc.). ॰विशेषबहुल -viśeṣa-bahula a. क्रियाणां विशेषाः क्रिया-विशेषाः ते बहुलाः यस्य involving many special kinds of rituals (or practices).

क्रुध् krudh √4.P. कोपे be angry.

क्रूर krūra (krū-ra̍) a. कठिन harsh, severe; निर्दय lacking compassion, cruel.

क्रोध krodha (kro̍dh-a) m. (fr. √क्रुध् कोपे be angry) कोप anger.

क्लिद् klid √4.P. (cs. pr. क्लेदयति, pot. ps. pt. क्लेद्य 6.8:) आर्द्री-भावे become wet; cs. आर्द्री-भाव-करणे make wet, soak.

क्लिश् kliś √4.Ā. or 9.P. (pp. क्लिष्ट 2.85:) Ā. उपतापे be afflicted; P. विबाधने afflict, torment. परि॰ pari- be afflicted, etc.

क्लीब् klīb √1.Ā. अ-धार्ष्ट्ये be not bold, be timid.

क्लेश kleśa (kleś-a) m. (fr. √क्लिश् विबाधने afflict) दुःख pain, trouble; रोगादि an affliction (disease, etc.).

क्लैब्य klaibya (klai̍b-[a]-ya) n. (fr. √क्लीब् अ-धार्ष्ट्ये be not bold, be timid) अ-पौरुष unmanliness or unwomanliness, neither a man or a woman; न उपयुक्तता impotency, inability to usefully act.

क्व kva in. कस्मिन् where? when? ॰चिद् -cid in. कस्मिन् चिद् (an indefinite) somewhere, sometime. न क्वचिद् na kva-cid in. न कस्मिन् चिद् no where, never.


क्षण् kṣaṇ (=√क्षन् 2.92:) √8.U. हिंसायाम् harm, break.

क्षण kṣaṇa (kṣaṇ-a) m. n. (fr. √क्षण् हिंसायाम् break) निमिष moment. ॰म् -m in. एक-पदम् for a moment.

क्षत्रिय kṣatriya (kṣa[ṇ]-tr[a]-i̍ya) m. (fr. √क्षण् हिंसायाम् harm) क्षणनात् त्रायते one who protects from harm, a person of the military or ruling class (by jāti/birth [as one was generally born into and brought up in the family’s trade], or simply by sva-bhāva/disposition). According to karman with its emphasis on personal responsibility, one is born into a life for which one is suited and which is deserved.

क्षपित kṣapita (kṣa-p-i-ta̍) pp. (of cs. √क्षिहिं सायाम् destroy 5.40: irreg. like √जि) नाशित caused to exhaust, destroyed.

क्षम् kṣam √1.Ā. (also 4.P.) (cs. pr. 1st sg. क्षामये) सहने endure; cs. क्षमां कारणे ask patience and understanding.

क्षमा kṣamā (kṣam-[a]-ā) f. (fr. √क्षम् सहने endure) आक्रुष्टस्य ताडितस्य वा अ-विकृत-चित्तता no change in the mind towards mental or physical affliction (where a reaction like anger does not even arise), accommodation, composure, patience, and understanding.

क्षमिन् kṣamin (kṣam-[ā]-in) a. (fr. √क्षम् सहने endure) क्षमावत् accommodative, patient, and understanding.

क्षय kṣaya (kṣay-a) m. (fr. √क्षि हिंसायाम् destroy) अपचय decrease; नाश destruction, loss.

क्षर kṣara (kṣar-a) a. (fr. √क्षर् सञ्चलने flow, wane) क्षरति इति what perishes, perishing, विनाशिन् destructible.

क्षात्र kṣātra (kṣā[ṇ]-tr[a]-a) a. (क्षत्र dominion, said to be fr. √क्षण् हिंसायाम् harm) क्षत्र-सम्बन्धिन् related to or connected with the military or ruling class. क्षात्र kṣātra n. क्षत्र-जाति the military or ruling class (by jāti/birth or sva-bhāva/disposition). According to karman with its emphasis on personal responsibility, one is born into a life for which one is suited and which is deserved.

क्षान्ति kṣānti (kṣān-ti) f. (fr. √क्षम् सहने endure 2.55:) परापराध-प्राप्तौ अ-विक्रिया remaining unchanged (when wronged by another), accommodation, being patient, and understanding towards others (accepting the other person’s limitations, and understanding the background behind that person’s action, i.e., initially with a mastered mind not emotionally reacting to the wrongs, then with the informed intellect not allowing the build up of hurt and resentment).


क्षि kṣi √5.P. (pp. क्षित or क्षीण 6.6: w/irreg. lengthening of , pp. cs. क्षयित or क्षपित 5.40: irreg. like √जि) हिंसायाम् destroy; ps. क्षये decline, exhaust.

क्षि kṣi √1.P. or 6.P. (pr. 1. क्षयति 6. क्षियति 2.67:) धरणे possess, रक्षणे govern, rule, protect; निवासे dwell (peacefully).

क्षित् kṣit (kṣi-t) a. (fr. √क्षि रक्षणे govern) only in cmpd. -॰ (6.24.2:) क्षियति रक्षति इति protect-.

क्षिप् kṣip √6.P. (pr. क्षिपति) प्रेरणे throw.

क्षिप्र kṣipra (kṣip-ra̍) a. (fr. √क्षिप् प्रेरणे throw) शीघ्र quick. ॰म् -m in. (7.8.8:) शीघ्रम् quickly.

क्षीण kṣīṇa (kṣī-ṇa̍) pp. (of √क्षि हिंसायाम् destroy w/irreg. lengthening of ) नष्ट exhausted, destroyed. ॰कल्मष -kalmaṣa a. क्षीणानि कल्मषाणि पापानि यस्य whose impediment (or karmic demerit) is destroyed.

क्षुद् kṣud √1.U. and 7.U. सम्पेषणे pound, trample upon.

क्षुद्र kṣudra (kṣud-ra̍) a. (fr. √क्षुद् सम्पेषणे pound) अल्प small, lowly (down-trodden).

क्षेत्र kṣetra (kṣe̍-tra) n. (fr. √क्षि निवासे dwell) भूमि a field; क्षेत्रवत् क्षेत्रम् what is like a harvest field, कार्य-करण-सङ्घात the human mind-body complex (where the fruits of puṇya and pāpa are reaped), महा-भूतादि-सङ्घात everything consisting of the basic elements plus their cause and all their modifications (including the mind, भ॰गी॰१३.५--६), i.e., the gross, the subtle, and the unmanifest universe (including this human mind-body complex). ॰इन् -in (॰त्रिन्) a. क्षेत्रम् अस्य अस्ति who has a kṣetra (a mind-body complex, a universe), आत्मन् (the one) who obtains in the universe (भ॰गी॰१३.३३). ॰क्षेत्रज्ञ -kṣetra-jña m. du. क्षेत्रं च क्षेत्र-ज्ञः च the mind-body/universe and the knower of the mind-body/universe, the field and the knower of the field. ॰क्षेत्रज्ञविभागयोग -kṣetra-jña-vibhāga-yoga a. क्षेत्र-क्षेत्र-ज्ञ-विभागः इति योगः प्रकरणं यस्य whose topic is the distinction between the kṣetra and the kṣetra-jña. ॰क्षेत्रज्ञसंयोग -kṣetra-jña-saṃyoga m. क्षेत्रस्य च क्षेत्र-ज्ञस्य च संयोगः the (mistaken) connection between kṣetra and kṣetra-jña (भ॰गी॰१३.२६). ॰ज्ञ -jña m. (6.24.1:) क्षेत्रं जानाति इति the knower of the kṣetra (the universe); क्षेत्रं ज्ञायते अनेन because of whom this universe is known.

क्षेम kṣema (kṣe̍-ma) m. (fr. √क्षि धरणे possess, रक्षणे protect , निवास dwell [esp. in an undisturbed place]) प्राप्तस्य रक्षणम् protecting what one has, being defensive; सु-रक्षित what one wants to protect, कुशल the agreeable, prosperity, health. ॰तर -tara cpv. a. (6.25:) अधिक-कुशल-कर more agreeable, better.

*** ख — Kh ***

kha n. आकाश space.

खन् khan √1.U. अवदारणे dig.

ख्या khyā √2.P. (impv. ख्याहि 5.6.a:, pp. ख्यात) प्रकथने tell. आ॰ ā- tell. सम्॰ sam- (सङ्ख्य्॰ 2.55:) tell, सम्प्रकथने tell completely; गणने enumerate.

*** ग — G ***

 ←क  गा  गु  गृ  च→ 

ga (ga[m]) a. (fr. √गम् go) only in cmpd. -॰ (6.24.3:) गच्छति इति what goes-; गमन moving-.

गच्छत् gacchat (gacch-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √गम् go 5.15.6:) moving, walking.

गज gaja m. हस्तिन् elephant. ॰इन्द्र -indra (॰जे॰) m. हस्तीश्वर great elephant, noble elephant.

गण् gaṇ √10.U. सङ्ख्याने count, enumerate.

गण gaṇa (gaṇ-a̍) m. (of √गण् सङ्ख्याने count) समूह collection, group.

गत gata (ga[m]-ta̍) pp. (of √गम् चरणे go, attain 6.6:) चलित gone; प्राप्त reached, attained; in cmpd. -॰ आश्रय resting or obtaining in-, (often having just the sense of the loc.) in-. ॰असु -asu (gata-a̍su) a. गताः असवः प्राणाः यस्मात् from whom the life’s breath(s) is gone, गत-प्राण (“lifeless”) dead. ॰आगत -āgata pp. a. (n. sg. or pl.) गतं च आगतं च गतागतं गमनागमने coming and going, transient; n. संसार temporal existence. ॰रस -rasa a. रस-वियुक्त without taste, whose taste has gone. ॰व्यथ -vyatha a. गता व्यथा भयं यस्मात् from whom fear is gone, who has no fear. ॰सङ्ग -saṅga a. निवृत्त-सङ्गति without association or attachment, free from association or attachment; अ-तादात्म्य no identity with. ॰सन्देह -sandeha a. मुक्त-संशय free from doubt.

गति gati (ga̍[m]-ti) f. (fr. √गम् चरणे go, प्राप्तौ attain 6.6:) गमन going, ज्ञान knowledge (mano-gamana [going/reaching with the mind]); मार्ग course, उपाय means; अवस्था condition, state, nature; प्राप्ति attainment, लक्ष्य goal, end, फल result, lot.

गत्वा gatvā (ga[m]-tvā) in. pt. (of √गम् चरणे go, प्राप्तौ attain 6.9: & 6.6:) having gone, having attained.

गदा gadā (gad[a]-ā) f. लौह-मय-दण्ड club made of or spiked with iron, a mace. ॰इन् -in (॰दिन्) a. गदा अस्य विद्यते bearing a mace (said of Lord Kṛṣṇa – his weapon for beating down ego [ahaṅkāra]).

गद्गद gadgada (gad-gad-a) n. (fr. intens. of √गद् व्यक्तायां वाचि speak 5.42: & 5.13.2:) वाक्-स्खलन (अ-स्पष्ट-वदन) faltering in speech, stammer.

गन्तव्य gantavya (gan-tavya) pot. ps. pt. (of √गम् चरणे go, प्राप्तौ attain 2.55:) to be attained.

गन्तासि gantāsi (gan-tā-asi) ­peri. fut. 2nd sg. (of √गम् चरणे go, प्राप्तौ attain 5.34: & 2.55:) (you) will go to, will attain.

गन्ध gandha (gandh-a̍) m. वास fragrance.

गन्धर्व gandharva (gandh-ar-va) m. स्वर्ग-गायक-देव-योनि-भेद celestial musicians in heaven. ॰यक्षासुर-सिद्धसङ्घ -yakṣāsura-siddha-saṅgha m. pl. गन्धर्वाः च यक्षाः च असुराः च सिद्धाः च तेषां सङ्घाः groups of gandharvas, yakṣas, asuras, and siddhas.

गम् gam √1.P. (pr. गच्छति 5.15.6:, impv. गच्छ, pot. गच्छेत्, अ- Aorist 2nd sg. अगमः [मा गमः 5.5.c:], peri. fut. 2nd sg. गन्तासि gan-tā-asi 5.34: & 2.55:, ps. pr. गम्यते, pr. pt. गच्छत् 5.15.6:, pp. गत 6.6:, pot. ps. pt. गम्य or गन्तव्य 2.55:, in. pt. गत्वा 6.9: & 6.6: ॰गम्य 6.9:) चरणे go, move; प्राप्तौ reach, approach, attain, take to- (w/abstract noun in acc. 7.8.2:), know (attain with the mind). अधि॰ adhi- reach, etc. अव॰ ava- reach, etc. आ॰ ā- reach, etc; समीपे॰ come. उपसम्॰ upasam- (॰सङ्ग॰ 2.55:) reach, etc. नि॰ ni- निश्चयेन॰ reach, etc. वि॰ vi- पृथक्करणे॰ go away, depart. समधि॰ samadhi- reach, etc. समा॰ samā- मिलिने come together.

गम्य gamya (gam-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √गम् चरणे go, प्राप्तौ attain) गमनीय to be attained.

गरीयस् garīyas (gar-ī-yas) cpv. a. (fr. √गॄ शब्दे invoke, or fr. गुरु honorable 6.25:) गुरुतर more honorable, venerable, greater, better.

गर्भ garbha (ga̍rbh-a) m. उल्ब womb; गर्भ-स्थ fetus, embryo. गर्भं दधामि garbhaṃ dadhāmi I place the seed, I impregnate (भ॰गी॰१४.३).

गह् gah √10.U. गहने be thick, enter into deeply.

गहन gahana (ga̍h-ana) a. दुर्गम difficult to attain, difficult to know; दुष्प्रवेश difficult to enter, dense, impenetrable.


गाण्डीव gāṇḍīva (or गाण्डिव) m. n. the name of Arjuna’s bow (given to him by Lord Agni); (any) bow.

गात्र gātra (gā̍-tra) n. (fr. √गा गतौ move) अङ्ग limb (of the body), देह body.

गाम् gām (gā-m) f. acc. sg. (of गो 3.41:) the earth, etc.

गामिन् gāmin (gām-in) a. (fr. √गम् चरणे go) गन्तुं शीलम् अस्य इति inclined to go.

गायत्री gāyatrī (gāy-a-tr[a]-ī̍) f. (fr. √गै [=√गा 5.8.8:] गाने sing) मन्त्र-भेद name of a certain mantraतत्स॑वि॒तुर्वरे᳚ण्य॒म् भर्गो॑ दे॒वस्य॑ धीमहि। धियो॒ यो नः॑ प्रचो॒दया᳚त्॥ (This particular mantra is given to a young child during the upanayaṇa ceremony initiating the child into brahma-carya. It means “­We meditate upon that to be worshipped of the sun as [this] effulgence of the Lord which impels our intellects,” which can be understood one way as a simple devotion by a child, and later understood another way as an expression of brahma-vidyā. It is chanted in the gāyatrī meter (hence its name) during sunrise, mid-day, and sunset prayers, hence its reference to the sun, and on other occasions also); छन्दो-भेद the name of a meter (consisting of three pādas [quarters/feet] of eight syllables each. In the first pāda of the above verse, as is common in the Veda, and in particular for the Vedic future passive participle suffix ॰एन्य replaced in classical Saṃskṛta by ॰अनीय, the semi-vowel य् reverts back to a vowel for metrical and pronunciation purposes, hence tat-sa-vi-tur-va-re-ṇi-am, thus “am” accounts for the eighth syllable. This reversion of the य् to is also required in order to get the normal form of the gāyatrī meter with its 5th-6th-7th syllables of each pāda as light-heavy-light respectively).

गिर् gir f. (fr. √गॄ शब्दे speak 2.67:) वाक्य speech, word(s).

गीत gīta (gī-ta) pp. (of √गै [=√गा 5.8.8:] गाने sing 6.6:) sung. गीत gīta n. गान song, poem. गीता gītā f. श्रुत्यनुवादकं गीतम् a poem in keeping with what is said in the śruti (scripture, a feminine word).


गुडाकेश guḍākeśa m. (Arjuna) गुडाकायाः आलस्यस्य ईशः who is a master over lethargy, गुडाकायाः निद्रायाः ईशः who is a master oversleep; (perhaps alternatively derived as) गुडः गोलकः केशः यस्य whose hair is gathered on top (in a ball [guḍa] (as Lord Śiva is depicted, for whom this compound is also an epithet; and in regards to Arjuna, perhaps in preparation of an archer for battle, in which case it could be a fitting epithet signifying prepared for battle/archery). Some Western translators take this cmpd. to mean “whose hair is thick,” but this is neither a fitting epithet of the greatest warrior of his time, nor is guḍa in the sense of “thick” any more attested in the small extent of the surviving Saṃskṛta literature than the word guḍākā in the sense of “lethergy or sleep,” apart from this compound.

गुण् guṇ √10.U. आमन्त्रणे invite, address.

गुण guṇa (guṇ-a̍) m. (fr. √गुण् आमन्त्रणे invite, address) रज्जु-तन्तु strand of rope (three strands making a strong rope); धर्म (proper or improper) virtue; विशेष quality, attribute; धर्म principle (a basic or fundamental constituent within any thing/system proposed for explaining some aspect of that thing/system); pl. सत्त्व-रजस्तमो-रूप-गुण-त्रय the three-fold guṇas (the subtle principles of the universe – esp. of mental dispositions): sattva (energy, potency, mentally it is the very nature of thought, which is naturally clear), rajas (movement, mentally it is agitation, when the thinking process becomes muddled through agitation), and tamas (mass, mentally it is dullness, when the thinking process becomes muddled through dullness) (see श्वे॰उ॰४.५, ५.७ for one of the few presentations of the guṇas in the Upaniṣad literature) (These three guṇas likely are derived from or in parallel with the concepts that are widely developed in the Upaniṣad literature, namely the three regions of the world: the light-giving heavens [i.e., sattva], the turbulent atmosphere and clouds [i.e., rajas], and the dense, inert earth [i.e., tamas]; or the three tangible elements: fire [i.e., sattva], water [i.e., rajas], and earth [i.e., tamas] – the later trio as implying the concept of the parallel application of the three guṇas is, I think, found in छा॰उ॰६.४.१-६, and then perhaps slightly more elaborated in श्वे॰उ॰, cited above); (pl.) जगत् the world or universe (including this body-mind complex), कार्य-करण-सङ्घात this body-mind complex, गुण-कार्याणि the effects of the guṇas. ॰अतीत -atīta a. गुणान् अतीतः crossed over the guṇas. ॰अन्वित -anvita a. सुख-दुःख-मोहाख्यैः गुणैः अन्वितं अनुगतः endowed with (the effects/modifications of) the guṇas (such as pleasure, pain, and delusion, भ॰गी॰१५.१०). ॰कर्मन् -karman n. pl. गुणानां कर्माणि the actions of the guṇas (6.32:);  गुणाः च कर्माणि च (the effects/modifications of) the guṇas and (their) actions (6.40:). ॰कर्मविभाग -karma-vibhāga m. गुण-विभागः कर्म-विभागः च (भ॰गी॰३.२८) the distinction of the guṇas (from I) and the distinction of karman (from I). ॰कर्मविभागशस् -karma-vibhāgaśas in. (6.19:) गुण-विभागशः कर्म-विभागशः च according to the division of guṇa (mental disposition) and karman (duty). ॰तस् -tas in. (6.19:) सत्त्वादि-गुणेन according to the guṇas. ॰त्रयविभागयोग -traya-vibhāga-yoga a. गुण-त्रय-विभागः इतियोगः प्रकरणं यस्य whose topic is the division of the three guṇas. ॰प्रवृद्ध -pravṛddha a. गुणैः सत्त्व-रजस्तमोभिः प्रवृद्धः स्थूली-कृतः nourished by the guṇas. ॰भेदतस् -bhedatas in. (6.19:) गुणानां सत्त्वादीनां भेदेन according to the differences in (the preponderance of each of the) guṇas. ॰भोक्तृ -bhoktṛ a. गुणानां सत्त्व-रजस्तमां शब्दादि-द्वारेण सुख-दुःख-मोहाकार-परिणतानां उपलब्धा the experiencer of guṇas (which through the elements of sound, etc. transform into the forms: pleasure, pain, and delusion). ॰मय -maya a. (f. ) गुण-विकार modification of the (three) guṇas, in the form of the (three) guṇas. ॰सङ्ख्यान -saṅkhyāna n. गुणानां सङ्ख्यानं शास्त्रम् the teaching of the guṇas. ॰सङ्ग -saṅga m. गुणेषु सङ्गः attachment towards the guṇas. ॰सम्मूढ -sammūḍha a. कार्य-करण-सङ्घाताविवेकिन् who confuses (him/herself) with this body-mind complex.

गुरु guru (gur-u) a. (fr. √गॄ शब्दे speak, स्तुतौ praise, or fr. √गॄ निगरणे devour, cf. 2.69:) प्रशस्य honorable; महत् great, big, heavy. गुरु guru m. गृणाति उपदिशति धर्म गिरति वा अ-ज्ञानं one who teaches dharma or who destroys ignorance, a parent, गु-शब्दः तु अन्धकारः स्यात् ) -शब्दः तन्निरोधकः अन्धकार-निरोधित्वात् गुरुः इति अभिधीयते a teacher is called a “guru” (because he or she removes darkness [i.e., ignorance], since the sound “gu” [as in the verbal root “guh”] means darkness, and the sound “ru” [as in the verbal root “rudh”] means the remover of that).

गुह् guh √1.U. (pot. ps. pt. गुह्य) संवरणे conceal, hide.

गुह्य guhya (gu̍h-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √गुह् संवरणे conceal) गोप्य to be hidden; रहस्य hidden, secret. गुह्य guhya n. रहस्यम् a secret. ॰तम -tama spv. a. (6.25:) गोप्यतम most secret (because it was hitherto unknown, it needs special teaching to be known, it remains unknown even though taught, or it is too precious or sacred to be revealed to just anyone, भ॰गी॰९.१). ॰तर -tara cpv. a. (6.25:) गोप्यतर more secret.


गृह gṛha (gṛh-a̍) m. (fr. √ग्रह् उपादाने grasp 2.3.a:) गेह (वास) house, home.

गृहीत gṛtīta (gṛh-ī-ta) pp. (of √ग्रह् उपादाने take 6.6: irreg. lengthening of connecting vowel) स्वी-कृत taken, gripped; in cmpd. -॰ युक्त endowed with.

गृहीत्वा gṛhītvā (gṛah-ī-tvā) in. pt. (of √ग्रह् उपादाने take 6.9:) स्वी-कृत्वा taking, assuming.

गृह्णत् gṛhṇat (gṛh-ṇ-at) pr. pt. (of √ग्रह् उपादाने take 5.23.2:) grasping.

गॄ gṝ √6.P. (pr. गिरति 2.67:) निगरणे swallow, devour.

गॄ gṝ √9.P. (pr. गृणाति 5.23.3:) शब्दे call out, invoke, pray, स्तुतौ praise.

गेह geha n. गृह house, home.

गै gai (=√गा 5.8.8:) √1.P. (pp. गीत 5.8.8: & 6.6:) गाने sing.

गो go (3.41:) m. वृषभ bull; pl. स्वर्ग heavens; pl. किरण rays, any of the heavenly bodies: sun, moon, and stars. गो go f. धेनु cow; भूमि earth; वाच् speech, words. ॰चर -cara m. (lit. “cow pasture”) क्षेत्र field; pl. इन्द्रिय-विषयाः (the field of) sense objects. ॰मुख -mukha m. (गोः इव मुखम् अस्य “like of a cow’s head”) कुटिलाकारं वाद्य-भाण्डम् a curved musical instrument (probably made from or resembling a cow’s horn). ॰विन्द -vinda m. (Lord Kṛṣṇa) गां विन्दति (“finder of cow(s)”) the cowboy; गोभिः वेद-वाक्यैः विद्यते लभ्यते the one who is understood (found) through words (of the Upaniṣads).

गोप्तृ goptṛ (gop-tṛ) a. (fr. √गुप् रक्षणे protect) रक्षणं कर्ता protector.

गौरक्ष्य gau-rakṣya (gau-rakṣ[a]-ya) n. (fr. √रक्ष् पालने protect) गाः रक्षति इति गो-रक्षः तस्य भावः गौ-रक्ष्यं पशु-पाल्यं इत्यर्थः business of tending cows or cattle, animal husbandry, maintaining (domestic) animals (भ॰गी॰१८.४४).

ग्रस् gras √1.Ā. (pr. mid. pt. ग्रसमान) अदने devour, swallow.

ग्रसमान grasamāna (gras-a-māna) pr. mid. pt. (of √ग्रस् अदने devour) devouring, swallowing.

ग्रसिष्णु grasiṣṇu (gras-iṣṇu) a. (fr. √ग्रस् अदने devour) ग्रसन-शील naturally devouring. ग्रसिष्णु grasiṣṇu m. a devourer.

ग्रह् grah √9.U. (pr. गृह्णाति गृह्णोते 5.23.2:, ps.pr. गृह्यते 5.37.6: & 2.3.a:, pr. pt. गृह्णत् 5.23.2:, pp. गृहीत 6.6: irreg. lengthening of connecting vowel, pot. ps. pt. ग्राह्य 6.8:, in. pt. गृहीत्वा 6.9: & 6.6:) उपादाने (स्वी-कारे) take, grasp, take control, master. नि॰ ni- स्वी-कारे take control; प्रत्याहरणे withdraw.

ग्राम grāma m. ग्रह-समूह village; समुदाय collection, group.

ग्राह grāha (grāh-a) a. (fr. √ग्रह् उपादाने grasp) आदान receiving, taking; ग्रहण holding, grasping. ग्राह grāha m. ज्ञान understanding.

ग्राह्य grāhya (grāh-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √ग्रह् उपादाने take 6.8:) to be grasped.

ग्रीवा grīvā (grī-vā) f. (fr. √गॄ निगरणे swallow) कण्ठ neck.

ग्लानि glāni (glā-ni) f. (fr. √ग्लै हर्ष-क्षये be weary [mentally], धातु-क्षये wane, fade [physically]) क्षय waning.

ग्लै glai √1.P. हर्ष-क्षये be weary (mentally), धातु-क्षये wane, fade (physically).

*** घ — Gh ***

घातयति ghātayati (ghāt-aya-ti) cs. pr. 3rd sg. (of √हन् हिंसायाम् destroy 5.40:) (he/she/it/who) causes to kill, causes the death of.

घुष् ghuṣ √1.P. शब्दे make a sound.

घोर ghora (ghor-a̍) a. (fr. √घुर् भीम-भवने be frightful) क्रूर cruel, gruesome, horrendous, frightful.

घोष ghoṣa (gho̍ṣ-a) m. (fr. √घुष् शब्दे make a sound) ध्वनि noise.

घ्न ghna (ghn-a) a. (derived from the weak form of ॰हन्, the bare root stem 6.24: from the root √हन् at the end of a cmpd., with the addition of to make the declension of the cmpd. easier, cf. 3.21:) only in cmpd. -॰ हन्ति इति who kills-, killer of-, destroyer of-.

घ्नत् ghnat (ghn-at) pr. pt. (of √हन् हिंसायाम् destroy 6.4: & 5.19.5:) killing.

घ्रा ghrā √1.P. (pr. जिघ्रति 5.15.4:, pr. pt. जिघ्रत् 5.15.4:) गन्धोपादाने smell, sense smells.

घ्राण ghrāṇa (ghrā-ṇa) n. (fr. √ध्रा smell) गन्धोपादन smelling; घ्राण-ज्ञानेन्द्रिय the sense of smell.

*** च — C ***

 ←ग  चि  ज→ 

ca encl. cj. समुच्चये and, also, placed at the end of each connected word or only at the end of the last connected word, similarly connecting phrases at the appropriate position for an enclitic particle in the phrase(s) 4.3: & 7.2:.

चक्र cakra (ca-kr-a) n. (fr. redupl. of √कृ करणे do 5.8.3:) रथाङ्ग wheel; मण्डल disk; शिव-दत्त the discus of Lord Kṛṣṇa (his boomerang-flight-like weapon for destroying the enemies: kāma and krodha). ॰इन् -in (॰क्रिन्) a. चक्रम् अस्य अस्ति holding a discus. ॰हस्त -hasta a. चक्रं हस्ते यस्य holding a discus in one hand.

चक्ष् cakṣ √2.Ā. (pr. 3rd pl. चक्षते 5.6.c:, poss. a reduplicated form of √काश् दीप्तौ shine ca-k[ā]ś 5.8.3:) व्यक्तायां वाचि announce, tell; दर्शने see, look. परि॰ pari- announce, etc.

चक्षुस् cakṣus (cakṣ-us) n. (fr. √चक्ष् दर्शने see) लोचन eye; दृष्टि vision, दर्शन-ज्ञानेन्द्रिय the sense of seeing.

चञ्चल cañcala (ca-ñ-cal-a) a. (said to be fr. √चञ्च् गतौ move, but probably an irreg. intens. redup. of √चल् गतौ move 5.13.2: expecting चल्चल्, cf. intens. redup. syllable of √चर् गतौ move चञ्चूर् 5.42: & 1.5.d:) अत्यर्थं चलम् very agitated, very mobile, fleeting, flickering. ॰त्व -tva n. सङ्क्षोभ agitation.

चतुर् catur (cat-u̍r) num. a. m. n. pl. (f. pl. चतुसृ 4.25:) four. चत्वारः मनवः catvāraḥ manavaḥ the four (special of the fourteen) Manus: Dakṣa-sā-varṇi, Brahma-sā-varṇi, Dharma-sā-varṇi, and Rudra-sā-varṇi. ॰थ -tha cat-ur-tha̍ ordinal (4.26:) fourth. ॰दश -daśa ordinal (4.26:) fourteenth. ॰भुज -bhuja a. चत्वारः भुजाः यस्य (m. Kṛṣṇa/Viṣṇu) who has four arms (represented as holding a discus [for destroying kāma and krodha], a mace [for beating down ahaṅkāra], a conch [=Vedas] calling the people to His teaching, and the fourth pointing to his feet indicating surrender as the alternative to his discus and mace). ॰विध -vidha a. चतुः-प्रकार four-fold.

चन्द्रमस् candramas (cand-ra̍-mas) m. (fr. √चन्द् आह्लादे be glad, दीप्तौ shine) चन्द्र moon.

चम् cam √1.P. अदने eat, (w. आ॰) drink, sip; नाशने destroy, consume.

चमू camū (cam-ū̍) f. (fr. √चम् नाशने destroy) सेना army.

चर् car √1.P. (pr. चरति, impv. चर, pr. pt. चरत्, pp. चरित) गतौ move, go, take to. आ॰ ā- निर्वर्तने perform, follow; सामीप्ये approach. निस्॰ nis- (॰श्च॰ 2.24:& 2.27:) निर्गमने go away. समा॰ samā- निर्वर्तने perform, follow.

चर cara (car-a) a. (fr. √चर् गतौ move) जङ्गम moving, what moves. ॰अचर -acara a. चरः अ-चरः वा mobile and/or immobile (i.e., sentient and/or insentient).

चरत् carat (car-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √चर् गतौ move) moving.

चल् cal √1.P. (pr. चलति, cs. pr. चालयति, cs. pot. चालयेत्, cs. ps. pr. चाल्यते, pp. चलित 6.6:) कम्पने shake, be agitated; गतौ move. वि॰ vi- shake, etc.; cs. व्यथा-करे disturb, afflict.

चल cala (cal-a) a. (fr. √चल् कम्पने shake) कम्पन agitated; चञ्चल fleeting.

चलित calita (cal-i-ta̍) pp. (of √चल् गतौ move 6.6:) moved, wandered. ॰मानस -mānasa a. चलितं मानसं मनः यस्य whose mind wanders away.

चातुर्वर्ण्य cātur-varṇya (cātur-var-ṇ[a]-ya) n. (fr. चतुर् four + √वृ आच्छादने cover) चतुर्वर्ण-गण four-fold grouping (for any human society [mānuṣe loke], in relation to function [karman] they are: brāhmaṇa-varṇa educators, kṣatriya-varṇa administrators, vaiśya-varṇa entrepreneurs, and śūdra-varṇa laborers).

चान्द्रमस cāndramasa (cānd-ra-mas-a̍) a. (fr. √चन्द् आह्लादे be glad, दीप्तौ shine) चन्द्रमसि भवः lunar, of the moon.

चाप cāpa (cāp-a) m. n. धनुस् archery bow.

चारिन् cārin (cār-in) a. (fr. √चर् गतौ move) गमन moving, अनुवर्तिन् being engaged in.


चि ci √5.U. (pp. चित, in. pt. ॰चित्य 6.9:) सङ्ग्रहणे gather (esp. ritual firewood); gather (with the mind). निस्॰ nis- (॰श्चि॰ 2.24: & 2.27:) निर्णयने determine. विनिस्॰ vinis- (॰श्चि॰ 2.24: & 2.27:) निर्णयने determine. सुनिस्॰ sunis- (॰श्चि॰) निर्णयने determine.

चिकीर्षु cikīrṣu (ci-kir-ṣ[a]-u) a. (fr. des. of √कृ करणे do 5.41: & 5.8.3:) कर्तुम् इच्छुः desirous to do.

चित् cit √1.P. (cognate to Vedic √कित् ज्ञाने know) (pp. चित्त) सञ्ज्ञाने understand, perceive.

चित्त citta (cit-ta̍) pp. (of √चित् सञ्ज्ञाने understand) thought, perceived. चित्त citta n. अन्तःकरण mind.

चित्र citra (cit-ra̍) a. नाना-वर्ण multicolored. ॰रथ -ratha a. चित्र-रथः यस्य having a brilliant chariot; m. the name of a king and great artist, born of the celestial sage Kaśyapa.

चिन्त् cint √10.P. (pot. चिन्तयेत्, pr. pt. चिन्तयत्, pot. ps. pt. चिन्त्य) स्मृत्याम् reflect, ponder, think, contemplate. अनु॰ anu- xशास्त्राचार्योपदेशतः स्मृत्याम् accordingly reflect (upon the teaching of the scripture and the teacher). परि॰ pari- परितः॰ contemplate everywhere.

चिन्तयत् cintayat (cint-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √चिन्त् स्मृत्याम् mentally reflect upon) contemplating, remembering.

चिन्ता cintā (cint-[a]-ā) f. (fr. √चिन्त् स्मृत्याम् mentally reflect upon) अभीक्ष्ण-चिन्ता thinking over and over, ruminating, worrying, anxiety.

चिन्त्य cintya (cint-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √चिन्त् स्मृत्याम् mentally reflect upon) ध्येय to be meditated upon.

चिर cira (ci-ra̍) a. (fr. √चि सङ्ग्रहणे gather) दीर्घ-काल-स्थायिन् lasting a long time. ॰आत् -āt (abl.) ॰एन -ena (॰रेण inst.) in. दीर्घेण कालेन after a long time.

चूर्ण् cūrṇ √10.U. (pp. चूर्णित 6.6:) पेषणे crush, grind.

चूर्णित cūrṇita (cūrṇ-i-ta) pp. (of √चूर्ण् पेषणे crush 6.6:) crushed.

चेकितान cekitāna (ce̍-kit-āna) m. (fr. intensive perf. mid. pt. of Vedic √कित् ज्ञाने know 5.13.1: & 6.5:) name of a Yādava chieftain on the Pāṇḍava side.

चेतन cetana (cet-ana) a. (fr. √चित् सञ्ज्ञाने understand) चैतन्य-युक्त being conscious. चेतन cetana m. चेतनः भूत: a conscious being. चेतना cetanā f. बुद्धि-वृत्ति faculty of cognition, बुद्धि the cognition itself.

चेतस् cetas (ce̍t-as) n. (fr. √चित् सञ्ज्ञाने understand) मनस् mind. ॰आ (inst.) in. बुद्ध्या in the mind, mentally.

चेद् ced (ca̍-id) pcl. यदि if (वारणोपदेशे used to point out an antithesis), never begins a sentence or pāda (like enclitic).

चेष्ट् ceṣṭ √1.Ā. (pr. चेष्टते) ईहायाम् (उद्यमे) act, move the limbs.

चेष्टा ceṣṭā (ceṣṭ-[a]-ā) f. (fr. √चेष्ट् उद्यमे act) कायिक-व्यापर bodily movement, gesture, activity.

चैल caila n. वस्त्र cloth, garment. ॰अजिनकुशोत्तर -ajina-kuśottara a. चैलं च अजिनं च कुशाः च उत्तरं आवरणं यस्मिन् तत् that on which the cover is a cloth, hide, and grass (as an example of an āsana [seat], from bottom up: 1st the kuśa grass for insulation from damp or cold ground, 2nd a hide for padding and protection from the sharp pointed kuśa grass, and 3rd a cloth or clothing for softness and protection from possible irritation from the hide, भ॰गी॰६.११).

चोदना codanā (cod-an[a]-ā) f. (fr. √चुद् प्रेरणे impel) प्रवर्तना-वाक्य a statement that promotes action; प्रवर्तिक that which impels, an impeller.

च्यु cyu √1.U. (pr. च्यवति ॰ते 5.3: & 2.3: & 2.71:, pp. च्युत) गतौ go, waver, fall; हानौ abandon, lose (w/abl.).

*** छ — Ch ***

छन्दस् chandas (cha̍nd-as) n. (fr. √छन्द् संवरणे cover, इच्छायाम् wish, desire) वेद Vedic text; वृत्त the meter of a verse, the arrangement of syllables in a verse and their quality (light or heavy); n. pl. वेदाः the Vedas, verses of the Vedas.

छलयत् chalayat (chal-a-y[a]-at) pr. pt. (of den. fr. छल meaning माया 5.43:) deceiving, what deceives.

छित्त्वा chittvā (chit-tvā) in. pt. (of √छिद् द्वैधी-करणे sever 2.42:) severing, cutting, felling (a tree).

छिद् chid √7.U. (pr. P. sg. छिनत्ति pl. छिन्दन्ति, pp. छिन्न 6.6:, pot. ps. pt. छेद्य 6.8:, in. pt. छित्त्वा 2.42:, inf. छेतुम् 6.10: & 5.34:) द्वैधी-करणे sever, cut; नाशने destroy. सम्॰ sam- (सञ्छ्॰ 2.55:) sever, etc.

छिन्न chinna (chin-na̍) pp. (of √छिद् द्वैधी-करणे sever6.6:) severed (6.6:). ॰अभ्र -abhra n. छिन्नं मेघः cloudlet, a cloud split off from a cloud bank. ॰द्वैध -dvaidha a. छिन्नं द्वैधं संशयः यस्य whose doubt(s) has been resolved. ॰संशय -saṃśaya a. छिन्नः संशयः यस्य whose doubt(s) has been resolved.

छेत्तुम् chettum (chet-tum) inf. (of √छिद् द्वैधी-करणे sever 6.10: & 5.34:) to sever, to eliminate.

छेत्तृ chettṛ (chet-tṛ) a. (fr. √छिद् द्वैधी-करणे sever 2.42:) नाशितृ destroyer, remover.

*** ज — J ***

 ←च  जा  ज्ञ  त→ 

ja a. (fr. √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born) only in cmpd. -॰ (6.24.3:) जात is born of-, caused by-.

जगत् jagat (ja-ga-t) a. (fr. redup. √गम् or √गा both meaning चरणे go, प्राप्तौ attain 5.8.3:, popular etymology is √जन् + √गम् “born-gone” 6.24.3: i.e., ephemeral) जङ्गम moving, all that moves. जगत् jagat n. विश्व all, universe (the entire gross and subtle universe, including one’s own body-mind complex), लोक world, earth, beings, human beings. ॰निवास -nivāsa (॰न्नि॰) m. जगतः निवासः आश्रयः (Lord Kṛṣṇa) the abode of the universe, the Lord. ॰पति -pati m. विश्वस्य प्रभुः Lord of the universe.

जघन्य jaghanya (ja-ghan-[a]-ya) a. (fr. जघन posterior, rump, fr. reduplication of √हन् हिंसायाम् destroy 5.8.3: with ह् reverting to घ् cf. 2.105:) अधम lowest, चरम last. ॰गुणवृत्तस्थ -guṇa-vṛtta-stha (or ॰वृत्ति॰) a. (6.24.1:) जघन्यः च असौ गुणः च जघन्य-गुणः तमः तस्य वृत्तं निद्रालस्यादि तस्मिन् स्थितः who are situated in the condition (i.e., sleepiness, laziness, etc.) of the bottom guṇa (tamas).

जङ्गम jaṅgama (jaṅ-gam-a) a. (fr. intens. of √गम् go 5.13.2: & 2.55:) गति-शक्ति-युक्त having the power to move, moving, mobile. जङ्गम jaṅgama n. जङ्गम-भूत a mobile being (opposed to sthāvara).

जन् jan √4.Ā. (pr. जायते 5.16.4:, cs. pot. जनयेत्, pr. pt. cs. जनयत्, pp. जात 6.6: irreg.) उत्पत्त्याम् be born, arise, be (by nature), become. अभि॰ abhi- be born, etc. उप॰ upa- be born, etc. सम्॰ sam- (सञ्ज॰ 2.55:) be born, etc.

जन jana (ja̍n-a) m. (fr. √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born) प्रजा people (with plural sense even in the singular), जन्तु creature, person. ॰अधिप -adhipa m. जनानाम् अधिपः protector of people, king. ॰अर्दन -ardana m. (fr. √अर्द् गतौ go याचने pray) जनान अर्दति (Lord Kṛṣṇa) the one who takes people (to their just end by giving them their karma-phala), जनैः अर्द्यते the one who is prayed to by the people; (poss. fr. √ऋद् विक्षेपे disperse or क्लेशे afflict) जनानां क्लेशकः the one who afflicts people (by giving them their karma-phala, thus continuing their saṃsāra). ॰संसद् -saṃsad f. जनानां समवायः the company of people.

जनक janaka (jan-aka̍) m. (fr. √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born) पितृ father; King जनक (regarded as an enlightened emperor, very supportive of scriptural scholarship). ॰आदि -ādi a. pl. beginning with King Janaka, etc. 6.39:.

जन्तु jantu (jan-tu̍) m. (fr. √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born) प्राणिन् creature; अ-विद्या-दोषात् देहात्माभिमानी जीवः an individual (with the judgment that “I am this body” due to ignorance which is the problem).

जन्मन् janman (ja̍n-man) n. (fr. √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born) उद्भव (उत्पत्ति) birth. जन्म janma in cmpd. -, (6.29:). ॰कर्मफलप्रद -karma-phala-prada a. (6.24.1:) कर्मणः फलं कर्म-फलं जन्म एव कर्म-फलं तत् प्रददाति इति what gives (another) birth as a result of action(s). ॰बन्ध -bandha m. जन्म एव बन्धः bondage which is (re-)birth. ॰बन्धविनिर्मुक्त -bandha-vinirmukta a. जन्म एव बन्धः जन्म-बन्धः तेन विनिर्मुक्तः freed from the bondage which is (re-)birth (“birth” here being upalakṣaṇa for [implying] all change, all becoming, since all change essentially involves being born into something else). ॰मृत्युजरादुःख -mṛtyu-jarā-duḥ-kha n. pl. जन्म च मृत्युः च जरा च दुःखानि च birth, death, ageing, and sorrow. ॰मृत्यु-जरा-व्याधि-दुःख-दोषानुदर्शन -mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥ-kha-doṣānudarśana n. जन्म च मृत्युः च जरा च व्याधयः च तेषु जन्मादिषु दुःख-दोषं अनुदर्शनम् seeing the problem of sorrow in birth, death, ageing, and diseases.

जप japa (ja̍p-a) m. (fr. √जप् व्यक्तायां वाचि मानसे च utter out loud or mentally) मनसा वेद-मन्त्रादेः आवृत्तिः mental repetition of a Vedic mantra (or the name[s] of the Lord). ॰यज्ञ -yajña m. जपः एव यज्ञः worship consisting of simply japa.

जय jaya (jay-a̍) m. (fr. √जि लाभे be victorious 2.3: & 2.71:) विजय victory. ॰अजय -a-jaya m. du. जयः च अ-जयः च victory and/or defeat.

जयत् jayat (jay-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √जि लाभे be victorious 2.71:) victorious. ॰रथ -ratha (॰यद्र॰) a. जयत् रथः यस्य whose chariot is victorious; m. name of a king with a huge army, a brother-in-law to Dur-yodhana, who fought on Dur-yodhana’s side.

जरा jarā (jar-[a]-ā̍) f. (fr. √जॄ वयो-हानौ lose vigor) जीर्णावस्था old age (after yauvana), वयो-हानि wearing out, ageing. ॰मरणमोक्ष -maraṇa-mokṣa m. जरा-मरणयोः मोक्षः complete freedom from old age and death.

जस् jas √1.Ā. ग्लान be exhausted (Vedic).

जहाति jahāti (ja-hā-ti) pr. 3rd sg. (of 3.P. √हा त्यागे abandon 5.8.3:) (he/she/it/who) abandons.

जहि jahi (ja-hi) impv. (of √हन् हिंसायाम् destroy 5.19.5: & 5.6.a:) (you please) destroy.


जागृ jāgṛ √2.P. (pr. sg. जागर्ति jāgar-ti pl. जाग्रति jāgr-ati 5.19.10:, pr. pt. जाग्रत्) निद्रा-क्षये (प्रबुद्धे) be awake, be watchful.

जाग्रत् jāgrat (jāgr-at) pr. pt. (of √जागृ निद्रा-क्षये be awake) being awake.

जात jāta (jā[n]-ta̍) pp. (of √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born 6.6: irreg.) उत्पन्न born.

जाति jāti (jā[n]-ti) f. (fr. √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born) जन्मन् birth; वंश family, lineage, clan; प्रकार species, class, kind, group. ॰धर्म -dharma m. pl. जात्याः धर्माः the traditions of the (larger) group (i.e., of the community, भ॰गी॰१.४३).

जातु jātu (jā̍-tu) in. कदा-चिद् ever. न जातु na jātu in. never.

जानत् jānat (jā-n-at) pr. pt. (of √ज्ञा अवबोधने know 5.23.2:) knowing.

जायते jāyate (jā̍-ya-te) pr. 3rd sg. (of √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born 5.16.4:) (he/she/it/who) is born, arises.

जाल jāla (jā̍l-a) n. (fr. √जल् अपवारणे cover) आनाय net.

जाह्नवी jāhnavī (jāhnav-ī) f. (lit. “sprung from King जह्नु”) गङ्गा the sacred Gaṅgā (Ganges) river.

जि ji √1.P. (Ā. with परा॰ and वि॰) (pr. जयति ॰ते, pot. 3rd pl. जयेयुः 1st pl. जयेम, peri. fut. 2nd sg. जेतासि je-tā-asi 5.34: & 5.19.4:, des. pr. जिगीषति ॰ते 5.41: irreg., pr. pt. des. जिगीषत् 5.41: irreg., pp. जित, in. pt. जित्वा) लाभे be victorious, succeed; अभिभवे defeat; ps. वशी-कृते placed under control. परा॰ parā- be victorious, etc. वि॰ vi- be victorious, etc. सम्॰ sam- (सञ्ज्॰ 2.55:) be victorious, etc.

जिजीविषामस् jijīviṣāmas (ji-jīv-i-ṣā-mas) des. pr. 1st pl. (of √जीव् प्राण-धारणे be alive 5.41: & 5.8.6: & 5.5.a:) (we) (would 7.23.2:) want to live.

जिगीषत् jigīṣat (ji-gī-ṣ[a]-at) pr. pt. (of des. √जि लाभे be victorious 5.41: irreg.) (those) desiring victory or success.

जिघ्रत् jighrat (jighr-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √घ्रा गन्धोपादाने sense smells 5.15.4:) smelling.

जिज्ञासु jijñāsu (ji-jñā-s[a]-u) a. (fr. des. of √ज्ञा अवबोधने know 5.41: & 5.8.4:) ज्ञातुम् इच्छन् desiring to know.

जित jita (ji-ta̍) pp. (of √जि लाभे succeed) वशी-कृत placed under authority (in terms of self-discipline under authority of an informed intellect over mind, senses), mastered; अभिभूत is overcome, is defeated. ॰आत्मन् -ātman a. कार्य-करण-सङ्घातः आत्मा जितः येन who has discipline over oneself (this body-mind complex). ॰इन्द्रिय -indriya (॰ते॰) a. जितानि इन्द्रियाणि येन who has discipline over his/her senses. ॰सङ्गदोष -saṅga-doṣa a. सङ्गः एव दोषः सङ्ग-दोषः जितः सङ्ग-दोषः येन who has conquered the fault of attachment.

जित्वा jitvā (ji-tvā̍) in. pt. (of √जि लाभे be victorious) winning, conquering.

जीर्ण jīrṇa (jīr-ṇa̍) pp. (of √जॄ वयो-हानौ lose vigor 6.6: & 2.68: & 2.92:) वयो-हात (दुर्बलतां गतः) old, worn out.

जीव् jīv √1.P. (pr. जीवति, des. pr. 1st pl. जिजीविषामः 5.41: & 5.8.6:, pp. जीवित 6.6:) प्राण-धारणे be alive, live.

जीव jīva (jīv-a̍) a. (fr. √जीव् be alive) प्राण-धारण alive. जीव jīva m. चेतन-व्यक्ति a living being, an individual; देहादि-परिच्छिन्नं चैतन्यम् (my)self associated with this body (then the next, the next, and on and on). ॰भूत -bhūta a. जीवः भवति being an individual (kartā bhoktāiti [the doer and experiencer]). ॰लोक -loka m. जीवानां लोकः the world of individuals.

जीवन jīvana (jīv-ana) n. (fr. √जीव् प्राण-धारणे be alive) वृत्ति life, existence.

जीवित jīvita (jīv-i-ta̍) pp. (of √जीव् प्राण-धारणे be alive) alive. जीवित jīvita n. (7.17.3:) जीवन life, living, livelihood.

जुष् juṣ √6.Ā. (cs. pr. जोषयति ॰ते, cs. pot. जोषयेत्, pp. जुष्ट 2.88:) प्रीतौ like, enjoy; सेवने devote to, frequent, resort to; cs. encourage, encourage to do or frequent.

जुष्ट juṣṭa (juṣ-ṭa̍) pp. (of √जुष् प्रीतौ like 2.88:) प्रित accepted, प्रिय acceptable; सेवित resorted (to), practised, found (in).

जुह्वति juhvati (ju-hv-ati) pr. 3rd pl. (of √हु दाने, यज्ञं करणे 5.6.c:) (they) offer, (they) perform ritual.

जॄ jṝ √4.P. (pp. जीर्ण 6.6: & 2.68: & 2.92:) वयो-हानौ lose vigor, wear out, grow old.


ज्ञ jña a. (fr. √ज्ञा अवबोधने know) only in cmpd. -॰ (6.24.1:) जानाति इति the one who knows-.

ज्ञा jña √9.U. (pr. जानाति जानीत 5.23.2: & 5.3: Ā. 1st जाने 5.23.2:, impv. P. जानीहि jā-nī-hi 5.23.2: & 5.6.a:, pot. P. 1st sg. जानीयाम् 5.23.2: & 5.3:, fut. ज्ञास्यसि, pr. pt. जानत् 5.23.2:, pp. ज्ञात, pot. ps. pt. ज्ञेय 6.8: or ज्ञातव्य, in. pt. ज्ञात्वा ॰ज्ञाय, inf. ज्ञातुम्) अवबोधने know. अभि॰ abhi- know. अव॰ ava- परिभवने (अनादरे) disregard, disrespect. प्र॰ pra- know. प्रति॰ prati- know; अङ्गी-करणे accept, own up to, promise. वि॰ vi- know.

ज्ञात jñāta (jñā-ta̍) pp. (of √ज्ञा अवबोधने know) विदित known, having known.

ज्ञातव्य jñātavya (jñā-tavya) pot. ps. pt. (of √ज्ञा अवबोधने know) विदितव्य to be known.

ज्ञातुम् jñātum (jñā-tum) inf. (of √ज्ञा अवबोधने know) to know.

ज्ञात्वा jñātvā (jñā-tvā) in. pt. (of √ज्ञा अवबोधने know) विदित्वा knowing.

ज्ञान jñāna (jñā-ana) n. (fr. √ज्ञा अवबोधने know) बोद्ध knowing; विद्या knowledge (any knowledge of reality, of dharma and a-dharma, etc.), understanding (of correct puruṣārtha, etc. that is conducive to gaining knowledge of reality); ज्ञायते अनेन that by which you know, अन्तःकरण-वृत्ति a thought-modification of the mind; विवेक discriminating capacity, discernment; तत्त्व-ज्ञान discerning reality (which is jñānārtha/the goal of knowledge); उपदेश the teaching, the teaching methodology, ज्ञान-साधन the means of knowledge (भ॰गी॰१३.७-११), अधिकारित्व the qualifications which one needs in order to know (such as values conducive for knowledge of oneself). ॰अग्नि -agni m. ज्ञानं एव अग्निः the fire that is knowledge. ॰अग्नि-दग्ध-कर्मन् -agni-dagdha-karman a. (कर्मादौ अ-कर्मादि-दर्शनं) ज्ञानं तद् एव अग्निः तेन ज्ञानाग्निना दग्धानि कर्माणि यस्य whose karmas are burned up by the fire that is knowledge (i.e., the view of actionlessness in action, etc., भ॰गी॰४.१९). ॰अवस्थित-चेतस् -avasthita-cetas a. ज्ञाने एव अवस्थितं चेतः यस्य whose mind is rooted in knowledge. ॰असि -asi m. ज्ञानम् एव असिः खड्गः the sword which is but knowledge; असिः इव ज्ञानम् knowledge that is like a sword. ॰इन् -in (॰निन्) a. विद्वत् knowing, ज्ञानम् अस्य अस्ति one who knows;  तत्त्व-विद् the knower of the truth; पण्डित scholar. ॰कर्म-सन्न्यास-योग -karma-sannyāsa-yoga a. ज्ञानं कर्म-सन्न्यासः च इति योगः अधिकरणः यस्य whose topic is knowledge and renunciation of action. ॰गम्य -gamya pot. ps. pt. ज्ञानेन गमनीयम् to be attained by knowledge; n. ज्ञान-फल the result (culmination) of knowledge. ॰चक्षुस् -cakṣus n. शास्त्राचार्य-प्रसादोपदेश-जनितं ज्ञानम् एव चक्षुः the vision that is the knowledge (born of the teaching, and the grace of the śāstra and the teacher), the “eye of wisdom” (because, like eye-sight, the knowledge of the self is immediate and conclusive evidence, भ॰गी॰१३.३४); a. ज्ञानस्य चक्षुः यस्य one who has the vision that is knowledge॰तपस् -tapas n. ज्ञानम् एव तपस् साधनम् the discipline that is knowledge. ॰दीप -dīpa m. दीपः इव ज्ञानम् knowledge which is like a lamp (6.34: 1st member is a noun in comparison), the lamp that is knowledge. ॰दीपित -dīpita a. विवेक-विज्ञानेन उज्ज्वल-भावम् आपादिते set on fire by discerning knowledge. ॰निर्धूत-कल्मष -nirdhūta-kalmaṣa a. ज्ञानेन निर्धूतः निहतः कल्मषः यस्य whose impurities have been shaken off (removed) by knowledge. ॰प्लव -plava m. ज्ञानम् एव प्लवः the raft that is but knowledge (that metaphorically ferries you over the ocean of saṃsāra to param); प्लवः इव ज्ञानम् knowledge that is like a raft (the imagery is of a small raft, i.e., the teaching that is not wetted by the dark, swift water of saṃsāra, taking you as an individual to the far shore of enlightenment, with the necessary assistance of the pilot, the guru). ॰यज्ञ -yajña m. ज्ञानम् एव यज्ञः (for sannyāsins not eligible for rituals) the worship consisting of knowledge/study. ॰योग -yoga m. ज्ञानम् एव योगः (साङ्ख्य-योगः) the means (yoga) that is knowledge; ज्ञान-निष्ठा pursuit of knowledge (to the exclusion of other pursuits, i.e., sannyāsa). ॰योग-व्यवस्थिति -yoga-vyavasthiti f. ज्ञानं शास्त्रतः आचार्यतः च आत्मादि-पदार्थानां अवगमः अवगतानाम् इन्द्रियाद्युपसंहारेण एकाग्रतया स्वात्म-संवेद्यतापादनं योगः तयोः ज्ञान-योगयोः व्यवस्थितिः तन्निष्ठता steadiness in (or commitment to) knowledge and contemplation (i.e., knowledge of oneself, the world, and the Lord as received from the teaching and a teacher, and assimilation in one’s mind of that knowledge through contemplation, and with a certain mastery over the senses and the body). ॰वत् -vat a. ज्ञानम् अस्य अस्ति who has knowledge, तत्त्व-ज्ञानिन् who knows (the tattva). ॰विज्ञान-तृप्तात्मन् -vijñāna-tṛptātman a. ज्ञानं शास्त्रोक्त-पदार्थानां परिज्ञानं, विज्ञानं तु शास्त्रतः ज्ञातानां तथैव स्वानुभव-करणं, ताभ्यां ज्ञान-विज्ञानाभ्यां तृप्तः आत्मा अन्तःकरणं यस्य whose mind is content with his/her knowledge (of the teaching of the self) and with his/her assimilation of that knowledge. ॰विज्ञाननाशन -vijñāna-nāśana a. ज्ञानं शास्त्रतः आचार्यतः च आत्मादीनाम् अवबोधः, विज्ञानं विशेषतः तदर्थानुभवः, तयोः ज्ञान-विज्ञानयोः श्रेयः-प्राप्ति-हेत्वोः नाशनं नाश-करः the cause for the destruction of both the knowledge and the assimilation of that knowledge (of the self). ॰विज्ञानयोग -vijñāna-yoga a. ज्ञानं शास्त्रतः आचार्यतः च आत्मादीनाम् अवबोधः, विज्ञानं विशेषतः तदर्थानुभवः, ते ज्ञान-विज्ञाने इति योगः प्रकरणं यस्य whose topic is knowledge and the assimilation of that knowledge. ॰सङ्ग -saṅga m. ज्ञानस्य सङ्गः attachment to knowing. ॰सञ्छिन्न-संशय -sañchinna-saṃśaya a. (2.55:) ज्ञानेन सञ्छिन्नः संशयः यस्य a. whose doubt has been completely severed by knowledge.

ज्ञेय jñeya (jñe-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √ज्ञा अवबोधने know6.8:) ज्ञातव्य should be known, to be known. ज्ञेय jñeya n. ज्ञानस्य विषयः object of knowledge, the object (to be) known.

ज्यायस् jyāyas (jyā-yas) cpv. a. (fr. √ज्या overpower 6.25:) अधिक-वृद्ध older; अधिक-शक्त more powerful, अधिकतर foremost, superior.

ज्योतिस् jyotis (jyo̍t-is) n. (a phonetic variant of द्योतिस् which is fr. √द्युत् shine) प्रकाश light, अग्नि fire; प्रकाशात्मकं चैतन्यम् (luminous) conscious being; प्रकाशात्मकं अन्तःकरणम् (luminous) mind; दिव् heaven (भ॰गी॰८.२५); ज्योतिर्देवता the deity that is light or fire (भ॰गी॰८.२४); pl. स्वर्गीयाः पिण्डाः the luminous bodies in the sky.

ज्वर jvara (jvar-a) m. (fr. √ज्वर् रोगे be hot with fever) (“be heated,” cf. ज्वल 1.5.d:) सन्ताप anguish or fever, शोक sorrow.

ज्वल् jval √1.P. (pr. ज्वलति, pr. pt. ज्वलत्) दीप्तौ burn, flame, shine. अभिवि॰ abhivi- burn, etc.

ज्वलत् jvalat (jval-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √ज्वल् दीप्तौ burn) burning.

ज्वलन jvalana (jval-ana) a. (fr. √ज्वल् दीप्तौ burn) दीप्त burning. ज्वलन jvalana m. अग्नि fire.

*** झ — Jh ***

झष jhaṣa (jhaṣa̍) m. मत्स्य fish, aquatic creature.

*** त — T ***

 ←ज  तप  तु  त्य  द→ 

तत tata (ta[n]-ta̍) pp. (of √तन् विस्तारे stretch 6.6:) व्याप्त pervaded.

ततस् tatas (ta̍-tas) in. (6.19: Ablative) तस्मात् from or than that, therefore; पश्चात् then, after that. यतस यतस्…ततस् ततस् yatas yatas…tatas tatas from whichever…from that, whenever…then.

तत्त्व tattva (tat-tva) n. (“that-ness”) तथ्य as it is, तस्य भावः the nature of that (the world, myself, and the Lord), स्व-रूप (its) nature; सत्य what is, truth, आत्मन्/ब्रह्मन् reality which is oneself. तत् इति सर्वनाम, सर्व च ब्रह्म, तस्य नाम तत् इति, तद्भावः इति तत्त्वम्tat” (that) is a pronoun for every thing, and every thing is brahman (reality), so “tat” is a name for brahman. “Being tat” is tattva.तत् त्वम् असि श्वेतकेतो You are tat (that [brahman]), O Śvetaketu,” छा॰उ॰६.८.७-६.१६.३. ॰एन -ena (॰तेन inst.) in. यथावत् as it is, in reality. ॰ज्ञानार्थ-दर्शन -jñānārtha-darśana n. तत्त्व-ज्ञानस्य अर्थः मोक्षः संसारोपरमः तस्य आलोचनम् seeing the goal (i.e., complete freedom, cessation of becoming) of the knowledge of truth. ॰तस् -tas in. (6.19:) यथावत् as it is, in truth, in reality; (॰तस् with sense of ablative 6.19:) from reality. ॰दर्शिन् -darśin a. तत्त्वं द्रष्टुं शीलं यस्य who lives the vision of the truth (i.e., sthita-prajña, brahma-niṣṭha), who has the vision of the truth at all times. ॰विद् -vid m. (6.24:) तत्त्वं वेति the one who knows the truth.

तत्र tattra (ta̍-tra) in. (6.19:) तस्मिन् in that, there, with reference to that, at that time, then; तेषु with reference to those, among those.

तथा tathā (ta̍-thā) in. (6.19:) तेन प्रकारेण in that way, thus, so, so also, similarly; समुच्चये also, and. तथा अपि tathā api nevertheless, still, even. यथा…तथा yathā…tathā as…so.

तद् tad (ta̍-d) prn. (m. सः, n. तद्, f. सा 4.6:) यत् परोक्षम् that, he, she, it – generally referring to what is out of sight (4.5:). तद् tad in. तत्र there, then, ततः thereafter; (corr. यद्…तद्…) so, thus. तद् तद् tad tad that very. तद् यद् tad yad that which. ॰अनन्तरम् -an-antaram in. ततः ऊर्ध्वम् सद्यः immediately after that. ॰अर्थम् -artham in. (6.32:) तत्प्रयोजनाय for the sake of that. ॰अर्थीय -arthīya a. सः अर्थः यस्य having that/those as its purpose, for the sake of that/those. ॰आत्मन् -ātman a. तद् एव परं ब्रह्म आत्मा यस्य whose self (is known) as that (paraṃ brahman, भ॰गी॰५.१७). ॰निष्ठ -niṣṭha (तन्॰ 2.24:& 2.44:) a. तस्मिन् ब्रह्मणि एव अभिनिवेशः तात्पर्यं यस्य whose sole commitment is in that (brahman, भ॰गी॰५.१७). ॰पर -para (तत्॰ 2.24:) a. तत् परम् उत्तमं यस्य having that as the ultimate. ॰परायण -parāyaṇa (तत्॰ 2.24:) a. तद् ब्रह्म एव परा गतिः यस्य having that (brahman) as the ultimate end. ॰प्रसाद -prasāda (तत्॰ 2.24:) m. तस्य ईश्वरस्य प्रसादः अनुग्रहः the grace of that (Lord, भ॰गी॰१८.६२). ॰बुद्धि -buddhi a. तस्मिन् ब्रह्मणि गता बुद्धिः यस्य whose intellect (knowledge) has attained that (paraṃ brahman, भ॰गी॰५.१७). ॰भावभावित -bhāva-bhāvita a. तस्मिन् भावः तद्भावः सः भावितः being (having been made) in that state. ॰वत् -vat in. (6.19:) तथा similarly (corr. यद्वत्…तद्वत्…). ॰विद् -vid m. (6.24:) तं वेत्ति जानाति इति the one who knows that, the knower of that.

तदा tadā (ta-dā̍) in. (6.19:) तस्मिन् काले at that time, then, correlative with यदा.

तन् tan √8.U. (pp. तत 6.6:) विस्तारे stretch. अनुसम्॰ anusam- (॰सन्त॰ 2.55:) पार्श्वतः॰ stretch along side. वि॰ vi- stretch.

तनु tanu (tan-u̍) (fr. √तन् विस्तारे stretch) a. क्षीण slender, thin; मधुर moderate, soft. तनु tanu f. व्यक्ति manifestation, body, रूप form.


तप् tap √1.U. or 4.U. (pr. 1.U. तपति ॰ते 4.U. तप्यति ॰ते, pr. pt. तपत्, pp. तप्त) सन्तापे ( दाहे) be hot; तापके heat, burn, scorch. प्र॰ pra- heat, etc.

तप tapa (ta̍p-a) (fr. √तप् सन्तापे be hot, heat) a. in cmpd. -॰ तापक heating; पीडक tormentor, vexer.

तपत् tapat (tap-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √तप् सन्तापे be hot, heat) heating, scorching.

तपस् tapas (ta̍p-as) n. (fr. √तप् सन्तापे be hot, heat) अग्नि fire; पीडा pain; साधन prayerful discipline (hence called religious discipline), any difficulty one undergoes to accomplish some end (esp. when that end is for gaining the Lord). ॰यज्ञ -yajña (॰पो॰ 2.24: & 2.33:) a. तपः यज्ञः यस्य for whom prayerful discipline is the worship (offering to the Lord). ॰विन् -vin (tapas-vi̍n) a. तपस्वत् who does tapas, ascetic.

तपस्य tapasya (ta̍p-as-ya) den. P. (fr. तपस्) (pr. 2nd sg. तपस्यसि) तपसि undertake a discipline.

तप्त tapta (tap-ta̍) pp. (of √तप् सन्तापे be hot, heat) दग्ध heated, burned, consumed; तपसः अनुष्ठितः performed as a discipline.

तम tama spv. suffix (6.25:) अतिशय best-.

तमस् tamas (ta̍m-as) n. (fr. √तम् खेदे be faint) अन्धकार darkness; मोह delusion, अ-ज्ञान ignorance; गुण-भेद one of the three principles [guṇas], as a mental disposition it is dullness. ॰द्वार -dvāra (॰मो॰ 2.24: & 2.33:) n. pl. तमसः नरकस्य दुःख-मोहात्मकस्य द्वाराणि कामादयः the gateways (i.e., requiring, etc.) to darkness (i.e., to hell, in the form of pain and delusion, भ॰गी॰१६.२२).

तर tara cpv. suffix (6.25:) अधिक better-.

तव tava ta̍va prn. sg. gen. (of त्वम्) your.

तस्मात् tasmāt (ta̍-smāt) prn. abl. sg. from that. तस्मात् in. ततः therefore.

तात tāta m. पितृ father; voc. (addressing elders, superiors, children, or pupils) dear.

तामस tāmasa (tām-as-a) a. (fr. √तम् खेदे be faint) (f. ) तमसः तमो-गुण-प्रधानात् भवति what is of or predominantly from tamas guṇa, तमो-गुण-प्रधान who is predominantly of the tamas mental disposition, dull. ॰प्रिय -priya a. तामासानां प्रियः favorite of dull people (or favorite when a person is dull).

तावत् tāvat (tā̍-vat) prn. a. (4.18:) (correlative with यावत्) …that much; …that long; …that far.

तिज् tij √1.Ā. (des. impv. 2nd sg. तितिक्षस्व 5.41:) तीक्ष्णी-करणे sharpen; क्षमायाम् endure, allow (accept objectively, with understanding devoid of complaints, the contacts with the natural pairs of opposites in the world, भ॰गी॰२.१४).

तिष्ठत् tiṣṭhat (tiṣṭh-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain 5.15.4:) remaining.

तिष्ठति tiṣṭhati (tiṣṭh-a-ti) pr. 3rd sg. (of √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain 5.15.4:) (he/she/it/who) remains.

तीक्ष्ण tīkṣṇa (tīk-ṣṇa) a. (fr. √तिज् निशाने sharpen or be sharp 2.81:) तीव्र sharp, intense, violent; रस-भेद a kind of taste: bitter (tikta).


तु tu tu̍ pcl. पक्षान्तरे but, whereas, rather, than, never begins a sentence or pāda (like enclitic), sometimes merely for stress like eva.

तुमुल tumula a. व्याकुल tumultuous.

तुल्य tulya (tul-ya) a. (fr. √तुल् उन्माने weigh) स-दृश alike, same, similar. ॰निन्दात्म-संस्तुति -nindātma-saṃstuti a. निन्दा च आत्म-संस्तुतिः च निन्दात्म-संस्तुती तुल्ये यस्य for whom censure and praise of himself (or herself) are alike. ॰निन्दास्तुति -nindā-stuti a. निन्दा च स्तुतिः च निन्दा-स्तुती ते तुल्ये यस्य for whom censure and praise are alike (as addressing only this body or mind, since the full and complete ātman cannot be flattered or damaged by any misconception of it). ॰प्रियाप्रिय -priyāpriya a. प्रियं च अ-प्रियं च प्रियाप्रिये तुल्ये समे यस्य for whom the pleasant and the unpleasant are (objectively viewed) the same (way) (i.e., that all creatures avoid the unpleasant and do not avoid the pleasant, and that this body and mind is of the same nature as creatures, yet certain situations are unavoidable and therefore are accepted and dealt with as they are).

तुष् tuṣ √4.P. (pr. तुष्यति, pp. तुष्ट 2.88:) तृप्तौ be satisfied. सम्॰ sam- (सन्॰ 2.55:) be satisfied.

तुष्ट tuṣṭa (tuṣ-ṭa̍) pp. (of √तुष् प्रीतौ be satisfied 2.88:) satisfied, pleased, happy.

तुष्टि tuṣṭi (tuṣ-ṭi) f. (fr. √तुष् तृप्तौ be satisfied 2.88:) सन्तोष satisfaction, contentment, लाभेषु पर्याप्त-बुद्धिः a sense of “enough” towards whatever comes.

तूष्णीम् tūṣṇīm (tūṣṇī̍m) in. मौनी-भूय turning silent.

तृतीय tṛtīya (tṛ-tī̍ya) ordinal (4.26:) third.

तृप् tṛp √4.P. (pp. तृप्त) प्रीणने be content.

तृप्त tṛpta (tṛp-ta̍) pp. (of √तृप् प्रीणने be content) तुष्ट satisfied.

तृप्ति tṛpti (tṛ̍p-ti, also tṛp-ti̍) f. (fr. √तृप् प्रीणने be content) तुष्टि satisfaction, satiation.

तृष्णा tṛṣṇā (tṛ̍ṣ-ṇ[a]-ā) f. (fr. √तृष् पिपासायाम् be thirsty) अ-प्राप्ताभिलाष longing (for what one does not have), thirsting. ॰आसङ्ग-समुद्भव -āsaṅga-samudbhava a. तृष्णा च आसङ्गः च तृष्णासङ्गयोः समुद्भवं यस्य born of longing (towards what one does not yet have) and attachment (towards what one has).

तॄ tṝ √1.P. (pr. तरति 2.3:, fut. तरिष्यति 5.33: & 2.101:) प्लवने swim, sail, fly; लङ्घने leap over, cross. अति॰ ati- cross over. व्यति॰ vyati- cross over. सम्॰ sam- (सन्त्॰ 2.55:) cross over.

ते te encl. prn. sg. dat. gen. (of त्वम्) for or unto you, your. ते te prn. masc. pl. nom. and neut./fem. du. nom./acc. (of तद्) they, those.

तेजस् tejas (te̍j-as) n. (fr. √तिज् निशाने sharpen or be sharp) दीप्ती-तापौ light and heat (defining attributes of agni), brilliance, radiance; प्रभाव majesty, power, splendor, glory; प्रागल्भ्य self-confidence. ॰अंशसम्भव -aṃśa-sambhava (॰जोंश॰ or written ॰जोंऽश॰) a. तजसः अंशः एक-देशः सम्भवः यस्य born of a fraction of (My, the Lord’s, भ॰गी॰१०.४१) power. ॰मय -maya (॰जोम॰) m. तेजः-प्राय full of (mostly of) brilliance. ॰राशि -rāśi (॰जोरा॰) m. तेजः-पुञ्ज mass of brilliance. ॰विन् -vin (॰स्विन्) a. तेजो-युक्त who has tejas (who has force, combined mental and moral power, majesty, self-confidence, and passion in his/her life).

तोय toya (to̍ya) n. जल water.


त्यक्त tyakta (tyak-ta̍) pp. (of √त्यज् हानौ abandon2.81:) given up, renounced. ॰जीवित -jīvita a. त्यक्तं जीवनं येन who has given up (his/her) life. ॰सर्वपरिग्रह -sarva-parigraha a. त्यक्तः सर्वः स्वी-कारः येन who has disowned every possession.

त्यक्तुम् tyaktum (tyak-tum) inf. (of √त्यज् हानौ abandon 2.81:) to give up.

त्यक्त्वा tyaktvā (tyak-tvā̍) in. pt. (of √त्यज् हानौ abandon 2.81:) giving up, disowning, not identifying with.

त्यज् tyaj √1.U. (pr. त्यजति ॰ते, pot. P. त्यजेत्, pr. pt. त्यजत्, pp. त्यक्त 2.81:, pot. ps. pt. त्याज्य 6.8:, in. pt. त्यक्त्वा 2.81: ॰त्यज्य, inf. त्यक्तुम् 2.81:) हानौ abandon, leave; अ-तादात्म्ये renounce, disown, not identify with. परि॰ pari- परितः॰ completely abandon, etc.

त्यजत् tyajat (tyaj-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √त्यज् हानौ abandon) परित्यजत् disowning; giving up.

त्याग tyāga (tyāg-a̍) m. (fr. √त्यज् हानौ abandon 2.82:) सन्न्यास mature renunciation (and the lifestyle born out of that complete renunciation) (not to be confused with denunciation, it is instead a natural maturation process, like abandoning marbles and balloons); कर्म-फल-त्याग the process of a maturing renunciation (of the results of action) (and the lifestyle born out of that attitude, involving an appreciation of the Lord as everything). ॰इन् -in (॰गिन्) a. त्यजन renouncing; त्यजन-शील one who renounces, a renunciate. ॰फल -phala n. त्यागस्य फलम् the result of renunciation.

त्याज्य tyājya (tyāj-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √त्यज् हानौ abandon 6.8:) त्यक्तव्य to be giving up.

त्रय traya (tray-a̍) a. (f. ) threefold; n. त्रितय triad, group of three. त्रयीधर्म trayī-dharma m. त्रय्या श्रुतिना वेद-त्रयेण विधीयमानः धर्मः ritual (that is enjoined) by (any of the) the three Vedas, वैदिकं कर्म Vedic ritual.

त्रयोदश trayo-daśa (trayo-daś-a̍) ordinal (4.23.d: & 4.26:) thirteenth.

त्रि tri num. a. m. n. pl. (f. pl. तिसृ 4.25:) three. ॰धा -dhā in. (6.19: & 4.28:) त्रि-प्रकारेण threefold. ॰विध -vidha a. त्रि-प्रकार threefold.

त्रै trai (=√त्रा 4.Ā. 5.8.8:) √1.Ā. (pr. त्रायते 2.71:) पालने protect.

त्रैगुण्य trai-guṇya (trai-guṇ-[a]-ya) n. (fr. √गुण् आमन्त्रणे invite, address) त्रयाणां गुणानां सत्त्व-रजस्तमसां समाहारः the combination of the three guṇas (see श्वे॰उ॰५.७), i.e., saṃsāra. ॰विषय -viṣaya a. त्रै-गुण्यं संसारः विषयः प्रकाशयितव्यः यस्य having saṃsāra as the subject matter.

त्रैलोक्य trai-lokya (trai-lok[a]-ya) n. (fr. √लोक् दर्शने see) त्रयाणां लोकानां समाहारः the collection of the three worlds (स्वर्ग-मर्त्य-पातालात्मकं लोक-त्रयम् the three spheres of heaven, of mortals, and of hell; or bhūr, bhuvas, svar [earth, intermediate region (i.e., the atmosphere), and heaven]). ॰राज्य -rājya n. त्रै-लोक्य्स्य राज्यम् dominion over the three worlds.

त्रैविद्य trai-vidya (trai-vid-y[a]-[ā]-a) a. (fr. √विद् ज्ञाने know) ऋग्-यजुः-साम-विद् versed in the three Vedas (either Ṛg Veda, Yajur Veda, and Sāma Veda which predominate in Vedic rituals; or the three types of Vedic mantra: ṛc recited metrically, sāman sung, and yajus read as prose).

त्वच् tvac f. चर्मन् skin or hide, वल्क bark.

त्वद् tvad (tv-ad) prn. 2nd person sg. abl. from you; prn. 2nd person sg. in cmpd. ॰- 4.2: for त्वम् you. ॰अन्य -anya prn. त्वत्तः अन्य other than you, anyone (other) than you. ॰तस् -tas (॰त्तस् 2.4: & 2.24:) in. (6.19:) त्वत्सकाशात् from you. ॰प्रसाद -prasāda (॰त्प्र॰ 2.24:) m. तव प्रसादः your grace (भ॰गी॰१८.७३). ॰सम -sama (॰त्स॰ 2.24:) a. तव समः equal to you.

त्वम् tvam (tv-a̍m) prn. (sg. nom.) you 4.2:.

त्वर् tvar √1.Ā. (pr. त्वरते, pr. mid. pt. त्वरमाण 6.5: & 2.92:) वेगे hasten, be quick.

त्वरमाण tvaramāṇa (tvar-a-māṇa) pr. mid. pt. (of √त्वर् वेगे hasten6.5: & 2.92:) hurrying.

त्वा tvā encl. prn. sg. acc. (of त्वम् 4.2:) to you.

*** द — D ***

 ←त  दु  दे  द्य  द्व  ध→ 

da a. (fr. √दा दाने give) only in cmpd. -॰ (6.24.1:) ददाति इति what gives-.

दंष्ट्र daṃṣṭra (da̍ṃṣ-ṭra) m. (fr. √दंश् दंशने bite 2.104:) (f. ) दन्त-पङ्क्ति-द्वय-प्रान्त-स्थः दन्त-भेदः fang or tusk (teeth that are positioned at the two ends of a row of teeth). ॰कराल -karāla (दंष्ट्राक॰) a. दंष्ट्राभिः करालः विकटः horrible with fangs.

दक्ष dakṣa (da̍kṣ-a) a. (fr. √दक्ष् कुशले be suitable, be skillful) निपुण able, skillful, कार्य-कुशल suitable or proper in duties, प्रत्युत्पन्नेषु कार्येषु सद्यः यथावत् प्रतिपत्तुं समर्थः able to make quick and appropriate decisions regarding present matters, adept, wise in all situations.

दक्षिण dakṣiṇa (da̍kṣ-iṇa) prn. a. (fr. √दक्ष् कुशले be suitable, be skillful 2.92:) अवाच् southern; अ-वाम-भाग-स्थ being on the right side (when facing the rising sun for prayer, the south is on your right) (opp. vāma, left); सरल honest, upright. दक्षिण dakṣiṇa m. n. दक्षिण-भाग the right side, south. दक्षिणा dakṣiṇā f. यज्ञ-शेषं कर्मणः साङ्गतार्थं देयं द्रव्यम् wealth (property, cattle, money, etc.) given out appropriate to the function (of each of the officiating priests and other brāhmaṇas) to complete a ritual. ॰अयन -ayana n. सूर्यस्य दक्षिण-गतिः southward course (of the sun); षण्मासाः दक्षिणायणम् the six months in which (the sun) moves southward; षण्मासाः दक्षिणायणं देवता the deity (the aspect of the Lord) that is the six-months of the southern course of the sun (भ॰गी॰८.२५).

दग्ध dagdha (dag-dha̍) pp. (of √दह् भस्मी-करणे burn2.106: & 2.76: & 2.78:) burned.

दण्ड daṇḍa (daṇḍa̍) m. दम्यते अनेन (दमन-कारणम्) what tames – a staff or club; force of arms, army; punishment; mastery, discipline.

दत्त datta (dat-ta̍) pp. (of √दा दाने give 6.6: irreg.) given.

दध्मौ dadhmau (da-dhm-au) perf. 3rd sg. (of √ध्मा नादे blow 5.8.2: & .4: & 5.27.2.d:) (he/she/it/who) blew.

दम् dam √4.P. (pr. pt. cs. दमयत्) उपशमे be tame, be tranquil; tame, subdue, master.

दम dama (dam-a) m. (fr. √दम् उपशमे be tame) बाह्येन्द्रियोपशम tranquility of the external organs (of the organs of action and the sense organs), mastery over behavior, restraint.

दमयत् damayat (dam-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (of cs. √दम् उपशमे be tame) taming; दमयितृ who enforces discipline.

दम्भ dambha (dambh-a) m. (fr. √दम्भ् कपटे deceive) धर्म-ध्वजित्व hypocrisy (falsely declaring one’s virtues, demanding that others know your virtues that you don’t have), pretension. ॰अर्थम् -artham in. (6.32:) दम्भात् out of hypocrisy. ॰अहङ्कार-संयुक्त -ahaṅkāra-saṃyukta a. दम्भेन च अहंकारेण च संयुक्तः endowed (riddled) with hypocrisy and egotism. ॰मान­मदान्वित -māna-madānvita a. दम्भः च मानः च मदः च दम्भ-मान-मदाः तैः अन्वितः filled with hypocrisy, demands for respect, and with arrogance.

दय् day √1.Ā. दाने give; गतौ go; रक्षणे protect, करुणायाम् show compassion; हिंसायाम् injure; आदाने take.

दया dayā (day-[a]-ā̍) f. (fr. √दय् करुणायाम् show compassion) कृपा भूतेषु दुःखेषु compassion towards suffering living beings.

दर्प darpa (darp-a) m. (fr. √दृप् हर्षे मोहने be elated or be deluded) विद्या-धन-स्व-जनादि-निमित्तः उत्सेकः arrogance (due to one’s education, wealth, family connections, etc., born out of not understanding the factors responsible for what one has, thinking “I am responsible for these,” instead of the appropriate attitude of gratitude and objectivity).

दर्शन darśana (darś-ana) n. (fr. √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see) पश्यति इति seeing, vision, what sees, the eye, knowing, teaching; दृश्यते इति the seen, appearance, what is seen, object (a sight); in cmpd. -॰ दर्शनं यस्य having the appearance of-. ॰काङ्क्षिन् -kāṅkṣin a. दर्शनस्य काङ्क्षा इच्छा अस्य इति desirous of seeing.

दर्शयामास darśayāmāsa (darś-ay[a]-ā̍-m-ās-a) cs. peri. perf. 3rd or 1st sg. (of √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 5.29:) (he/she/it/who/I) showed.

दर्शित darśita (darś-i-ta̍) pp. (of cs. √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 6.6:) was shown.

दर्शिन् darśin (darś-in) a. usually at the end of a cmpd. -॰ (fr. √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see) दर्शन-शील one whose nature is to see-, पश्यति इति who sees-.

दशन् daśan da̍ś-an (alsodaś-a̍n) num. a. n. pl. (4.23.a:) ten.

दशन daśana (daś-ana) m. (fr. √दंश् दंशने bite) दन्त tooth. ॰अन्तर -antara a. दन्त-मध्य between the teeth.

दशम daśama (daś-a[n]-ma̍) ordinal (4.26:) tenth.

दह् dah √1.P. (pr. दहति, ps. pr. दह्यते, pp. दग्ध 2.106: & 2.76: & 2.78:, pot. ps. pt. दाह्य 6.8:) भस्मी-करणे burn, consume with fire; ps. be burned. परि॰ pari- burn, etc.; ps. burns (w/active sense 7.28:).

दा √3.U. (pr. ददाति दत्ते 5.20.1:, fut. दास्यति ॰ते, ps. pr. दीयते 5.37.1:, pp. दत्त 6.6: irreg. and after certain prefixes it contracts to त्त, pot. ps. pt. दातव्य, in. pt. ॰दाय 6.9:) दाने give (see also the root यम्), put. आ॰ ā- स्वी-करणे take, accept. प्र॰ pra- give, etc. व्या॰ vyā- विवरणे open.

दाक्ष्य dākṣya (dākṣ-[a]-ya) n. (fr. √दक्ष् कुशले be suitable, be skillful) दक्षस्य भावः adroitness, सहसा प्रत्युपन्नेषु कार्येषु अ-व्यामोहेन प्रवृत्तिः ability to act without confusion in suddenly presented situations demanding action.

दातव्य dātavya (dā-tavya) pot. ps. pt. (of √दा दाने give) to be given.

दान dāna (dā-ana) n. (fr. √दा दाने give) दानं करणम् the act of giving or offering, charity, यथा-शक्ति संविभागः (propriety in) distribution according to one’s capacity; उपहार the gift or offering itself. ॰क्रिया -kriyā f. दानस्य क्रिया activity of charity.

दानव dānava (dānav-a) m. दनवाः अपत्यम् offspring of the female demon Danu, राक्षस a demon.

दार dāra (dār-a̍) m. (fr. √दृ आदरे respect) पत्नी wife.

दिव् div √1.P. or 10.U. (pr. देवति, देवयति ॰ते) अर्दने lament, distress. परि॰ pari- lament, etc.

दिव् div √4.U. (pr. दीव्यति ॰ते 5.16.1:) द्युतौ shine (orig. throw rays of light); क्रीडायाम् play (esp. throw dice).

दिव् div (di̍v) (weak stem for द्यु before vowel terms. 3.35:) f. (fr. √दिव् द्युतौ shine) स्वर्ग heaven; आकाश sky.

दिव्य divya (div-ya̍) a. (fr. √दिव् द्युतौ shine) दिवि भवः heavenly, divine, अ-प्राकृत not ordinary, extraordinary; द्योतनात्मक effulgent. ॰अनेकोद्यतायुध -an-ekodyatāyudha ­a. दिव्यानि अनेकानि उद्यतानि आयुधानि अस्यादीनि यस्मिन् in which are many extraordinary upraised weapons. ॰गन्धानुलेपन -gandhānulepana ­a. दिव्यं गन्धानुलेपनं यस्य (anointed) with a celestial fragrant ointment. ॰माल्याम्बरधर -mālyāmbara-dhara ­a. दिव्यानि माल्यानि पुष्पाणि अम्बराणि वस्त्राणि च धारयति इति wearing celestial garlands and attire.

दिश् diś ­√6.U. (fut. देक्ष्यति ॰ते 2.86:, pp. दिष्ट 2.85:, pot. ps. pt. देश्य 6.8:, in. pt. ॰दिश्य) दाने grant; आज्ञापने point out, teach, reveal. उद्॰ ud- point out, etc. उप॰ upa- point out, etc. निस्॰ nis- (निर्द्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) point out, etc. प्र॰ pra- point out, etc.

दिश् diś (di̍ś) f. (fr. √दिश् दाने grant, अवकाशं ददाति what grants space/accomodation) आशा (compass) direction (north, south, east, west, north-east, etc.), quarter, region; pl. all directions, (in) all directions.

दिह् dih √2.U. (pp. दिग्ध 2.106:, 2.76: & 2.78:) उपचये augment, smear, stain. प्र॰ pra- augment, etc.

दीप् dīp √4.Ā. (pp. दीप्त, pp. cs. दीपित 6.6:) ज्वलने shine, burn. प्र॰ pra- shine, etc.

दीप dīpa (dīp-a) m. (fr. √दीप् ज्वलने shine) प्रदीप oil lamp.

दीपित dīpita (dīp-i-ta̍) pp. (of cs. √दीप् ज्वलने burn 6.6:) lit.

दीप्त dīpta (dīp-ta̍) pp. (of √दीप् ज्वलने shine, burn) illumined, blazing, brilliant. ॰अनलार्कद्युति -an-alārka-dyuti a. अनलः च अर्कः च अनलार्कौ दीप्तौ अनलार्कौ दीप्तानलार्कौ तयोः द्युतिः इव द्युतिः तेजः यस्य whose brilliance is like a blazing fire or the (blazing) sun. ॰विशालनेत्र -viśāla-netra a. दीप्तानि प्रज्वलितानि विशामानि विस्तीर्णानि नेत्राणि यस्मिन् in whom are (countless) brilliant, large eyes. ॰हुताशवक्त्र -hutāśa-vaktra a. दीप्तः च असौ हुताशः च अग्निः च इव वक्त्रं यस्य whose mouth(s) is/are like blazing fire(s).

दीप्ति dīpti (dī̍p-ti) f. (fr. √दीप् ज्वलने shine) प्रभा brilliance, light. ॰मत् -mat a. दीप्तिः अस्य अस्ति having brilliance.

दीर्घ dīrgha (dīrgha̍) a. आयत extended (in space or time), long. ॰सूत्रिन् -sūtrin a. (lit. “long-threaded”) कर्तव्यानां दीर्घ-प्रसारणः यत् अद्य श्वः वा कर्तव्यं तत् मासेन अपि न करोति stretching out (what is to be done – today or tomorrow – that is not done even within a month), procrastinating, procrastinator.


दुःख duḥ-kha (duḥ-kha̍) a. (fr. √खन् अवदारणे dig, दुष्टं खनति difficult dig, or “having a bad/out-of-round axel-hole,” also दुष्टं खम् “a bad space (in the heart/mind),” cf. सुख) अ-प्रीय unpleasant, painful. दुःख duḥ-kha n. शोक sorrow (in the form of guilt, regarding one’s own omissions and commissions, and of hurt, regarding others’ omissions and commissions); पीडा physical pain; दुःख-प्राप्ति unpleasant or painful situation, adversity. ॰अन्त -anta m. दुःखस्य अन्तः अवसानं उपशमः च cessation (or alleviation) of sorrow. ॰आलय -ālaya m. दुःखानाम् आश्रयः abode of misery. ॰तर -tara cpv. a. (6.25:) अधिक-दुःख-कर more painful. ॰म् -m in. (7.8.8:) दुःखेन with difficulty. ॰योनि -yoni f. दुःख-कारण the source of the unpleasant/pain. ॰शोकामय-प्रद -śokāmaya-prada a. दुःखं च शोकं च आमयं च प्रयच्छति इति that gives pain, sorrow, and disease. ॰संयोगवियोग -saṃyoga-viyoga m. दुःखैः संयोगः दुःख-संयोगः तेन वियोगः disassociation from association with sorrow (a definition of yoga). ॰हन् -han a. (6.24: & 3.21:) दुःखानि सर्वाणि हन्ति what destroys (all) sorrows.

दुष् duṣ √4.P. (pr. दुष्यति, pp. दुष्ट 2.88:) वैक्लव्ये (रूप-भङ्गे) be bewildered, be corrupted, be defiled, be debased. प्र॰ pra- be bewildered, etc.

दुष्ट duṣṭa (duṣ-ṭa̍) pp. (of √दुष् रूप-भङ्गे be corrupted 2.88:) भ्रष्ट corrupted, become corrupt, degraded, adulterated, debased.

दुस् dus in. (maybe fr. √दुष् रूप-भङ्गे be corrupted) in cmpd. ॰- (6.36:) दुष्ठु ill-fittingly, improper, mal-adaptive (not in keeping with dharma and the circumstances). ॰अत्यय -atyaya (दुर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. दुःखेन अतिक्रमः यस्य difficult to cross (lit. “whose crossing is with difficulty”). ॰आसद -āsada (दुर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. दुःखेन आसादनं प्राप्तिः यस्य difficult to get a fix on. ॰कृत् -kṛt (दुष्॰ before क् प्, perhaps influenced by 2.101: and/or the root √दुष् from which दुस् is derived, an exception to general sandhi rules where we would expect दुः॰ 2.24: i.e., jihvāmūlīya or upadhmānīya cf. 1.5.b:, or expect दुस्॰ 2.26:) m. (6.24.2:) अ-धर्मं करोति one who takes to a-dharma. ॰कृत -kṛta (दुष्॰ before क् प्) n. पाप karmic demerit. कृतिन् -kṛtin (दुष्॰ before क् प्) a. पाप-कारिन् doing improper acts, doing mal-adaptive acts (not in keeping with dharma and the circumstances). ॰ग -ga (दुर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. (6.24.3:) दुःखेन सम्पाद्यः difficult to go past or accomplish; n. दुःख difficulty, संसार the life of continual becoming. ॰गति -gati (दुर्॰ 2.24:& 2.29:) ­f. कुत्सिता गतिः a bad end, a bad result. ॰निग्रह ­ -nigraha (दुर्॰ 2.24:& 2.29:a. दुःखेन निरोधः यस्य difficult (or impossible) to restrain. ॰निरीक्ष्य ­ -nirīkṣya (दुर्॰ 2.24:& 2.29:) a. दुःखेन निरीक्ष्यः difficult to see. ॰पूर -pūra (दुष्॰ before क् प्, perhaps influenced by 2.101: and/or the root √दुष् from which दुस् is derived, an exception to general sandhi rules where we would expect दुः॰ 2.24: i.e., jihvāmūlīya or upadhmānīya cf. 1.5.b:, or expect दुस्॰ 2.26:) a. अ-शक्य-पूरण whose satisfaction is difficult, insatiable. ॰पूरण -pūraṇa (दुष्॰ before क् प्) a. दुःखेन पूरणम् अस्य whose satisfaction is difficult, insatiable. ॰प्राप -prāpa (दुष्॰ before क् प्) a. दुःखेन प्राप्यते इति difficult to gain. ॰बुद्धि ­ -buddhi (दुर्॰ 2.24:& 2.29:) a. कुत्सिता बुद्धिः यस्य whose thinking is distorted. ॰मति -mati (दुर्॰ 2.24:& 2.29:) a. कुत्सिता मतिः यस्य whose thinking is distorted. ॰मेधस् -medhas (दुर्॰ 2.24:& 2.29:) a. कुत्सित-मेधाः पुरुषः (a person) whose thinking is distorted. ॰योधन -yodhana (दुर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) m. (दुःखेन युध्यते इति “difficult to fight”) the eldest of the hundred sons of the blind King Dhṛta-rāṣṭra and cousin to the Pāṇḍavas, who was raised by parents blind to his needs, and who suffered humiliation while growing up by being continually bested by his cousins, especially at the hands of Bhīma – his resulting warped mind, his unmerited power given to him by his blind father, and his lack of a sense for dharma and propensity for a-dharma led inevitably to the great war. ॰लभतर -labhatara (दुर्॰ 2.24:& 2.29:) cpv. a. दुःखेन लभतरः more difficult to attain.

दुह् duh √2.U. प्रपूरणे fulfill, yield.

दुह् duh a. (fr. √दुह् प्रपूरणे fulfill, yield) only in cmpd. -॰ (6.24:) दोग्धि इति what fulfills-, what yields-.

दूर dūra (dūra̍) a. विप्रकृष्ट distant, far; अ-गोचर outof view. ॰एण -eṇa (॰रेण inst.) in. by far. ॰स्थ -stha a. (6.24.1:) विप्रकृष्ट distant, far; अ-गोचर out of view. ॰स्थम् -stham in. (7.8.8:) दूरम् as distant, as far.

दृढ dṛḍha (dṛ-dha̍) pp. (of √दृह् वृद्धौ be strong/firm 2.111:) अ-चल fixed, immovable; कठिन hard, firm; अतिशय intense. ॰निश्चय -niścaya a. दृढः स्थिरः आत्म-तत्त्व-विषये निश्चयः अध्यवसायः यस्य whose resolve (regarding the truth of himself or herself) is firm. ॰म् -m in. (7.8.8:) अ-व्यभिचारेण firmly, definitely; अतिशयेन very. ॰व्रत -vrata a. दृढं व्रतं यस्य whose vow(s) is firm, whose commitment is firm.

दृश् dṛś √1.P. (pr. पश्यति 5.15.6:, impf. अपश्यत् 5.15.6:, impv. पश्य 5.15.6:, pot. पश्येत् 5.15.6:, fut. द्रक्ष्यति 2.86:, ps. pr. दृश्यते, cs. impv. दर्शय, cs. peri. perf. दर्शयामास 5.29:, pr. pt. पश्यत् 5.15.6:, pp. दृष्ट 2.85:, pp. cs. दर्शित 6.6:, past act. pt. दृष्टवत् 6.7: & 2.85:, in. pt. दृष्ट्वा 2.85:, inf. द्रष्टुम् 2.85:) प्रेक्षणे see, know (see with the intellect, know with the same clarity as seeing), discern; cs. प्रकाशने show, make see. अनु॰ anu- see, etc.; कश्चित्प्रकार-प्राप्त-ज्ञापने॰ accordingly see, accordingly understand (i.e., as taught in some manner), शास्त्राचार्योपदेशे॰ see in keeping with the teaching as taught by a teacher. प्र॰ pra- see, etc. सम्॰ sam- सम्यक्॰ clearly see, know.

दृष्ट dṛṣṭa (dṛṣ-ṭa̍) pp. (of √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 2.85:) seen, known, discerned. ॰पूर्व -pūrva a. पूर्वं दृष्टः seen before.

दृष्टवत् dṛṣṭavat (dṛṣ-ṭavat) past act. pt. (of √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 6.7: & 2.85:) having seen.

दृष्टि dṛṣṭi (dṛṣ-ṭi) f. (fr. √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 2.85:) दर्शन seeing, sight, vision; बुद्धि understanding, opinion; नेत्र eye.

दृष्ट्वा dṛṣṭvā (dṛṣ-ṭvā) in. pt. (of √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 2.85:) seeing, knowing.

दृह् dṛh √1.P. (pp. दृढ 2.111:) वृद्धौ be strong, be firm.

दॄ dṝ √9.P. (cs. impf. अदारयत्) विदारणे tear, break open, pierce. वि॰ vi- tear, etc.


देव deva (dev-a̍) a. (fr. √दिव् द्युतौ, दीव्यति इति that which shines) द्योतनात्मक effulgent; स्वर्ग्य celestial; पूज्य worshipful. देव deva m. (f. ) अ-मर an immortal (having a subtle body that does not decay, yet is time bound), इन्द्रादि any of the hosts of celestial deities (devatās, several of them are considered as heavenly posts, such as Lord Indra and Lord Brahmā, to which are appointed various exalted jīvas for the duration of one or more world cycles [kalpas]); परमेश्वर the Lord (viewed as Viṣṇu, Śiva, Brahman, Hiraṇya-garbha, Prajā-pati, etc., who are also termed “gods,” e.g., Lord Viṣṇu is the Lord viewed as the sustainer, but they in fact are “deities” in the sense of being particular aspects or facets of Parameśvara – the only Lord who is everything); द्योतनात्मकः आत्मा luminous conscious being, I (the self); इन्द्रिय the Lord viewed as any of the sense organs (who thus illumine the world); देवता presiding deity, the Lord viewed as any form or function in the world (as the nimitta-kāraṇa [efficient/intelligent cause] of that form or function), a limited god (such as the concept of a god residing in a heaven, battling a devil, and excluding me – in fact then excluding every “me” in the universe, and so is overwhelmingly outnumbered, and, being there in heaven and not here, can thus become irrelevant to every “me” in the universe). ॰ईश -īśa (॰वे॰) m. देवानां ईशः the Lord of the deities (i.e., the Lord who constitutes all deities). ॰ऋषि -ṛṣi (॰वर्षि) m. देवः एव ऋषिः one who is a deity and a sage, a divine sage. ॰दत्त -datta m. देवैः दत्तः given by the gods; the name for Arjuna’s conch (given to him by a god). ॰देव -deva m. देवानां देवः the Lord of the deities (i.e., the Lord who constitutes all deities), (Lord Kṛṣṇa) used as an epithet of the Lord. ॰द्विज-गुरु-प्राज्ञ-पूजन -dvi-ja-guru-prājña-pūjana n. देवाः च द्वि-जाः च गुरवः च प्राज्ञाः च तेषां पूजनम् worshipping/honoring the deities, the twice-born (i.e., those initiated into scriptural study), teachers, and scholars. ॰भोग -bhoga m. देवानां भोगः experiences of the celestial deities. ॰यज् -yaj a. (6.24:) देवान् यजते who worships the deities. ॰वर -vara a. देवानां वरः श्रेष्ठः exalted among deities. ॰व्रत -vrata a. देवेषु व्रतं नियमः यस्य who has commitment towards the deities.

देवता devatā (dev-a̍-t[a]-ā) f. (fr. √दिव् द्युतौ, दीव्यति इति that which shines) दिव्या प्रतिष्ठा शक्तिः वा the Lord viewed as any form or function in the world (considered as the presiding deity which is that form or function, as the nimitta-kāraṇa [efficient/intelligent cause] of that form or function in which the entire Parameśvara can be appreciated in this one form or function – rather than as the upādāna-kāraṇa [material cause] of which this one form or function is a limited presentation), a deity.

देवल devala (dev-a-la) m. मुनि-भेद a seer/sage called Devala.

देश deśa (deś-a̍) m. (fr. √दिश् दाने grant, अवकाशं दीयते what is granted space/accomodation) स्थान place, region.

देह deha (deh-a) m. n. (fr. √दिह् उपचये [लेपे वृद्धौ च] anoint, augment, देग्धि प्रतिदिनम् “what is anointed daily”) सङ्ग्रह embodiment, शरीर the body (dahana-yogya [what is subject to cremating]). ॰अन्तरप्राप्ति -antara-prāpti f. (देहात्) अन्यः देहः देहान्तरं तस्य प्राप्तिः gain of another body (after this one). ॰इन् -in (॰हिन्) a. शरीरम् अस्य अस्ति who has a body, embodied; m. जीवात्मन् myself/oneself associated with the body, देहात्माभिमानी जीवः myself/oneself with the judgment that I am the body, an individual. ॰भृत् -bhṛt a. (6.24.2:) देहवत् having a body; m. देहं बिभर्ति इति a corporal being, जीव embodied one, esp. a human being; देहात्माभिमानवत् having the judgment that oneself is the body. ॰वत् -vat a. देहः अस्य अस्ति having a body; देहाभिमानवत् having the judgment that one is the body. ॰समुद्भव -samudbhava a. देहस्य उत्पत्ति-बीज-भूतः the origin of the body.

देहिक dehika (deh-ika) a. (fr. √दिह् उपचये [लेपे वृद्धौ च] anoint, augment) शरीर-सम्बन्दिन् related to the body or embodiment.

दैत्य daitya (dait[i]-ya) n. दिति-वंश्य descendant of Diti (the wife of Hiraṇya-kaśyapu – all her descendants are demons), a demon.

दैव daiva (daiv-[a]-a) a. (f. ) (fr. √दिव् द्युतौ, दीव्यति इति that which shines) देवात् आगतः what has come from the Lord or the deities; देवस्य इदम् having to do with the Lord or the deities, belonging to the Lord or the deities, divine, uplifting, सात्विक predominantly of सत्त्व-गुण; युक्त appropriate, worthy (e.g., a worthy behavior). दैव daiva n. देवता deity. ॰आसुर­सम्पद्विभाग­योग -āsura-sampad-vibhāga-yoga a. दैवासुर-सम्पद्विभागः इति योगः प्रकरणं यस्य whose topic is the distinction between worthy and unworthy dispositions.

दोष doṣa (doṣ-a) m. (fr. √दुष् रूप-भङ्गे be corrupted) विकार fault, defect; पाप karmic demerit, crime. ॰वत् -vat a. दोषः अस्य अस्ति having a defect, defective.

दौर्बल्य daur-balya (daur-bal[a]-ya) n. (fr. √बल् प्राणने animate) शक्ति-क्षय weakness.


द्यु dyu √2.P. अभिगमने rush at, attack.

द्यु dyu f. (fr. √दिव् द्युतौ shine) (weak stem दिव्, sg. loc. दिवि 3.35:) स्वर्ग heaven; आकाश sky.

द्युत् dyut √1.Ā. दीप्तौ shine.

द्युति dyuti (dyut-i) f. (fr. √द्युत् दीप्तौ shine) प्रभा brilliance.

द्युम्न dyumna (dyu-mna̍) n. (fr. √द्यु अभिगमने rush at) धन wealth; बल power.

द्यूत dyūta (dyū-ta̍) n. (fr. √दिव् द्युतौ shine) दुरोदर gambling, dice.

द्यो dyo (dyo̍) f. (fr. √द्युत् दीप्तौ shine) (3.41:) स्वर्ग heaven; आकाश sky. द्यावा-पृथिव्यास् dyāvā-pṛthivyos (द्यावा is a frozen Vedic dual in place of द्यावौ 6.40:) f. du. gen. or loc. दौः च पृथिवी च तयोः of (or in) heaven and earth.

द्रव्य dravya (drav-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √द्रु गतौ move/attain 6.8: & 2.3: & 2.71:) moveable. द्रव्य dravya n. वित्त wealth; वस्तु object, thing. ॰यज्ञ -yajña a. तीर्थेषु द्रव्य-विनियोगं यज्ञ-बुद्ध्या करोति यः who with an attitude of worship (yajña [offering to the Lord]) employs his/her wealth (for those who are deserving), द्रव्येण यज्ञः यस्य for whom there is ritual involving materials (rather than मनसा एव यज्ञः a ritual performed only mentally). ॰मय -maya a. द्रव्य-प्रचुर consisting mostly of materials.

द्रष्टृ draṣṭṛ (draṣ-ṭṛ) m. (fr. √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 2.85:) दर्शनं कर्ता seer, the one who sees; विद्वत् the one who knows (the truth).

द्रष्टुम् draṣṭum (dra̍ṣ-ṭum) inf. (of √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 6.10: & 2.85:) to see.

द्रा drā √2.P. गतौ move, run; स्वप्ने (also 4.U.) sleep.

द्रु dru √1.P. (pr. द्रवति, pot. ps. pt. द्रव्य 6.8:) गतौ move, run, rush, flow.

द्रु dru (dr-u̍) m. (fr. √दॄ विदारणे split) वृक्ष tree; शाखा branch.

द्रुपद dru-pada (dru-pad-a) m. name of the king of the Pāñcāla’s, the father of Drau-padī (Kṛṣṇā, the wife of the five Pāṇḍavas). He was a rival of Droṇa. ॰पुत्र -putra m. द्रु-पदस्य पुत्रः son of Dru-pada, by the name of Dhṛṣṭa-dyumna, and commander-in-chief of the Pāṇḍava army.

द्रुह् druh √4.P. जिघांसायाम् bear malice or hatred.

द्रोण droṇa (dro̍ṇa) m. द्रोणाचार्य name for Kaurava’s (Dur-yodhana, etc.) and Pāṇḍava’s teacher of the science of war. He fought on Dur-yodhana’s side.

द्रोह droha (droh-a) m. (fr. √द्रुह् जिघांसायाम् desire to harm) विश्वास-भङ्ग betrayal, treachery.

द्रौपदेय drau-padeya (drau-pad-e-ya) m. pl. द्रु-पदस्य अपत्यं स्त्री द्रौ-पदी नाम द्रौ-पद्याः पुत्राः the five sons of Drau-padī (daughter of Dru-pada) born to each one of the five Pāṇḍavas.


द्व dva (dva̍) num. a. du. (4.25:) two, both. द्वादश dvā-daśa (dvā-daś-a̍) ordinal (4.23.c: & 4.26:) twelfth.

द्वन्द्व dvan-dva (dva-n-dva̍) n. (lit. “two-two” here the prior member retains an anomalous frozen 2nd case singular form) द्वयम् pair, the pairs of opposites (natural to the world, like cold and hot, pleasure and pain, which are not produced by the mind, but by nature, and which themselves do not delude an individual, although an individual can be deluded about them); तौ एव राग-द्वेषौ शीतोष्णवत् परस्पर-विरुद्धौ सुख-दुःख-तद्धेतु-विषयौ यथा-कालं सर्व-भूतैः सम्बध्यमानौ द्वन्द्व-शब्देन अभिधीयेते the word dvandva (also) designates the pair attraction and repulsion (rāga-dveṣa), which are mind-made and which do delude, or rather constitute an important aspect of the delusion of, an individual, towards pleasure, pain, and their causes, and which two are mutually opposed to each other like cold and hot, and which two afflict all beings in due course). द्वन्द्व dvan-dva m. (6.40: in grammar meaning) द्वन्द्वः समासः the list compound (where each member is of equal importance, and is conjoined with each other by “and,” sometimes “or,” e.g., dvandva means “two and two” i.e., “pair(s)”). ॰अतीत -atīta a. (“gone beyond-,” i.e., “out of the reach of-”) द्वन्द्वैः शीतोष्णादिभिः अ-विषण्ण-चित्तः whose mind is not afflicted by the pairs of opposites (i.e., whose mind is not afflicted by the natural pairs of opposites, such as hot and cold, pleasure and pain, because that mind has neutralized or eliminated the mind-made pair of rāga-dveṣa, attraction and repulsion, itself born of ignorance). ॰मोह -moha m. द्वन्द्व-निमित्तः मोहः delusion occasioned by (i.e., that arises in the mind upon the natural occurrence of) the pairs of opposites (भ॰गी॰७.२७). ॰मोहनिर्मुक्त -moha-nirmukta a. द्वन्द्व-मोहेन निर्मुक्तः freed from delusion occasioned by the (natural) pairs of opposites.

द्वार dvāra (dvā̍ra) n. प्रतिहार gate, gateway, door; pl. figuratively the sense organs (gateways into the mind, and out to the environment).

द्वि dvi num. in cmpd. (4.23:) two. ॰ज -ja a. (6.24.3:) द्वे जन्मनी यस्य twice-born; m. ब्राह्मणादि-वर्ण-त्रय one from the three classes: brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, or vaiśya (often limited to just a brāhmaṇa) (The second birth is through the upanayana-saṃskāra [the sacred-thread ceremony performed for the above three classes, initiating a youngster as a student of the Vedas]); pl. अण्ड-जानि विह-गादीनि egg-born creatures such as birds (laid, then hatched). ॰जोत्तम -jottama m. द्विजानाम् उत्तमः the best among brāhmaṇas (or among the scriptural educated classes of people). ॰तीय -tīya ordinal (4.26:) second. ॰विध -vidha a. द्वि-प्रकार twofold.

द्विष् dviṣ √2.U. (pr. द्वेष्टि ॰ष्टे 2.88:, pr. pt. द्विषत्, pot. ps. pt. द्वेष्य 6.8:) अ-प्रीतौ not be pleased, displeased, hate, despise. प्र॰ pra- not be pleased, etc.

द्विषत् dviṣat (dviṣ-at) pr. pt. (of √द्विष् अ-प्रीतौ not be pleased) hating, hateful, being displeased.

द्वेष dveṣa (dve̍ṣ-a) m. (fr. √द्विष् अ-प्रीतौ not be pleased) विराग repulsion, aversion, displeasure, बन्दन-काम binding desire (against a result).

द्वेष्टि dveṣṭi (dve̍ṣ-ṭi) pr. 3rd sg. (of √द्विष् अ-प्रीतौ not be pleased 2.88:) (he/she/it/who) despises.

द्वेष्य dveṣya (dve̍ṣ-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √द्विष् अ-प्रीतौ not be pleased 6.8:) hateful, displeasing. द्वेष्य dveṣya m. आत्मनः अ-प्रियः someone or something not to one’s liking.

द्वैध dvaidha (dvai-dh[ā]-a) a. द्वि-प्रकार twofold. द्वैध dvaidha n. संशय doubt.

*** ध — Dh ***

 ←द  धा  धृ  न→ 

धन् dhan √3.P. (Vedic) धान्ये bear fruit. नि॰ ni- उपरमे॰ stop bearing fruit, end, die.

धन dhana (dha̍n-a) n. (fr. Vedic √धन् धान्ये bear fruit; or perhaps dh[ā]-a̍na fr. √धा धारणे hold, प्रदाने give) वसु goods, wealth, property; युद्ध-जित booty (won through conquest), prize. ॰ञ्जय -ñ-jaya (dhana-ñ-jaya) m. (6.32: & 2.55:) धनं जयति इति (Arjuna) winner of laurels (titles and wealth through his prowess). ॰मानमदान्वित -māna-madānvita a. धन-निमित्तः मानः मदः च ताभ्याम् अन्वितः filled with demands for respect and with arrogance because of wealth.

धनुस् dhanus (dha̍n-us) n. (fr. √धन् धान्यार्जने acquire wealth) चाप archery bow. ॰धर -dhara (॰नुर्ध॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. धनुः धारयति इति who bears the bow, archer.

धर dhara (dhar-a) a. (fr. √धृ धारणे support) only in cmpd. -॰ (6.38:) धारयति इति wearing-, bearing-.

धर्म dharma (dha̍r-ma) m. (fr. √धृ धारणे support, धारयति इति that which supports, ध्रियते लोकः अनेन that by which the world/person is supported) कर्तव्य what is to be done, duty, tradition (which supports the individual’s maturation, and provides a conducive/supportive society for this maturation), adaptive action (in keeping with the circumstances), practice, (proper) method, (hence) teaching or knowledge; the first of the four puruṣārthas (see artha-kāma); निष्टा lifestyle (esp. in pursuit of the first and last puruṣārthas: dharma and mokṣa); प्राकृताचार (आनुलोम्य) the natural order within the universe, ईश्वर-नियम the Lord’s order (i.e., the Lord as the order) manifest in the universe (materially and subtly as the natural physical and psychological laws applicable throughout the universe, and ethically as the natural retribution or justice for virtuous or non-virtuous activity in the form of what are called puṇya and pāpa, which are created only by a human [or equivalent to human in other worlds] willful action, and remain to fructify eventually as a positive or negative experience, respectively, either in this life or in a later lifetherefore connected with a fact of a continuance of the individual after the current life-span); पुण्य-कर्म action that yields puṇya (favorable results); पुण्य the favorable result itself; स्व-भाव intrinsic nature (ātman). ॰अविरुद्ध -a-viruddha a. धर्मस्य अ-प्रतिकूल-करी not opposed to dharma. ॰आत्मन् -ātman a. धर्मानुकूलं चित्तं यस्य whose mind conforms to dharma. ॰कामार्थ -kāmārtha m. pl. धर्मः च कामः च अर्थः च (the first three puruṣārthas as goals:) dharma (i.e., contextually limited to accumulating puṇya [karmic merit], भ॰गी॰१८.३४), pleasure and security. ॰क्षेत्र -kṣetra n. धर्मस्य भूमिः the field of dharma. ॰संस्थापनार्थ -saṃsthāpanārtha m. धर्मस्य सम्यक् स्थापनं धर्म-संस्थापनं तद् अर्थः the goal that is the proper establishment of dharma. ॰सम्मूढ­चेतस् -sammūḍha-cetas a. धर्मे सम्मूढं चेतः यस्य whose mind is confused about dharma.

धर्म्य dharmya (dhar-m[a]-ya) a. (fr. √धृ धारणे support) धर्म-युक्त in keeping with dharma, just, कर्तव्य-सङ्गत appropriate, adaptive (in keeping with the circumstances). ॰अमृत -a-mṛta a. धर्मात् अनपेतं धर्म्यं च तत् अ-मृतं च तत् अ-मृतत्व-हेतुत्वात् (भ॰गी॰१२.२०, this life as previously described) which is in keeping with dharma and is immortal (in that it leads to immortality).


धा dhā √3.U. (pr. दधाति धत्ते 5.8.2: & 5.20.2:, impv. धत्स्व 5.20.2: & 2.76: & 2.77: & 2.42:, fut. धास्यति ॰ते, ps. pr. धीयते 5.37.1:, pr. mid. pt. दधान 5.20.2: & 6.13: & 6.5:, pp. हित 6.6:, pot. ps. pt. धेय 6.8:, in. pt. ॰धाय, inf. धातुम्) धारणे hold, support, grasp (physically or mentally); प्रदाने give, place, set; रचने fashion, make, form; पोषणे nurture. अनुवि॰ anuvi- अनुकूलं॰ ps. be in conformity with, follow in the wake of (w/acc., gen.). अभि॰ abhi- आख्याने mention, tell; स्थापने explain, teach; ps. is said to be, is called. अभिसम्॰ abhisam- (॰सन्॰ 2.55:) उद्देशे point at, aim at, have in view, regard. आ॰ ā- निक्षेपणे place, offer. नि॰ ni- नीचे धारणे put down. प्रणि॰ praṇi- प्रकर्षेण नीचैः करणे lay down, prostrate, bow low; प्रदाने distribute. वि॰ vi- रचन make, form; प्रदाने distribute; वशी-करणे command, control. व्या॰ vyā- विधुरे be separated, be afflicted, be out of health; प्रदाने distribute; वशी-करणे command, control. समा॰ samā- एकी-करणे bring together, absorb; सम्यक्-आधारणे (truly, completely) place, hold.

धातृ dhātṛ (dhā-tṛ) m. (fr. √धा धारणे support प्रदाने give) विभक्तृ the one who dispenses (the results of all actions, भ॰गी॰८.९); धारण-कर्तृ the sustainer.

धामन् dhāman (dhā̍-man) n. (fr. √धा धारणे support) गेह home, dwelling; आश्रय abode; ज्योतिस् light, splendor.

धारणा dhāraṇā (dhār-aṇ[a]-ā) f. (fr. cs. √धृ धारणे support) धरण (the act of) holding; स्थिति steadiness.

धारयत् dhārayat (dhār-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (fr. √धृ धारणे support) holding; bearing (in mind), knowing, maintaining.

धार्तराष्ट्र dhārta-rāṣṭra (dhār-ta-rāṣ-ṭr[a]-a) m. धृत-राष्ट्रस्य अपत्यम् son of the blind King Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, pl. the hundred sons of that king, धृत-राष्ट्रस्य सहायाः the allies of King Dhṛta-rāṣṭra.

धी dhī (dhī̍) f. (fr. √ध्यै चिन्तायाम् think over, with ॰यै [or ॰या 5.8.8:] being reduced to similar to samprasāraṇa 2.3.a:) बुद्धि thought, intelligence, intellect; प्रज्ञा wisdom, knowledge. ॰मत् -mat a. बुद्धिमत् thoughtful, intelligent, learned, wise.

धीर dhīra (dhī̍-ra) a. (fr. √ध्यै चिन्तायाम् think over) बुद्धिमत् one who uses his intellect (well), विवेकिन् discerning, discriminating (dharma from a-dharma, sat from a-sat, ātman from an-ātman), तत्त्व-ज्ञानिन् knower of the truth.

धू dhū √6.P. (pp. धूत) विधूनने shake. निस्॰ nis- (॰र् 2.24: & 2.29:) shake off (like a powerful horse shakes off dust), remove.

धूम dhūma (dhū-ma̍) m. (fr. √धू विधूनने shake) smoke, दहन-केतन a sign of fire; धूम-देवता the deity that is smoke (भ॰गी॰८.२५).


धृ dhṛ √1.U. (apart from pot., there is no pr. stem; uses cs. stem instead with no obvious causal sense) pot. P. धरेत्, cs. pr. धारयति ॰ते 5.40:, cs. impv. P. धारय 5.40:, cs. ps. pr. धार्यते 5.37.7:, pr. pt. cs. धारयत्, pp. धृत) धारणे support, hold, bear, sustain; ज्ञाने know (bear in mind); ग्रहणे grasp, seize. उद्॰ ud- ऊर्ध्वम्॰ hold or lift up. उप॰ upa- support, etc.

धृत dhṛta (dṛ-ta̍) pp. (of √धृ धारणे hold) seized. ॰राष्ट्र -rāṣṭra m. धृतं राष्ट्रं येन (lit. “who has seized the kingdom”) King Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, the blind son of Vyāsa and older brother of Pāṇḍu.

धृति dṛti (dhṛ̍-ti) f. (fr. √धृ धारणे hold) धैर्य resolve, firmness, fortitude; तुष्टि satisfaction. ॰उत्साह-समन्वित -utsāha-samanvita a. धृतिः धारणं उत्साहः उद्यमः ताभ्यां समन्वितः संयुक्तः endowed with resolve and effort (or endurance). ॰गृहीत -gṛhīta a. धैर्येण युक्तः endowed with resolve.

धृष् dhṛṣ √5.P. (pp. धृष्ट 2.88:) प्रागल्भ्ये be bold.

धृष्ट dhṛṣṭa (dhṛṣ-ṭa̍) pp. (of √धृष् प्रागल्भ्ये be bold 2.88:) अ-विनीत bold, impertinent, निर्भय courageous. ॰केतु -ketu m. (lit. “bold-flag”) name of a great warrior on the Pāṇḍava side. ॰द्युम्न -dyumna m. (lit. “bold-power”) name of a warrior on the Pāṇḍava side.

धेनु dhenu (dhe-nu̍) f. (fr. √धे पाने suckle) गो milk-cow; in cmpd. -॰ female-.

ध्मा dhmā √1.P. (perf. दध्मौ 5.8.2: & .4: & 5.27.2.d: 3rd du. दध्मतुः 3rd pl. दध्मुः) नादे blow (esp. a conch); समिद्धे kindle a flame (by blowing). प्र॰ pra- blow, etc.

ध्यान dhyāna (dhyā-ana) n. (fr. √ध्यै चिन्तायाम् think over 5.8.8:) चिन्तन meditation or contemplation. ध्यान is of two types: upāsana (meditation or prayer) and nididhyāsana (contemplation). Upāsana is sajātīya-vṛtti-pravāha (a consistent, undisturbed flow of thoughts) centered on an object as an aspect of the Lord (which flow of thoughts may temporarily resolve in nirvikalpa-samādhi), this is done for steadiness of mind and obtaining grace. It is a method within karma-yoga, and is preliminary within jñāna-yoga. Nididhyāsana starts with turning the attention from objects to myself as their witness, then bringing in the teaching of pratyag-ātman (i.e., “I am pūrṇa [complete],” etc.), and seeing the truth of these words. This is done after sufficient study with a teacher for removing any obstructions to assimilating the teaching. ॰योग -yoga a. ध्यानम् इति योगः प्रकरणं यस्य whose topic is dhyāna. ॰योगपर -yoga-para a. ध्यानम् आत्म-स्व-रूप-चिन्तनं योगः आत्म-विषये एकाग्री-करणं तौ ध्यान-योगौ परत्वेन कर्तव्यौ यस्य for whom contemplation (on the nature of oneself) and dedication (focusing only on oneself) are the ultimate (means) (i.e., who lives as a sannyāsin, भ॰गी॰१८.५२).

ध्यायत् dhyāyat (dhyāy-at) pr. pt. (of √ध्यै 2.71:) चिन्तयत् mentally dwelling, continually reflecting upon, meditating.

ध्यै dhyai (=√ध्या 5.8.8:) √1.P. (­pr. pt. ध्यायत् 2.71:) चिन्तायाम् think over, meditate, contemplate.

ध्रु dhru √1.P. स्थैर्ये be firm.

ध्रुव dhruva (dhruv-a̍) a. (fr. √ध्रु स्थैर्ये be firm 2.67:, some Western grammarians derive it from √धृ धारणे hold, and consider that √ध्रु is a root only proposed to explain this word and its derivatives. But I doubt that this would be considered a fault by Paninian grammarians, since the roots are considered by them as basic meaningful sounds from which are derived both verbs and nouns, not just verbs to which many Western grammarians limit roots. Paninian grammarians will propose a root which explains a range of words, which range does not necessarily have to include a verbal form. Though, once proposed as a root in the grammatical literature, some writer may then create a verb from it. But when the range of nouns being explained by a particular root is significantly narrowed, there may arguably be a diminished need for proposing such a root. However, claiming that no verbs, or no more nouns, were formed from a proposed root based on the limited literature that has survived is almost baseless.) अ-व्यभिचारिन् permanent (in time or form); अ-वश्य certain, definite.

ध्वज dhvaja (dhvaj-a̍) m. पताका banner, flag; चिह्न token, symbol.

*** न — N ***

 ←ध  नश  नि  निय  निश  नु  प→ 

na na̍ neg. pcl. अ-भावे no, not; निषेधे expressing denial. न च na ca nor. न वा navā or not, or the negative, or the opposite.

नकुल nakula m. (poss. fr. Vedic नक् “night”) mongoose; (न अस्ति कुलं यस्य “having no family”) Lord Śiva; one of the twins of the five sons of Pāṇḍu through his second wife Mādrī.

नक्षत्र nakṣatra (na̍kṣ-a-tra) n. (fr. √नक्ष् गतौ move) रात्र्यां ज्योतिः a luminary in the night (sky).

नचिर na-cira (na-ci-ra) a. (fr. not+ √चि सङ्ग्रहणे gather 6.33:) अ-चिर not long (time). ॰आत् -āt (abl.) ॰एन -ena (inst. ॰रेण 2.92:) in. न दीर्घेण कालेन not after a long time, before long, क्षिप्रम् quickly; न चिरेण in no time.

नद् nad √1.P. (pr. pt. cs. नादयत्, in. pt. ॰नद्य) अ-व्यक्ते शब्दे roar, make an indistinct sound. वि॰ vi- roar, etc. व्यनु॰ vyanu- भूयस्॰ resound, reverberate.

नदी nadī (nad-ī̍) f. (fr. √नद् अ-व्यक्ते शब्दे roar) सरित् river.

नन्द् nand √1.P. (pr. नन्दति) प्रीतौ be pleased. अभि॰ abhi- be pleased.

नन्दन nandana (nand-ana) a. (fr. √नन्द् प्रीतौ be pleased) हर्ष-कर pleasing. नन्दन nandana m. पुत्र son, descendant. नन्दन nandana n. हर्ष joy.

नभ् nabh √1.Ā. विदलने burst.

नभस् nabhas (na̍bh-as) n. (fr. √नभ् विदलने burst) मेघ cloud; (hence) sky, heaven(s). ॰स्पृश -spṛśa (॰भःस्पृ॰) a. नभः स्पृशति इति reaching to the sky.

नम् nam √1.P. (pot. pl. नमेरन्, in. pt. ॰नम्य 6.9:) प्रह्वत्वे bow; त्यागे surrender. प्र॰ pra- (प्रण॰ 2.92:) bow.

नमस् namas (na̍m-as) n. (fr. √नम् प्रह्वत्वे bow down) नति bowing, नमस्कार adoration (in word or deed), salutation; त्याग surrendering. नमस् अस्तु ते namas astu te (namo'stu te) salutation to you. नमस् नमस् अस्तु ते namas namas astu te (namo namo'stu te) repeated salutations to you. ॰कृ -kṛ (verbal cmpd. 6.13:, impv. ॰कुरु should surrender, in. pt. ॰कृत्वा bowing or surrendering) bow, surrender, do salutation(s).

नमस्य namasya (nam-as-ya̍) den. P. (fr. नमस्) (pr. 3rd pl. नमस्यन्ति) नतौ bow; त्यागे surrender.

नमस्यत् namasyat (nam-as-y[a]-at) pr. pt. (of den. √नमस्य) bowing; surrendering.

नयन nayana (nay-ana) n. (fr. √नी प्रापणे take, lead) नेत्र eye.

नर nara (na̍r-a) m. (poss. fr. √नॄ प्रापणे lead, cf. नृ m. meaning मनुष्य) मनुष्य man, person. ॰अधम -adhama spv. a. नराणां मध्ये अधमः निकृष्ठः lowest among people. ॰अधिप -adhipa m. (6.24.1:) मनुष्याणां राजा king (of people). ॰पुङ्गव -puṅgava m. पुङ्गवः इव नरः (lit. “bull among men” 6.34:) the best of men. ॰लोकवीर -loka-vīra m. मनुष्य-लोके शूरः a hero in the world of people.

नरक naraka (na̍r-aka) m. (poss. fr. √नॄ प्रापणे lead) पापिनां दुःख-भोग-स्थान-भेदः a place for transgressors (of dharma) to experience pain, hell (of which there are said to be seven temporary abodes “below” the ordinary physical universe: a-tala, vi-tala, su-tala, rasā-tala, talā-tala, mahā-tala, and pātāla, in successively more painful order. These worlds are not physical and don’t decay, unlike bhū-loka [the physical universe], but are subtle, of the same nature as the mind and the dream world, [so “below” has no necessary physical sense, but rather means “worse”] and the inhabitants likewise have only an appropriate subtle body, like a dream body, to experience what that hell provides).

नव nava (na̍v-a) a. (fr. √नु स्तुतौ praise, proclaim) नूतन (प्रत्यग्र) new.

नवन् navan (na̍v-an) num. a. n. pl. (4.23.a:) nine. नव nava (6.29:) in cmpd. -. ॰द्वार -dvāra a. ॰गोपुर nine-gated; n. नव द्वाराणि यस्य देहः (the body) with nine apertures (7 on the head and 2 below).

नवम navama (nav-a[n]-ma̍) ordinal (4.26:) ninth.


नश् naś √4.P. (pr. नश्यति, fut. 2nd sg. नङ्क्ष्यसि 5.33: & 2.86:, cs. pr. नाशयति, pp. नष्ट 2.85:, pp. cs. नाशित 6.6:, pr. pt. नश्यत् 5.19.4:) अ-दर्शने disappear, be lost, (भ॰गी॰६.३०) परोक्षतां गमने become remote (away from oneself, i.e., an object that can be lost); मरणे die, perish, be destroyed; क्षये wane; cs. प्रध्वंसे destroy, dispel. प्र॰ pra- (प्रण॰ 2.92:) disappear, etc. वि॰ vi- disappear, etc.

नश्यत् naśyat (naṣ-y[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √नश् अ-दर्शने be lost) नाशं गच्छन् being destroyed.

नष्ट naṣṭa (naṣ-ṭa̍) pp. (of √नश् अदर्शने be lost 2.85:) नाशं गतः lost, gone, destroyed, declined. ॰आत्मन् -ātman a. नष्ट-स्व-भावः विभ्रष्ट-पर-लोक-साधनः who is lost (having lost the means to a better life); नष्ट-बुद्धि whose intellect is destroyed.

नस् nas encl. prn. pl. acc. dat. gen. (of अहम् 4.2:) us, for us, our.

नाग nāga (nāga̍) m. सर्प-भेद a kind of serpent (in mythology a snake with many heads); also, in general, any snake.

नातिमानिता nātimānitā (na-ati-mān-i-t[a]-ā) f. (fr. √मन् चिन्तायाम् think 6.33:) अत्यर्थं मानः अतिमानः सः यस्य विद्यते सः अतिमानी तद्भावः अतिमानिता तद्-अ-भावः नातिमानिता absence of an exaggerated self-opinion, absence of demanding respect from others.

नाद nāda (nād-a̍) m. (fr. √नद् अ-व्यक्ते शब्दे make an indistinct sound) शब्द roar, noise.

नाना nānā (nā̍nā) in. बहु-धा variously, differently; often used like an adj., esp. in cmpd. ॰ -अनेक many. ॰भाव -bhāva n. pl. अनेकानि भावानि many beings, many existences. ॰वर्णाकृति -varṇākṛti a. pl. अनेकाः वर्णाः आकृतयः च येषाम् having many colors and forms. ॰विध -vidha a. pl. अनेक-प्रकार many varieties. ॰शस्त्रप्रहरण -śastra-praharaṇa a. अनेकानि शस्त्राणि प्रहरणानि च यस्य having many (kinds of) hand-held weapons (śastras) and missiles.

नान्यगामिन् nānya-gāmin (na-anya-gām-in) a. (6.33:) न अन्यत्र गन्तुं शीलम् अस्य इति not inclined to go elsewhere.

नामन् nāman (nā̍-man) n. अभिधा name. नाम nāma in. नामतः by name. नाम nāma (6.29:) in cmpd. ॰-. ॰यज्ञ -yajña m. नाम-मात्रः यज्ञः ritual in name only (being not in accordance with scriptural injunction and/or being done by those lacking śraddhā).

नायक nāyaka (nāy-a-ka) m. (fr. √नी प्रापणे take, lead) नेतृ leader.

नारद nārada (nā̍r-a-da) m. (poss. fr. √नॄ प्रापणे lead) मुनि-भेद a seer/sage called Nāra-da.

नारी nārī (nā̍r-[a]-ī) f. (poss. fr. √नॄ प्रापणे lead) स्त्री woman, female; (in भ॰गी॰१०.३४ contextually) pl. स्त्री-लिङ्ग-शब्दाः grammatically feminine gender words (and what they express).

नावम् nāvam (nāv-am) f. sg. acc. (of नौ boat 3.41:) प्लव boat, small boat.

नाश nāśa (nāś-a) m. (fr. √नश् अ-दर्शने be lost) प्रध्वंस destruction.

नाशन nāśana (nāś-ana) a. (fr. cs. √नश् अ-दर्शने be lost) नाशयति destroying, destructive. नाशन nāśana n. प्रध्वंस destruction.

नाशित nāśita (nāṣ-i-ta̍) pp. (of cs. √नश् अ-दर्शने be lost 6.6:) is destroyed.

नासा nāsā (nā̍s-[a]-ā) f. नासिका nose, nostril(s). ॰अभ्यन्तर-चारिन् -abhyantara-cārin a. नासिकयोः गामी moving in the nostrils.

नासिका nāsikā (nā̍s-ik[a]-ā) f. घ्राण nose, नासा nostril(s). ॰अग्र -agra n. नासिकायाः अग्रम् tip of the nose.


नि ni in. prefix नीचे down, low; तीव्रतायाम् intensely; नित्यार्थे expressing continuance or permanence; निवेशे in, into; सामीप्ये near; उपरमे expressing cessation; निश्चये certainly. नि­ ni in. in cmpd. with nouns and non-verbal adjectives ॰- (6.36:) it sometimes equals निस्॰ meaning अ॰/अन्॰ not-, विना without-, मुक्ते free from-.

निग्रह nigraha (ni-grah-a) m. (fr. √ग्रह् उपादाने take) बन्धन (external) restraint.

निगृहीत nigṛhīta (ni-gṛh-ī-ta̍) pp. (of √ग्रह् उपादाने take 6.6: irreg. lengthening the connecting vowel) स्वी-कृत be mastered; प्रत्याहरणं कृतः withdrawn.

नित्य nitya (ni̍-tya) a. (6.27:) शाश्वत eternal, आपेक्षिक-नित्य relatively eternal (till the end of a kalpa, until the next birth, etc.); अ-काल timeless, not within (subject to) time, (therefore) eternal. ॰अभियुक्त -abhiyukta a. स-तताभियोगिन् always one with (Me, the Lord, भ॰गी॰९.२२). ॰जात -jāta a. नित्यम् उत्पन्नः continually (re)born. ॰तृप्त -tṛpta a. नित्यं प्रितः always contented. In cmpd. ॰- or ॰म् -m in. (7.8.8:) सदा continually, ever, always. ॰युक्त -yukta a. नित्यं सङ्गतः always united (in Me, the Lord, भ॰गी॰७.१७). ॰वैरिन् -vairin a. or m. नित्यं विपक्षः a constant enemy. ॰शस् -śas in. (6.19:) सदा continually, ever, always; दीर्ध-कालेन for a (very) long time. ॰सत्त्वस्थ -sattva-stha a. (6.24.1:) सदा सत्त्व-गुणे आश्रितः ever established in sattva (guṇa) (in a contemplative disposition). ॰सन्न्यासिन् -sannyāsin a. नित्यं परित्यागी always a renunciate.

निद्रा nidrā (ni-dr[a]-ā̍) f. (fr. √द्रा स्वप्ने sleep) शयन sleep. ॰आलस्य-प्रमादोत्थ -ālasya-pramādottha a. (6.24.1:) निद्रा च आलस्यं च प्रमादः च तेभ्यः समुत्तिष्ठति इति arisen from sleepiness, laziness, and carelessness.

निधन nidhana (ni-dha̍n-a) n. (fr. नि + Vedic √धन् उपरमे धान्ये stop bearing fruit; perhaps ni-dh[ā]-a̍na fr. नि + √धा नीचे धारणे put down) अन्त end; हानि destruction, death.

निधान nidhāna (ni-dhā̍-ana) n. (fr. √धा प्रदाने give, place) निधि treasure, that which is held; आश्रय receptacle, that in which (something) is held, basis, support, निधीयते अस्मिन् the place of resolution (of the effect called the universe, भ॰गी॰११.३८).

निन्द् nind √1.P. (pr. निन्दति, pr. pt. निन्दत्) कुत्सायाम् deride, belittle, find fault with. अभि॰ abhi- deride.

निन्दा nindā (nind-[a]-ā) f. (fr. √निन्द् कुत्सायाम् deride) कुत्सा blame, censure, reproach, reprimand.

निन्दत् nindat (nind-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √निन्द् कुत्सायाम् deride) कुत्सां कुर्वन् deriding, belittling.

निबद्ध nibaddha (ni-ba[n]d-dha̍) pp. (of √बन्ध् संयमने bind 6.6: & 2.76: & 2.78:) नियत bound.

निबन्ध nibandha (ni-bandh-a) m. (fr. √बन्ध् संयमने bind) संयमन a restraint, bondage.

निमित्त nimitta (ni-mitta) n. (maybe fr. मित pp. of √मा माने measure) कारण efficient cause (the factor(s) that bring about change [e.g., a clay pot’s efficient cause is the potter, the potter’s wheel, etc.], as opposed to the upādāna [material cause], i.e., the constituent substance [e.g., the clay]), करण means or instrument; हेतु motive, प्रसङ्ग occasion or circumstance; चिह्न mark, sign, भावि-शुभाशुभ-सूचकः शकुनम् omen (in astrology, etc. that indicates good or bad results in the future). ॰मात्र -mātra a. हेत्वात्मक being simply an instrument. ॰मात्रम् -mātram in. (7.8.8:) हेतुं केवलम् merely an instrument.

निमिषत् nimiṣat (ni-miṣ-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √मिष् निमीलने closing the eyes) closing the eyes.


नियत niyata (ni-ya[m]-ta̍) pp. (of √यम् वशी-करणे exercise authority 6.6:) उपरत restrained, regulated, आनीत brought back, संयत mastered, ruled; शास्त्रोपदिष्ट enjoined by rule or scripture, यथोचित required or proper to do, adaptive (in keeping with dharma and the circumstances); नित्य constant, निश्चित certain. ॰आत्मन् -ātman a. नियतः संयतः आत्मा अन्तःकरणं यस्य whose mind is mastered. ॰आहार -āhāra a. परिमितः आहारः यस्य whose food (consumption) is regulated. ॰म् -m (acc.) in. ध्रुवम् certainly, assuredly, as a rule. ॰मानस -mānasa a. नियतं संयतं मानसं मनः यस्य whose mind is mastered.

नियम niyama (ni-yam-a) m. (fr. √यम् वशी-करणे exercise authority) यन्त्रण restriction; प्रतिज्ञा vow; विधि rule, stipulation.

नियम्य niyamya (ni-yam-ya) in. pt. (of √यम् वशी-करणे exercise authority 6.9:) वशी-करणं कृत्वा exercising authority (intellect over mind and senses), mastering, ruling; आनयनं कृत्वा bringing back.

नियोजित niyojita (ni-yoj-i-ta̍) pp. (of नि + cs. √युज् प्रेरणे impel 6.6:) प्रेरित impelled.

निरत nirata (ni-ra[m]-ta̍) pp. (of √रम् निष्ठायाम् be dedicated 6.6:) dedicated, devoted.

निरीक्ष्य nirīkṣya (nir-īkṣ-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √ईक्ष् दर्शने see) to be seen.

निरुद्ध niruddha (ni-rud-dha̍) pp. (of √रुध् निवरणे impede 2.88:) निवारित checked, curbed, वशी-कृत mastered.

निरुध्य nirudhya (ni-rudh-ya) in. pt. (of √रुध् आवरणे cover/impede) निरोधं कृत्वा withdrawing.

निर्देश nirdeśa (nir-deś-a) m. (fr. √दिश् आज्ञापने point out) निर्दिश्यते अनेन इति that by which something is made known, (revealing) expression.

निर्धूत nirdhūta (nir-dhū-ta̍) pp. (of √धू विधूनने shake) shaken off, removed.

निर्मुक्त nirmukta (nir-muk-ta̍) pp. (of √मुच् मोक्षणे release 2.80:) अ-बद्ध not bound, free.

निर्वर्तितुम् nirvartitum (nir-vart-i-tum) inf. (of √वृत् गतौ go) परिहरणं कर्तुम् to turn back, to withdraw, to avoid.

निर्वाण nirvāṇa (nir-vā-ṇa) n. (fr. pp. of √वा गतौ go 2.92:) निर्वृतिः मोक्षाख्या the freedom or clarity called mokṣa. ॰परम -parama a. निर्वाणं मोक्षः तत्परमा निष्ठा यस्य whose goal (culmination) is complete freedom.

निर्वेद nirveda (nir-ved-a) m. (fr. √विद् लाभे attain, with prefix निस् means वियोगे not attain 2.24: & 2.29:) औदासीन्य indifference; वैराग्य dispassion.

निवात nivāta (ni-vā-ta) a. (fr. √वा गतौ go, blow) (नि before nouns sometimes = निस्) वात-वर्जित free from wind. ॰स्थ -stha a. (6.24.1:) वायु-रहिते स्थाने स्थितः (lit. “situated in a place free from wind”) protected from the wind.

निवास nivāsa (ni-vās-a) m. (fr. √वस् स्थाने stay) यस्मिन् प्राणिनः निवसन्ति that in which (beings) dwell, आश्रय an abode.

निवृत्त nivṛtta (ni-vṛt-ta̍) pp. (of √वृत् गतौ go) विरत ceased, ceasing, desist, desisting; अपचय decrease, wane.

निवृत्ति nivṛtti (ni-vṛt-ti) f. (fr. √वृत् गतौ go) उपरम cessation, disappearance; प्रवर्तन-विपरीता withdrawal (opposed to pravṛtti), renunciation (भ॰गी॰१८.३०); यस्मात् अनर्थ-हेतोः निवर्तितव्य what is to be withdrawn from (as non-effectual means for human goals, भ॰गी॰१६.७).


निश् niś √1.P. समाधौ bring together, be absorbed.

निशा niśā (niś-[a]-ā) f. (probably fr. √निश् समाधौ bring together, be absorbed, cf. निश् f. night) रात्रि night.

निश्चय niścaya (niś-cay-a) m. (fr. √चि सङ्ग्रहणे gather 2.24: & 2.27:) अध्यवसाय firm resolve; निर्णय judgment, decision; सिद्धान्त decided opinion, answer, conclusion.

निश्चित niścita (niś-ci-ta) pp. (of √चि सङ्ग्रहणे gather 2.24: & 2.27:) निर्णीत determined, concluded. ॰म् -m in. (7.8.8:) definitely.

निश्चित्य niścitya (niś-ci-tya) in. pt. (of √चि सङ्ग्रहणे gather 6.9: & 2.24: & 2.27:) निर्णयं कृत्वा having determined.

निःश्रेयस niḥśreyasa (niḥ-śre-yas-a) a. (fr.cpv. of श्री which is fr. √श्रि सेवायाम् seek) निश्चितं श्रेयस् definitely better. निःश्रेयस niḥśreyasa n. (literally “the best”) मोक्ष complete freedom. ॰कर -kara a. मोक्षं कुरुते (6.38:) bringing about complete freedom, leading to complete freedom.

निषूदन niṣūda (ni-ṣūd-ana) n. (fr. √सूद् हिंसने destroy 2.101:) destroying.

निष्ठा niṣṭhā (ni-ṣṭh[a]-ā) f. (fr. √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain 6.24.1:) स्थिति state, condition, disposition; अनुष्ठेय-तात्पर्य dedicated lifestyle; पर्यवसान conclusion, culmination, end.

निस् nis in. prefix वियोगे away from, out of, expressing separation from; निश्चये certainly; साकल्ये completely; अतीते overly, exceedingly; निषेधे transgressing. निस् nis in. in cmpd. with nouns and non-verbal adjectives ॰- (6.36:) it has the senses अ॰/अन्॰ not-, विना without-, मुक्ते free from-. ॰अग्नि -agni (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. निर्गताः अग्नयः कर्माङ्ग-भूताः यस्मात् who no longer performs the fire rituals. ॰अहङ्कार -ahaṅkāra (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. निर्गतः (देहादिषु) अहङ्कारः (अहं-प्रत्ययः) यस्मात् without a sense of “I” limited to the body, etc., न अस्ति अहङ्कारः यस्य having no egotism. ॰आशिस् -āśis (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. (nom. sg. ॰शीः 3.6.l:) न अस्ति आशीः हित-प्रार्थनं यस्य without (i.e., free from) anticipation (of the future certainty of a result), without requirement/expectation. ॰आश्रय -āśraya (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. न अस्ति आश्रयः यस्य without dependence (on anything). ॰आहार -āhāra (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. निर्गतः आहारः यस्मात् without feeding, without offering. ॰गुण -guṇa (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. न सन्ति सत्त्व-रजस्तमांसि गुणाः यस्य free from the (three: sattva, rajas, and tamas) guṇas (constituent principles of the universe). ॰गुणत्व -guṇatva (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) n. (॰त्वात् abl. 7.11.1:) न अस्ति सत्त्व-रजस्तमो-गुण-भावः यस्य (because of) being free from the guṇas. ॰चल -cala (निश्॰ 2.24: & 2.27:) a. विक्षेप-वर्जित free from wavering, steady. ॰त्रैगुण्य -trai-guṇya a. न अस्ति त्रै-गुण्यस्य (कामः) यस्य free of (desire for) the three-fold world (for saṃsāra). ॰दोष -doṣa (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. न अस्ति दोषः यस्य without defect, दोषैः अ-संस्पृष्टः untouched by defects. ॰द्वन्द्व -dvan-dva (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. निर्गतानि सुःख-दुःखादि-द्वन्द्वानि यस्मात् (6.36:) free from the pairs of opposites. ॰मम -mama (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:a. न अस्ति मम इदम् इति अभिनिवेशः यस्य free from the insistence “this is mine.” ॰मल -mala (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. न अस्ति मलं यस्य free of impurity. ॰मलत्व -malatva (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) n. (॰त्वात् abl. 7.11.1:) (यस्मात्) न अस्ति मल-सङ्ग-भावः यस्य (because of) being free of impurity. ॰मानमोह -māna-moha (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. मानः च मोहः च तौ निर्गतौ यस्मात् free from demanding respect and from delusion. ॰योगक्षेम -yoga-kṣema (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. न अस्ति अ-प्राप्तस्य प्रापणं योगः च प्राप्तस्य रक्षणं क्षेमः च यस्य free from acquiring and protecting (where previously these were pradhāna [foremost] in my life). ॰विकार -vikāra (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. (fr. √कृ करणे do) न अस्ति विकारः विकृतिः यस्य without change, unaffected, unperturbed. ॰वैर -vaira (निर्॰ 2.24: & 2.29:) a. न अस्ति वैरं विरोधः यस्य without hostility, without hatred. ॰स्पृह -spṛha (­ निः॰ opt. before sibilants 2.24: & 2.28:) a. निर्गता स्पृहा यस्मात् free from yearning, free from attraction (rāga).

निहत nihata (ni-ha[n]-ta̍) pp. (of √हन् हिंसायाम् destroy 6.6:) destroyed, killed.

निहत्य nihatya (ni-ha[n]-tya) in. pt. (of √हन् हिंसायाम् destroy 6.9:) destroying, killing.

नी √1.U. (pr. नयति ॰ते, pot. P. नयेत्) प्रापणे take, lead.

नीति nīti (nī-ti) f. (fr. √नी प्रापणे lead) शुक्राद्युक्त-शास्त्र-विद्या the science (of political and social ethics) taught by seer/sage Śukra and others, न्याय the process of justice, law; कार्य-क्रम the method for doing what is to be done; औचित्य propriety.


नु nu √2.P. स्तुतै praise, proclaim. प्र॰ pra- (प्रण्॰ 2.92:) praise, etc.

नु nu nu̍ pcl. विकल्पे even, now, still; प्रश्ने (with interrogatives) please, indeed.

नुद् nud √6.U. (benedictive w/simple sense of pot. 7.26: नुद्यात् nud-yā-[s]-t 5.32:) प्रेरणे drive, impel. अप॰ apa- निराकरणे drive away, remove.

नृ nṛ (nṛ̍) m. (poss. fr. √नॄ प्रापणे lead) नर man; pl. मनुष्य human beings, mankind. ॰लोक -loka m. मनुष्य-लोक the world of humans.

नेत्र netra (ne-tra) n. (fr. √नी प्रापणे lead) चक्षुस् eye.

नैष्कर्म्य naiṣkarmya (naiṣ-kar-m[a][n]-ya) n. (fr. निस् + √कृ करणे do) निष्कर्म-भाव (कर्म-शून्यता) actionlessness, freedom from action. ॰सिद्धि -siddhi f. निर्गतानि कर्माणि यस्मात् निष्क्रिय-ब्रह्मात्म-सम्बोधात् सः निष्कर्मा तस्य भावः नैष्कर्म्यं तत् च सिद्धिः च सा नैष्कर्म्य-सिद्धि the accomplishment that is actionlessness (through the knowledge that I am the actionless reality [brahman]).

नैष्कृतिक naiṣkṛtika (naiṣ-kṛ-ti-ka) a. (=नैकृतिक cf. 6.12: irreg. fr. नि + √कृ नीचे करणे bring down) निकृत्या तिरस्कारेण जीवति who lives by abusing (others), पर-विभेदन-पर intent on destroying others, क्रूर cruel; शाठ्य-शील deceitful.

नैष्ठिक naiṣṭhika (nai-ṣṭh[a]-[ā]-ika) a. (f. ) (fr. √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain) निष्ठायां भवः born of commitment (to karma-yoga or jñāna-yoga).

नो no (na-u) in. (6.20:) न उ not.

नौ nau (nau̍) f. (नाव्॰ is base for 2nd – 7th case 3.41:) प्लव boat, small boat.

न्याय्य nyāyya (ny-āy-[a]-ya) a. (fr. √इ प्राप्तौ attain) न्यायात् अनपेतः in keeping with what is proper, धर्म्य in keeping with dharma, adaptive (in keeping with dharma and the circumstances), उचित proper.

न्यास nyāsa (ny-ās-a) m. (fr. √अस् क्षेपणे cast, throw) त्याग renunciation (of anything).

*** प — P ***

 ←न  पद  पन  परि  पव  पि  पुर  पू

 प्र  प्रत  प्रभ  प्रव  प्रा  प्रि  ब→ 

pa a. (fr. √पा पाने drink, रक्षणे protect) only in cmpd. -॰ (6.24.1:) पिबति इति who drinks-; रक्षति इति who protects-.

पक्ष pakṣa (pakṣa̍) m. पतत्र wing; पार्श्व side, side (in a dispute). ॰इन् -in (॰क्षिन्) m. पक्षः पतत्रं यस्य winged creature, विह-ग bird.

पच् pac √1.U. (pr. पचति ॰ते) पाके cook.

पञ्चन् pañcan (pañc-an) num. a. n. pl. (4.23.a:) five. पञ्च pañca (6.29:) in cmpd. ॰-. ॰दश -daśa (pañca-daś-a̍) ordinal (4.26:) fifteenth. ॰म -ma (pañc-a[n]-ma̍) ordinal (4.26:) fifth.

पणव paṇava m. (fr. पण “play” + √वा गतौ blow) पटह-भेद a type of (small) drum (e.g., tabor, etc.). ॰आनक-गोमुख -ānaka-go-mukha m. pl. पणवाः च आनकाः च गो-मुखाः च (various) small and large drums, and horns.

पण्डित paṇḍita (paṇḍ-ita̍) a. बुद्धिमत् intelligent. Said to be from पण्डा “wisdom,” whereas पण्ड means “eunuch” or “fruit-less.” पण्डित is perhaps originally a vernacular derogatory term, or perhaps a play on these two source meanings, as its derogatory sense is occasionally employed in literature towards someone who has learning but lacks wisdom – the fruit of learning. पण्डित paṇḍita m. शास्त्र-ज्ञ a learned person, esp. a teacher; तत्त्व-विद् knower of the truth.

पत् pat √1.P. (pr. पतति) च्युतौ fall; गतौ move.

पतङ्ग pataṅga (pat-aṅ-ga) m. (पतन् or पतम् fr. √पत् च्युतौ fall, गतौ move, fr. √गम् चरणे go 2.55:, पतन् सन् गच्छति what moves while flying, or पतं पतेन गच्छति what moves by wing) पक्षिन् winged creature: bird, flying insect (esp. moth), etc.

पति pati (pa̍ti) m. (perhaps fr. √पा रक्षणे protect) प्रभु master, lord; स्वामिन् owner; भर्तृ husband.

पत्र patra (pa[t]-tra) (fr. √पत् च्युतौ fall, गतौ move) (also etymologically, and likely originally, written पत्त्र, with the simplification of the conjunct cons. due to regional language influence of this common word) n. वाहन vehicle (car, horse, etc.); पर्ण leaf, a (palm, etc.) leaf on which to write; दल flower petal; पक्षिणां पक्षः feather.

पथ् path m. (weak stem of पन्थन् 3.21:) मार्ग path.


पद् pad √4.Ā. (pr. पद्यते 1st पद्ये, pp. पन्न 6.6:) गतौ go; प्राप्तौ reach, attain. The meaning of this root, like several roots meaning simply “go,” is greatly modified by its prefixes. अनुप्र॰ anupra- शरण-गतौ॰ take refuge, seek, surrender, worship; अनुष्ठाने follow, comply with (pp. with active meaning). आ॰ ā- समीपे॰ approach, enter; प्राप्तौ attain. उप॰ upa- समीपे॰ come, approach; उत्पादे exist, be, happen; प्राप्तौ attain; योग्यतायाम् be suitable for, be fit for, be proper. प्र॰ pra- शरण-गतौ take refuge, seek, surrender, worship; प्राप्तौ attain. प्रति॰ prati- अभिमुखम्॰ go towards; विपरीतम्॰ go back; प्राप्तौ attain, understand. विप्रति॰ viprati- नाना-गतौ scatter, be distracted. सम्॰ -sam प्राप्तौ attain.

पद pada (pad-a̍) n. (fr. √पद् प्राप्तौ attain) पाद ­foot, (since most animals are four-footed, therefore) one quarter, quarter of a verse; चिह्न mark, sign; प्रदेश place, destination; स्थान condition, state, rank, status; परम-पद (मोक्षाख्यं विष्णोः पदं) Viṣṇu’s status (cf. क॰उ॰३.९) called mokṣa (complete freedom), the greatest attainment, the goal, the end; शब्द word, pl. सुप्-तिङ्-अन्ताः words that end in declension (॰सु, etc.) or conjugation (॰ति, etc.) terminations. This technical definition of a word also influences the written and spoken usage of individual words, in that, if an individual substantive or adjective is given, even though it does not itself grammatically take part in the sentence in which it is embedded, which is the case when it is employed in a non-Saṃskṛta sentence or in isolation from a sentence (such as a dictionary entry or as a book title), it will usually be declined in the nominative singular, although words ending in a nominative visarga may drop the visarga, “as if” by sandhi, e.g., “Īśvara” instead of “Īśvaraḥ.” This convention thus applies when these words are expressed in English sentences, e.g., “by Bhagavān’s (Bhagavat in masc. nom. sg.) grace one may come to know the ātmā (ātman in masc. nom. sg.).” I have deliberately chosen mostly to not follow this convention in this work as my purpose is to show to the beginner the basic elements of the language, although some words, especially the names of the Lord, sound too strange to me in their raw substantive, undeclined form for me to be adamant about my convention, so I would write “by Bhagavān’s (retaining the convention) grace one may come to know the ātman.”

पद्म padma (pad-ma) m. n. कमल lotus. ॰पत्र -patra n. कमलस्य पर्णम् lotus leaf.


पन्थन् panthan (panth-an) m. (3.21: weak stem पथ्, sg. loc. पथि) मार्ग path.

पर para (pa̍r-a) prn. a. (fr. √पृ व्यापने fill, पालने protect, पिपर्ति व्याप्नोति इति पिपर्ति रक्षति यस्मात् इति वा “what pervades” or “what one protects oneself from”) (4.16.3:) अन्य other, another; भिन्न different, outside of, beyond (w/abl.); दूर distant (in space or time), further; उत्तर-गामिन् subsequent (in time w/abl); उत्तर better, superior, higher (w/abl.); उत्तम best, ultimate; केवल one and only; अनन्त limitless; निरतिशय extreme (high, deep, etc.); in cmpd. -॰ having-as the ultimate, wholly devoted to- . पर para n. अन्त end, summit, गति goal; ब्रह्मन् reality. ॰अयन -ayana (परायण 2.92:) n. उत्तमा गतिः ultimate end. ॰तर -tara cpv. a. (6.25:) अधिक superior. ॰तस् -tas in. (6.19: & 6.16:) परस्मात् from another; पर different, etc. ॰धर्म -dharma m. अन्य-कर्तव्य another’s duty, different duty (not your own). ॰न्तप -n-tapa para-m-tapa m. परान् शत्रून् तापयति (Arjuna) the one who vexes foes (in भ.गी.२.९ an alternate reading to “परन्तपः,” a nominative, is “परन्तप,” a vocative – the first refers to Arjuna; the later less appropriately to Dhṛta-rāṣṭra). ॰म् -m in. (6.16:) पश्चात् after; (6.20:) अधिकम् highly, completely, clearly; केवलम् only, किन्तु but, however.  ॰म्पराप्राप्त -m-parā-prāpta (para-m-parā-prapta) a. (6.32:) परं परतः प्राप्तः handed down from one to another. ॰स्पर -s-para (para-s-para) (2.26:) a. इतरेतर one another, mutually.

परम parama (par-a-ma̍) spv. a. (fr. पर superior) उत्कृष्ट most exalted, paramount; निरतिशय without a beyond, limitless. परम parama n. उत्कृष्ट-वस्तु the ultimate reality, the limitless being. ॰आत्मन् -ātman m. परमः आत्मा the limitless ātman, the limitless I. ॰इष्वास -iṣvāsa (॰मे॰) a. परमः इष्वासः धनुः यस्य who has a great bow; m. परमः इष्वासः an expert bowman. ॰ईश्वर -īśvara (॰मे॰) m. परमः च असौ ईश्वरः च ईशन-शीलः च इति the one who is limitless and is the Lord (the one who rules), the limitless Lord.

परस् paras (par-a̍s) in. (6.19: Vedic) दूरे far, beyond. ॰तात् -tāt (para̍s-tāt) in. (6.19: & 6.16:) परतः beyond.

परा parā in. prefix अपसरे away, off; अग्रे forth; पृष्ठतः backward.


परि pari in. prefix सर्वतः around, about; अभिमुखे against, opposite to; शेषे beyond, above, more than.

परिकीर्तित parikīrtita (pari-kīrt-i-ta̍) pp. (of √कीर्त् संशब्दने proclaim 6.6:) is stated, is proclaimed.

परिक्लिष्ट parikliṣṭa (pari-kliṣ-ṭa̍) pp. (of √क्लिश् उपतापे be afflicted 2.85:) खेद-संयुक्त fraught with pain.

परिग्रह parigraha (pari-grah-a̍) m. (fr. √ग्रह् उपादाने take) स्वी-कार possession.

परिचर्य paricaryā (pari-car-y[a]-ā) f. (fr. pot. ps. pt. of √चर् गतौ move) शुश्रूषा service, labor. ॰आत्मक -ātmaka a. परिचर्या स्व-भावः यस्य in the form of service.

परिचिन्तयत् paricintayat (pari-cint-ay[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √चिन्त् स्मृत्याम् remember) परितः चिन्तयन् contemplating everywhere.

परिज्ञातृ parjñātṛ (pari-jñā-tṛ) a. (fr. √ज्ञा अवबोधने know) ज्ञान-भोक्तृ the experiencer of knowledge (of the antaḥ-karaṇa-vṛttis [thoughts]); the knower.

परिणाम pariṇāma (pari-ṇām-a) m. (fr. √नम् प्रह्वत्वे bend, submit) विकार transformation.

परित्यज्य parityajya (pari-tyaj-ya) in. pt. (of √त्यज् हानौ abandon 6.9:) सन्न्यस्य completely giving up.

परित्याग parityāga (pari-tyāg-a) m. (fr. √त्यज् हानौ abandon 2.82:) सर्वथा त्यागः complete renunciation. ॰इन् -in (॰गिन्) a. परित्यक्तुं शीलम् अस्य अस्ति who naturally and completely renounces (the false judgment of kartṛtva [doership] – not through non-action, but by the knowledge that “I am not the doer”).

परित्राण paritrāṇa (pari-trā-aṇa) m. (fr. √त्रै पालने protect 5.8.8:) परिरक्षण protection (from all sides [pari-]), preservation.

परिदेवना paridevanā (pari-dev-an[a]-ā) f. (fr. √दिव् अर्दने lament) प्रलाप lamenting, bewailing.

परिपन्थिन् paripanthin (pari-panth-in) a. or m. (3.21:) (lit. “against the path”) प्रतिबन्ध obstacle; प्रतिपक्ष opposition, enemy.

परिप्रश्न paripraśna (pari-praś-na) m. (fr. √प्रछ् ज्ञीप्सायाम् ask 2.83:) पृच्छा inquiry, जिज्ञासा desiring to know.

परिमार्गितव्य parimārgitavya (pari-mārg-[a]-i-tavya) pot. ps. pt. (of den. fr. मार्ग path 5.43:) to be sought (on the well-trodden path of inquiry).

पर्जन्य parjanya (parja̍nya) m. (poss. parj-anya fr. √पृच् संपर्के mix, unite, or par-jan-ya fr. √पृ व्यापने fill + √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born) मेध rain-cloud; वर्ष rain; इन्द्र Lord Indra.

पर्ण parṇa (parṇa̍) n. पत्र wing, feather, छद leaf.

पर्यन्त paryanta (pary-ant-a̍) a. (fr. √अन्त् बन्धने bind, limit) परिगतः अन्तं सीमाम् reaching the limit. पर्यन्त paryanta m. सीमन् boundary, limit, circumference. In cmpd. -॰ or ॰म् -m in. up to-, as far as-, lasting-.

पर्याप्त paryāpta (pary-āp-ta̍) pp. (of √आप् लम्भने reach) समर्थ sufficient (the common meaning), परिगत (the literal sense of the root in passive “reached around”) surrounded, overwhelmed (as the contextual meaning in भ॰गी॰१.१०). The Pāṇḍava forces were seven divisions, about 1,500,000 fighters (smaller than Dur-yodhana’s forces of eleven divisions, about 2,400,000 fighters, see B.H.S.C. vol. 1 pp.113-4). At the end of the war, only ten warriors survived or remained: three on Dur-yodhana’s side and seven on Pāṇḍava’s winning side!

पर्युषित payuṣita (pary-uṣ-i-ta) pp. (of √वस् स्थाने stay 6.6: irreg.) रात्रि-अन्तरित stood a night, stale (esp. food that has been cooked and then left overnight).


पवत् pavat (pav-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √पू शोधने purify) purifying, that which purifies.

पवन pavana (pa̍v-ana) m. (fr. √पू शोधने purify) वायुः अग्निः वा (usually) wind, (sometimes) fire (both are purifiers).

पवित्र pavitra (pav-i̍-tra) n. (fr. √पू शोधने purify) शुद्धि-कर purifier.

पश्यत् paśyat (paśy-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 5.15.6:) seeing; who sees (knows).

पश्यति paśyati (paśy-a-ti) pr. 3rd sg. (of √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 5.15.6:) (he/she/it/who) sees.

पा √1.P. (pr. पिबति 5.15.4:) आचमने drink.

पा √2.P. रक्षणे protect. अधि॰ adhi- protect.

पाञ्चजन्य pāñca-janya (pāñc-a[n]-jan-[a]-ya) m. (fr. √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born) पञ्च-जने दैत्य-भेदे भवः विष्णु-शङ्खः the name of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s conch (from the demon Pañca-jana, who had hidden in the form a conch, slain by Kṛṣṇa).

पाणि pāṇi (pān-i̍) m. (fr. √पण् व्यवहारे transact) कर hand.

पाण्डव pāṇdava (pāṇḍav-a) m. पाण्डोः अपत्यम् son or descendant of King Pāṇḍu, any of his five sons: Yudhi-ṣṭhira, Bhīma, Arjuna, Nakula, and Saha-deva. ॰अनीक -anīka n. पाण्डवानाम् अनीकं सेना army of the Pāṇḍavas.

पाण्डु pāṇḍu (pāṇḍu) m. King Pāṇḍu, actually the younger son of Vyāsa (our author of this epic) but officially the son of Vyāsa’s half-brother, King Vicitra-vīrya. Pāṇḍu died much before the war started, and was the brother of the sitting blind King Dhṛta-rāṣṭra (whose son Dur-yodhana instigated the war). ॰पुत्र -putra m. pl. पाण्डोः पुत्राः the sons of Pāṇḍu, the Pāṇḍavas.

पातक pātaka (pāt-a-ka) n. (fr. √पत् च्युतौ fall, पातयति “causing to fall”) पाप offense, crime, sin.

पात्र pātra (pā-tra) n. (fr. √पा पाने drink) जलाद्याधार a vessel (for holding water, etc.); worthy person (i.e., a vessel for receiving knowledge, charity, etc.).

पाद pāda (pā̍d-a) m. (fr. √पद् गतौ move) चरण foot (of a human, animal, or inanimate object); (foot of a quadruped, hence) quarter, a quarter of a four-part verse.

पान pāna (pā-a̍na) n. (fr. √पा आचमने drink) आचमन drinking.

पाप pāpa (pā-pa̍) a. (fr. √पा रक्षणे protect) पापं यस्य who or what has pāpa (the unwanted results of inappropriate acts), प्रतिषेद्ध-कारिन् who does prohibited acts (lying, injuring, etc.). पाप pāpa m. पाप-कृत् one who does pāpa. पाप pāpa n. पाति रक्षति अस्मात् इति that from which one protects/guards against, अ-निष्ट-कर्म-फल an unwanted result of karman, दुर्-अ-दृष्ट bad or painful result, karmic demerit (normally opposed to puṇya, but also includes puṇya for those who seek mokṣa, as puṇya also binds one to further re-birth to exhaust it), transgression; पाप-कर्मन् an act that produces pāpa. ॰कृत्तम -kṛttama (pāpa-kṛt-tama) spv. a. अतिशयेन पाप-कृत् the one who does the worst pāpa-karmas. ॰योनि -yoni a. पापं योनिः जन्म यस्य whose birth is not wanted (i.e., whose family life would not be conducive to a life of dharma).

पाप्मन् pāpman (pāp-ma̍n) a. (fr. √पा रक्षणे protect) प्रतिषेद्ध-कारिन् who does prohibited acts, अपकारिन् harmful, sinful. पाप्मन् pāpman m. पाप karmic demerit, transgression.

पारुष्य pāruṣya (pār-uṣ[a]-ya) n. (fr. √पृ व्यापने fill) क्रौर्य harshness (esp. in speech) (opposed to mārdava).

पार्थ pārtha (pārth[ā]-a) m. (Arjuna) पृथायाः अपत्यम् son of Pṛthā (Kuntī, wife of Pāṇḍu).

पाल pāla (pā-la) m. (fr. √पा रक्षणे protect) रक्षक protector.

पावक pāvaka (pāv-a-ka̍) m. (fr. √पू शोधने purify) अग्नि fire (the purifier); अग्नि-देवता the deity that is fire.

पावन pāvana (pāv-ana) a. (fr. √पू शोधने purify) विशुद्धि-कर purifying. पावन pāvana n. विशुद्धि purification.

पाश pāśa (pā̍ś-a) m. (fr. √पश् बन्धने bind) मृग-विह-गादि-बन्धन snare or fetter (for wild animals, birds, etc.); रज्जु rope or cord.


पिण्ड piṇḍa (pi̍ṇḍa) m. गोल ball, lump; पितृभ्यः गोलाकरम् अन्नम् food (cooked rice or flour) in the form of a ball (offered with prayers regularly and on special occasions, called śrād-dha, to one’s ancestors of the three proceeding generations on the paternal and maternal side, i.e., the father’s and mother’s ancestors of the male head of the extended family, for symbolically offering them “sustenance” and the prayers for neutralizing any of their sins of omission or commission).

पितृ pitṛ (pi-tṛ̍) m. (fr. √पा रक्षणे protect, पाति रक्षति अपत्यम् “the one who protects the progeny”) जनक father; जनयितृ (masculine or efficient) cause (of the world, भ॰गी॰९.१७); pl. पूर्व-जाः ancestors, respected elders. ॰मह -maha (॰ताम॰ here the 1st member is irregularly in nom. sg., cf. 6.40:; notice also that the natural word order of this cmpd. is irregularly reversed with the descriptive adj. as the second member 6.34:) m. (lit. “father-grand”) पितुः पिता father’s father, grandfather; जनयितुः जनयिता (i.e., the uncaused) cause of the cause (of the world, भ॰गी॰९.१७). ॰व्रत -vrata a. पितृषु व्रतं नियमः यस्य who have commitment towards their ancestors.

पीडा pīḍā (pīḍ-[a]-ā) f. (fr. √पीड् बाधने oppress) व्यथा (दुःख) injury, harm, distress, pain.

पुङ्गव puṅ-gava (puṅ-gava) m. पुमान् गौः male-ox, bull; in cmpd. -॰ श्रेष्ट best of-.

पुण्य puṇya (pu̍-ṇya) a. (maybe fr. √पू शोधने purify) पवित्र beneficial, purifying, auspicious; शुचि pure, गुणिन् virtuous, adaptive (in keeping with dharma); मधुर sweet. पुण्य puṇya n. शुभादृष्टः धर्मः beneficial unseen merit (in the karmic account of the jīva/individual) इष्ट-कर्म-फल beneficial result of karman (that fructifies in this life), शुभादृष्ट good or pleasant result, opposed to pāpa; पुण्य-कर्मन् an act that produces puṇya. ॰कर्मन् -karman a. पुण्यं कर्म यस्य whose actions are beneficial, who do beneficial actions, whose actions are adaptive (in keeping with dharma and the circumstances). ॰कृत् -kṛt a. (6.24.2:) पुण्यं करोति one who performs beneficial actions. ॰फल -phala n. पुण्यं च तत् फलं च a beneficial result, merit.

पुत्र putra (putra̍) m. (fr. √पू शोधने purify, पितरं त्रायते “the one who protects [atones] the father”) सुत son; प्रिय-वत्स as an affectionate form of address, meaning “dear child.” ॰दारगृहादि -dāra-gṛhādi a. pl. पुत्रः च दारः च गृहः च गृहं च आदिः येषाम् beginning with son, wife, house, etc.

पुनर् punar (pu̍nar) in. भूयस् more, moreover, also; द्वितीय-वारे a second time, again, repeat, re-; अधिकारे back, start over; पक्षान्तरे on the contrary, but. वा पुनर् vā punar in. (esp. at the end of a verse) वा or, पक्षान्तरे on the other hand. ॰आवर्तिन् -āvartin a. पुनरावर्तन-स्व-भाव having the nature of returning, that from which there is returning. ॰जन्मन् -janman n. पुनरुत्पत्ति re-birth.

पुमंस् pumaṃs (pu̍-maṃs) m. (strong stem पुमांस्, weak stem पुंस् 3.26: & 2.104:) नर man.


पुर् pur √6.P. अग्र-गमने go ahead.

पुर pura (pur-a) n. (fr. √पृ व्यापने fill or √पुर् अग्र-गमने go ahead) नगर city; कोट fortress.

पुरस् puras (pur-a̍s) in. (fr. √पुर् अग्र-गमने go ahead) पूर्वस्मिन् कालादौ before (in time or place), अग्रतः in front; in or from the east (i.e., in front of you when greeting the Lord in the form of the sun in the morning). ॰तात् -tāt in. (6.16:) पुरस् before, etc.

पुरा purā (pur-ā̍) in. (6.16:) (fr. √पुर् अग्र-गमने go ahead) चिरम् long ago, आरम्भे in the beginning.

पुराण purāṇa (pur-ā-ṇa) a. (f. ) (fr. √पुर् अग्र-गमने go ahead) पुरा-भव exists now as before, always there, eternal (because of the base word purā [long ago], when this word is used along with another word whose meaning also is “eternal,” then it is distinguished from its synonym as pertaining to “what was the same long ago,” i.e., without growth, भ॰गी॰२.२०), ancient. पुराण purāṇa n. पुनरुत्पत्ति tales of past ages, a mix of ancient and legendary history. These are meant to describe: sarga (the creation of the universe), pratisarga (its dissolution and re-manifestation), vaṃśa (the genealogies of the gods, sages and kings), manvantaras (the reigns of the progenitor Manus), and vaṃśānucarita (the history of the solar and lunar dynasties) – in order to illustrate to the unread populace in an entertaining way the teachings of the Vedas and the Vedic culture. Not to simply recount actual history as some literalists would believe, in which case it probably would have been written much differently, similar to our dry history books we have today which only enumerate what the authors think were the facts. These texts and the Iti-hāsas (epics), which include the Mahā-bhārata, are looked upon as pramāṇa (means of knowledge) regarding the subtle affairs of the gods, and those material affairs of the world and mankind, not otherwise known to our senses and sciences.

पुरातन purātana (pur-ā-tana) a. (fr. √पुर् अग्र-गमने go ahead 6.27:) पुरा-भव exists now as before (i.e., ever the same), always there, eternal, ancient.

पुरुजित् puru-jit (pur-u-jit) m. (पुरु fr. √पृ व्यापने fill or √पुर् अग्र-गमने go ahead + √जि लाभे be victorious 6.24.2:) name of a brother of Kunti-bhoja (the latter had adopted Kuntī, the Pāṇḍava’s mother), who fought on the Pāṇḍava side.

पुरुष puruṣa (pu̍r-u-ṣa) m. (fr. √पृ व्यापने fill or  √पुर् अग्र-गमने go ahead) नर man, person, sg. or pl. people; in gram. the grammatical person (uttama-puruṣa [1st person], etc.); देहिन् the one who fills the body, जीवात्मन् the experiencer; क्षर-पुरुष the one who fills the perishable (i.e., the Lord in the form of the physical universe), and अ-क्षर-पुरुष the one who fills the imperishable (i.e., the Lord in the form of the unmanifest [a-vyakta or māyā]), हिरण्य-गर्भ (सूत्रात्मन्) the cosmic person (who is the Lord in the form of the total subtle [non-gross, non-material] world, भ॰गी॰८.४); ईश्वर the one who fills everything, the आत्मन्. ॰उत्तम -uttama (॰षो॰) m. क्षर-पुरुषः च अ-क्षर-पुरुषः च तौ पुरुषौ ताभ्यां उत्तमः ऊर्ध्वतमः पुरुषोत्तमः (Lord Kṛṣṇa, Parameśvara) the being (Lord) who transcends (the perishable and imperishable beings, by being the reality itself that is inclusive of these conceptual divisions, as the conscious being transcends thoughts which come and go without leaving a trace upon consciousness, भ॰गी॰१५.१६-१८). ॰उत्तमयोग -uttama-yoga (॰षो॰) a. पुरुषोत्तमः इति योगः प्रकरणं यस्य whose topic is puruṣottama. ॰ऋषभ -ṛṣabha (॰षर्षभ) m. पुरुषाणाम् ऋषभः श्रेष्ठः (Arjuna) prominent (lit. “bull”) among men. ॰व्याघ्र -vyāghra m. पुरुषानाम् व्याघ्रः (Arjuna) best or fearless (lit. “tiger”) among men.

पुरोधस् purodhas (pur-o-dh[ā]-as) m. (fr. √पुर् अग्र-गमने go ahead 2.24: & 2.33: + √धा प्रदाने place, lit. “placed in front”) राज-पुरोहित the head priest of the king.

पुष् puṣ √1.P. or 9.P. (pr. पोषति or पुष्णाति) वर्धने cause to thrive, nourish; (less commonly) वृद्धौ thrive.

पुष्कल puṣkala (puṣ-kala̍) a. (fr. √पुष् वर्धने nourish) श्रेष्ठ excellent, best, सम्पूर्ण rich, full; बहु abundant.

पुष्प् puṣp √4.P. (pp. पुष्पित 6.6:) विकसने expand, blow open, blossom.

पुष्प puṣpa (pu̍ṣp-a) n. (fr. √पुष्प् विकसने expand) कुसुम flower; पुष्प-राग topaz.

पुष्पित puṣpita (puṣp-i-ta̍) pp. (of √पुष्प् विकसने expand 6.6:) flowered, flowery.


पू √9.U. or 1.Ā. (pr. pt. पवत्, pp. पूत) शोधने purify.

पूज् pūj √10.U. (pot. ps. pt. पूज्य) पूजने (अर्चने) worship, honor, treat with respect.

पूजन pūjana (pūj-ana) n. (fr. √पूज् अर्चने worship) अर्चन worshipping, honoring.

पूजा pūjā (pūj-[a]-ā) f. (fr. √पूज् अर्चने worship) अर्चन worship. ॰अर्ह -arha a. पूजायाः अर्हः worthy of worship.

पूज्य pūjya (pūj-ya) pot. ps. pt. (of √पूज् अर्चने worship) to be worshipped.

पूत pūta (pū-ta̍) pp. (of √पू शोधने purify) शुद्ध purified. ॰पाप -pāpa a. शुद्ध-किल्बिष cleansed of pāpa.

पूति pūti (pū̍-ti) a. (fr. √पूय् दुर्गन्धे putrefy) दुर्गन्धि stinking, putrid.

पूय् pūy √1.Ā. विशरणे split; दुर्गन्धे putrefy.

पूर pūra (pūr-a) a. (fr. √पॄ व्यापने fill 2.69:) पूरण filling, satisfying. पूर pūra m. पूर्णता fulfillment, satisfaction

पूरण pūraṇa (pūr-aṇa) a. (fr. √पॄ व्यापने fill 2.69:) पूर्ण-करण filling, satisfying. पूरण pūraṇa n. पूर्णता fulfillment, satisfaction.

पूरुष pūruṣa (pū̍r-u-ṣa) (accented vowel lengthened for meter) m. (fr. √पृ व्यापने fill or  √पुर् अग्र-गमने go ahead) पुरुष person.

पूर्ण pūrṇa (pūr-na̍) pp. (of √पॄ व्यापने fill 2.69: & 6.6: & 2.92:) व्याप्त filled; सिद्ध fulfilled, complete.

पूर्व pūrva (pūr-va) prn. a. (pl. पूर्वे 4.16.3:) (fr. √पॄ व्यापने fill 2.69: or √पुर् अग्र-गमने go ahead) आद्य first, प्राच्य prior (in time or place), of long ago, ancient, former, eastern (where the sun first appears to rise). पूर्व pūrva m. pl. ancestors, forefathers. ॰अभ्यास -abhyāsa m. पूर्व-कृतः अभ्यासः previous practice (including from previous human lives, भ॰गी॰६.४४). ॰कम् -kam in. in cmpd. -॰ पुरो-गमे preceded by; अनुसारतः with, backed by, in accordance with. ॰तर -tara cpv. a. (6.25:) earlier. ॰म् -m in. (6.16:) प्राक् before (in time or place), already.

पृ pṛ √3.P. व्यापने fill; (Vedic) तारणे crossover, (hence) पालने protect.

पृच्छामि pṛcchāmi (pṛ̍cch-ā-mi) pr. 1st sg. (of √प्रछ् ज्ञीप्सायाम् ask 5.17.2:) (I) ask.

पृथक् pṛthak (pṛ̍th-a[ñ]k) in. (fr. √प्रथ् विस्तारे + suff./noun fr. √अञ्च् गतौ “go wide apart”) भिन्ने separately, apart, distinct, distinctly; नाना-रूपे severally. पृथक् पृथक् pṛthak pṛthak in. विभिन्नम् individually. ॰त्व -tva (॰क्त्व) n. भिन्नत्व separateness, being distinct. ॰त्वेन -tvena (inst. ॰क्त्वेन) in. विभिन्नम् separately, severally. ॰विध -vidha (॰ग्वि॰) a. pl. नाना-विधाः various kinds.

पृथिवी pṛthivī (pṛth-i-v-ī̍) f. (fr. √प्रथ् विस्तारे be extended, पृथु “broad” + ) भूमि earth, soil; पृथिवी भूतम् the element earth (i.e., ghanatā / solidity). ॰पति -pati m. पृथिव्याः पतिः king of the earth.

पृष्ठ pṛṣṭha n. (poss. fr. प्र + √स्था remain prominent 2.101:) तनोः पश्चाद्भागः the back of a body or thing, the top of a horizontal body or thing. ॰तस् -tas in. (6.19:) पश्चाद्भागे behind.

पॄ pṝ √3.P. (pr. pt. पूर्यमाण 5.37.4: & 2.92:, pp. पूर्ण 6.6: & 2.92:, in. pt. ॰पूर्य 6.9: & 2.69:) व्यापने fill. आ॰ ā- fill.

पौण्ड्र pauṇḍra m. the name of Bhīma’s conch.

पौत्र pautra (pau̍tr[a]-a) m. पुत्रस्य अपत्यम् son’s son, grandson; प्रिय-वत्स as an affectionate form of address, meaning “dear child.”

पौरुष pauruṣa (pauruṣ[a]-a) n. (fr. √पृ व्यापने fill or पुर् अग्र-गमने go ahead) पुरुषस्य भावः humanity, human intellect; पुरुषस्य उद्यमः human (or personal) effort, आत्म-सामर्थ्य personal capacity.

पौर्व paurva (paurv[a]-a) a. (fr. √पॄ व्यापने fill 2.69:) in cmpd. ॰ -पौर्वक previous. ॰देहिक -dehika a. पूर्वस्मिन् देहे भवः which existed in a previous body (birth).


प्र pra in. prefix आरम्भे forth, forward, onward; प्रकर्षेण very, much, greatly; in प्रादि-समास-s (declinable cmpds. 6.36:) ॰- अग्रे fore-; प्रकृष्ट great- (in relationships).

प्रकाश prakāśa (pra-kāś-a̍) a. (fr. √काश् दीप्तौ shine) उज्ज्वल shining; प्रत्यक्ष evident, manifest (to the senses), known.  प्रकाश prakāśa m. दीप्ति light, illumination, brightness; प्रत्यक्षता manifestation. ॰क -ka a. प्रकाशवत् illuminating.

प्रकीर्ति prakīrti (pra-kīr-ti) f. (fr. √कीर्त् संशब्दने proclaim) कीर्तन praise; कीर्ति (यशस्) fame.

प्रकृति prakṛti (pra-kṛ-ti) f. (fr. √कृ करणे do) स्वा-भाविक-रूप natural form or condition (of a thing), original condition; पूर्व-कृत-धर्माधर्मादि-संस्काराः वर्तमान-जन्मादौ अभिव्यक्ताः the latent impressions from proper and improper acts done in the present or past lives (of an individual) that are now manifest, one’s natural and cultivated mental make-up and tendencies, disposition; उपादान-कारण material cause (esp. of the universe), माया the veiling and projection power of the Lord (see श्वे॰उ॰४.१०), nature, निर्मात्री देवता mother nature. ॰ज -ja a. (6.24.3:) प्रकृतितः जातः born from prakṛti (i.e., the mixtures of three guṇas – these mixtures constituting every physical and mental entity), प्रकृतिः सम्भवः यस्य born as prakṛti (i.e., the unmodified/unmingled three guṇas, which constitute prakṛti). ॰सम्भव -sambhava a. प्रकृतिः ईश्वरस्य विकार-कारण-शक्तिः गुणात्मिका माया सा सम्भवः यस्य whose origin is prakṛti; प्रकृत्यां गुणात्मिकायां मायायां सम्भवति इति (the three guṇas) existing in prakṛti as its three constituents (भ॰गी॰१४.५). (Prakṛti is the Lord’s power as the material cause of the universe. That prakṛti has inherent in it the three constituent principles: sattva, rajas, and tamas, and is also called māyā. The Lord is both puruṣa and prakṛti, the male-female symmetry needed for manifesting this universe of duality from the pairing of the elemental particles to the pairing of the creatures. Puruṣa is the nimitta-kāraṇa [efficient cause] that provides the sattā/existence and the jñānatā/intelligence [including the laws or order] to the universe. Prakṛti is the upādāna-kāraṇa [material cause] that provides the rūpa/form to the universe); prakṛti-sambhavāḥ pl. गुणाः प्रकृत्यां सम्भवन्ति (the guṇas, भ॰गी॰१४.५) existing in prakṛti (i.e., as prakṛtithe three guṇas are the constituents of prakṛti; they are not born from it, since prakṛti is described as tri-guṇātmikā [consisting of the three guṇas]). ॰स्थ -stha a. (6.24.1:) प्रकृतौ तिष्ठति इति what abides in prakṛti.

प्रछ् prach √6.P. (pr. पृच्छति 5.17.2:) ज्ञीप्सायाम् (irreg. des. of cs. ज्ञा) ask.

प्रजन prajana (pra-jan-a) m. (fr. √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born) प्रजनयितृ the cause for progeny.

प्रजहाति prajahāti (pra-ja-hā-ti) pr. 3rd sg. (of √हा त्यागे 3.P. 5.8.3:) (he/she/it/who) abandons.

प्रजा prajā (pra-j[a][n]-ā̍) f. (fr. √जन् उत्पत्त्याम् be born) अपत्य offspring; जन people. ॰पति -pati m. सृष्ट्याः पति Lord of the universe (Lord Brahmā).

प्रज्ञा prajñā (pra-jñ[ā]-[a]-ā) f. (fr. √ज्ञा अवबोधने know, this round-about formation seems justified on the basis of the existence of the intermediate form प्रज्ञ/ intelligent) पाण्डित्य knowledge, wisdom. ॰वाद -vāda m. pl. प्रज्ञावतां बुद्धिमतां वादाः words of the wise, wise words, words of wisdom.

प्रणम्य praṇamya (pra-ṇam-ya) in. pt. (of √नम् प्रह्वत्वे bow 6.9: & 2.92:) प्रकर्षेण नमनं कृत्वा bowing.

प्रणय praṇaya (pra-ṇay-a) m. (fr. √नी प्रापणे lead) प्रीति friendship.

प्रणव praṇava (pra-ṇa̍v-a) m. (fr. √नु स्तुतौ praise 2.92:) ओङ्कार Om, the sacred sound symbol of brahman.

प्रणश्यति praṇaśyati (pra-ṇaś-ya-ti) pr. 3rd sg. (of √नश् अ-दर्शने be lost 4.P. 2.92:) (he/she/it/who) disappears, perishes, is destroyed.

प्रणिधाय praṇidhāya (pra-ṇi-dhā-ya) in. pt. (of √धा प्रदाने place 2.92:) प्रकर्षेण नीचैः कृत्वा properly prostrating.

प्रणिपात praṇipāta (pra-ṇi-pāt-a) m. (fr. √पत् च्युतौ fall 2.92:) प्रकर्षेण नीचैः पतनम् surrender (at the feet of the teacher).


प्रताप pratāpa (pra-tāp-a) m. (fr. √तप् दाहे heat) तेजस् majesty, dignity, power. ॰वत् -vat a. तेजो-युक्त powerful, majestic.

प्रति prati in. prefix अभिमुखम् towards, before, at; प्रतिकूलम् against, counter; उद्दिश्य with regard to. प्रति prati prep. (w/acc. 6.15:) अभिमुखम् towards, against; उद्दिश्य (w/gen.) with regard to; वीप्सायाम् repetition (of the preceding words or word).

प्रतिष्ठा pratiṣṭhā (prati-ṣṭh[ā]-[a]-ā) f. (fr. √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain 2.101:) स्थिति remaining, standing still; प्रतितिष्ठति अस्मिन् इति that in which something is based, आश्रय basis.

प्रतिष्ठाप्य pratiṣṭhāpya (prati-ṣṭhā-p-ya) in. pt. (of cs. √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain 6.9: & 5.40: & 2.101:) स्थापनं कृत्वा setting up.

प्रतिष्ठित pratiṣṭhita (prati-ṣṭhi-ta̍) pp. (of √स्था गति-निवृत्तौ remain 6.6: & 2.101:) well established.

प्रत्यक्ष pratyakṣa (praty-akṣ-a) a. (fr. √अक्ष् व्याप्तौ reach) (lit. “before the eyes”) दृष्टि-गोचर within the scope of perception, perceptible (to any of the five senses); स्पष्ट clear, evident; साक्षात् direct, immediate. प्रत्यक्ष pratyakṣa n. इन्द्रिय-जन्य-ज्ञान knowledge that can arise from the sense organs (contacting their respective objects). ॰अवगम -avagama a. प्रत्यक्षं साक्षात् ज्ञानं यस्य directly known.

प्रत्यनीक pratyanīka (praty-an-īka) n. m. (lit. “against the army”) अनीकं प्रति प्रतिपक्ष-भूतं अनीकम् opposing army.

प्रत्यवाय pratyavāya (praty-ava-ay-a) m. (fr. √इ प्राप्तौ attain 2.71:) वैपरीत्य production of an opposite result, adverse reaction.

प्रत्युपकार pratyupakāra (praty-upa-kār-a) a. (fr. √कृ करणे do) प्रतिदान return favor, repayment. ॰अर्थम् -artham in. (6.32:) प्रत्युपकारात् for the sake of a return favor.

प्रथ् prath √6.P. (pp. प्रथित 6.6:) विस्तारे be extended, be unfolded; प्रख्याने be famous, be well told.

प्रथम prathama (pra-thama̍) a. (poss. fr. spv. suffix तम in the sense of “fore-most,” alternatively fr. √प्रथ् प्रख्याने be famous) प्रधान chief, foremost; आद्य first (used as an ordinal = 1st, 4.26:), earliest.

प्रथित prathita (prath-i-ta̍) pp. (of √प्रथ् प्रख्याने be famous 6.6:) प्रख्यात renowned.

प्रद prada (pra-da) a. (प्र + √दा दाने give) only in cmpd. -॰ (6.24.1:) प्रददाति इति gives-, yields-.

प्रदिग्ध pradigdha (pra-dig-dha̍) pp. (of √दिह् उपचये augment 2.106:, 2.76: & 2.78:) लिप्त smeared, stained.

प्रदिष्ट pradiṣṭa (pra-diṣ-ṭa̍) pp. (of √दिश् आज्ञापने point out 2.85:) निर्धारित pointed out, revealed.

प्रदीप्त pradīpta (pra-dīp-ta̍) pp. (of √दीप् ज्वलने shine) glowing, blazing.

प्रद्विषत् pradviṣat (pra-dviṣ-at) pr. pt. (of √द्विष् अ-प्रीतौ not be pleased) hating, despising.

प्रनष्ट pranaṣṭa (pra-naṣ-ṭa̍) pp. (of √नश् अ-दर्शने be lost 2.85:, an ex. to 2.92: as the cerebralization after र् is apparently satisfied by the cerebralization of the remotely following श् by 2.85:, instead of changing न् to ण्) नाशं गतः gone, destroyed.

प्रपन्न prapanna (pra-pan-na̍) pp. (of √पद् प्राप्तौ attain 6.6:) शरण-गत surrendered.

प्रपश्यत् prapaśyat (pra-paśy-[a]-at) pr. pt. (of √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 5.15.6:) clearly seeing, who clearly see (know).

प्रपश्यामि prapaśyāmi (pra-paśy-ā-mi) pr. 1st sg. (of √दृश् प्रेक्षणे see 1.P. 5.15.6: & 5.5.a:) (I) see, clearly see.

प्रपितामह prapitāmaha (pra-pi-tā-mah-a) (प्रपिता॰ here the 1st member of the cmpd. प्रपितृ is irregularly in nom. sg. 6.40:) m. (fr. √पा रक्षणे protect + √मह् पूजायाम् honor) प्रकृष्टः पिता-महः great-grandfather (6.36:); प्रथमः पितुः पिता the first father’s father, जनयितुः जनयिता (i.e., the uncaused) cause of the cause (of the world, भ॰गी॰११.३८).


प्रभव prabhava (pra-bhav-a̍) m. (fr. √भू सत्तायाम् be) मूल source, उत्पत्तिः origin, in cmpd. -॰ born-, कारण (material) cause; प्रभाव (प्रभु-शक्ति) majesty, glory.

प्रभविष्णु prabhaviṣṇu (pra-bhav-iṣṇu) a. (fr. √भू सत्तायाम् be) प्रभवन-शील naturally creating, naturally manifesting; प्रभु-शील naturally prominent. प्रभविष्णु prabhaviṣṇu m. जनयितृ progenitor, manifester; प्रभु master, lord.

प्रभा prabhā (pra-bh[ā]-[a]-ā̍) f. (fr. √भा दीप्तौ shine) दीप्ति light, radiance.

प्रभाव prabhāva (pra-bhāv-a) m. (fr. √भू सत्तायाम् be) प्रभु-शक्ति might, majesty, glory.

प्रभु prabhu (pra-bhu) m. (fr. प्र + √भू प्रकर्षेण सत्तायाम् be in an exalted way) स्वामिन् master, अधिपति Lord, आत्मन् I/myself (as the one for whom the body and mind subserve).

प्रमाण pramāṇa (pra-mā-aṇa) n. (fr. √मा माने measure 2.92:) प्रमीयते अनेन that by which one measures or knows, प्रमा-ज्ञान-साधन a means of knowledge (i.e., any of the various types of sense perceptions and inferences, and śruti/scripture); an exemplar, model.

प्रमाथिन् pramāthin (pra-māth-in) a. (fr. √मथ् विलोडने churn) क्लेशन-शील harassing, disturbing, distracting.

प्रमाद pramāda (pra-mā̍d-a) m. (fr. √मद् हर्ष-ग्लेपनयोः be overjoyed, be in a pitiable condition [दैन्ये]) विक्षिप्त-चित्तता scattered mind, inattention, carelessness, प्राप्त-कर्तव्याकरण not doing what is necessary to do; मद intoxication. ॰आलस्य-निद्रा -ālasya-nidrā f. प्रमादः च आलस्यं च निद्रा च carelessness, laziness, and sleepiness. ॰मोह -moha m. du. प्रमादः च मोहः च carelessness and delusion.

प्रमुख pramukha (pra-mukha) a. अग्र्य front, facing (6.36:). ॰ए (loc. ॰खे) ॰तस् -tas in. प्रमुखे in front (of).

प्रयच्छति prayacchati (pra-yacch-a-ti) pr. 3rd sg. (of √यम् वशी-करणे exercise authority 5.15.6:) (he/she/it/who) exercises authority; प्रदाने gives, offers (holds forth).

प्रयत prayata (pra-ya[m]-ta̍) pp. (of √यम् वशी-करणे exercise authority 6.6:) वशी-कृत mastered. ॰आत्मन् -āt